Summary: A specific blocker of dopamine receptors. It speeds gastrointestinal peristalsis, causes prolactin release, and is used as antiemetic and tool in the study of dopaminergic mechanisms.

Top Publications

  1. Wan E, Davey K, Page Sharp M, Hartmann P, Simmer K, Ilett K. Dose-effect study of domperidone as a galactagogue in preterm mothers with insufficient milk supply, and its transfer into milk. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2008;66:283-9 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the possibility of a dose-response relationship for the use of domperidone in treating insufficient milk supply in mothers of preterm infants, and to quantify the exposure of the breastfed infant to domperidone...
  2. Dailly E, Drouineau M, Gournay V, Roze J, Jolliet P. Population pharmacokinetics of domperidone in preterm neonates. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2008;64:1197-200 pubmed publisher
    A population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed to define domperidone pharmacokinetic parameters in preterm neonates, as no pharmacokinetic data are available in this population. An oral domperidone solution was administered (0...
  3. Su W, Yeku O, Olepu S, Genna A, Park J, Ren H, et al. 5-Fluoro-2-indolyl des-chlorohalopemide (FIPI), a phospholipase D pharmacological inhibitor that alters cell spreading and inhibits chemotaxis. Mol Pharmacol. 2009;75:437-46 pubmed publisher
    ..However, FIPI does inhibit PLD regulation of F-actin cytoskeleton reorganization, cell spreading, and chemotaxis, indicating potential utility for it as a therapeutic for autoimmunity and cancer metastasis. ..
  4. Vandenplas Y, Salvatore S, Hauser B. The diagnosis and management of gastro-oesophageal reflux in infants. Early Hum Dev. 2005;81:1011-24 pubmed
    ..Long-term side-effects such as the nutritional consequence of therapeutic management have been insufficiently studied, especially for the acid-reducing molecules. ..
  5. Sakamoto Y, Kato S, Sekino Y, Sakai E, Uchiyama T, Iida H, et al. Effects of domperidone on gastric emptying: a crossover study using a continuous real-time 13C breath test (BreathID system). Hepatogastroenterology. 2011;58:637-41 pubmed
    To determine the correlation between domperidone and gastric emptying using the continuous real time 13C breath-test (BreathID system), a novel non-invasive technique for measuring gastric emptying...
  6. Campbell Yeo M, Allen A, Joseph K, Ledwidge J, Caddell K, Allen V, et al. Effect of domperidone on the composition of preterm human breast milk. Pediatrics. 2010;125:e107-14 pubmed publisher
    b>Domperidone is increasingly prescribed to improve breast milk volume despite a lack of evidence regarding its effects on breast milk composition. We examined the effect of domperidone on the nutrient composition of breast milk...
  7. Reddymasu S, Soykan I, McCallum R. Domperidone: review of pharmacology and clinical applications in gastroenterology. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007;102:2036-45 pubmed
    b>Domperidone is a dopamine-2 receptor antagonist. It acts as an antiemetic and a prokinetic agent through its effects on the chemoreceptor trigger zone and motor function of the stomach and small intestine...
  8. Claassen S, Zunkler B. Comparison of the effects of metoclopramide and domperidone on HERG channels. Pharmacology. 2005;74:31-6 pubmed
    ..The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of the gastroprokinetic agents domperidone and metoclopramide on HERG channels transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells using the ..
  9. Seeman P, Tallerico T, Ko F. Dopamine displaces [3H]domperidone from high-affinity sites of the dopamine D2 receptor, but not [3H]raclopride or [3H]spiperone in isotonic medium: Implications for human positron emission tomography. Synapse. 2003;49:209-15 pubmed
    ..The present data show that, in contrast to [(3)H]spiperone or [(3)H]raclopride, [(3)H]domperidone labels D2High sites in the presence of isotonic NaCl in either striatum or cloned D2Long receptors, yielding a ..

More Information


  1. Yanase Y, Carvou N, Frohman M, Cockcroft S. Reversible bleb formation in mast cells stimulated with antigen is Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent and bleb size is regulated by ARF6. Biochem J. 2009;425:179-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Since ARF6-T27N had no effect on bleb size, we conclude that ARF6 needs to be active to regulate the size of the blebs. ..
  2. Pfeil N, Uhlig U, Kostev K, Carius R, Schroder H, Kiess W, et al. Antiemetic medications in children with presumed infectious gastroenteritis--pharmacoepidemiology in Europe and Northern America. J Pediatr. 2008;153:659-62, 662.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..In France, Spain, and Italy, the dopamine receptor antagonist domperidone was preferred as antiemetic treatment...
  3. Salem M, El Zanfaly E, El Tarras M, El Bardicy M. Simultaneous determination of domperidone and cinnarizine in a binary mixture using derivative spectrophotometry, partial least squares and principle component regression calibration. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2003;375:211-6 pubmed
    This work is concerned with the simultaneous determination of domperidone maleate (DOM) and cinnarizine (CINN) in a binary mixture form, without previous separation, by two different techniques...
  4. Franzese A, Borrelli O, Corrado G, Rea P, Di Nardo G, Grandinetti A, et al. Domperidone is more effective than cisapride in children with diabetic gastroparesis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2002;16:951-7 pubmed
    ..Disorders of gastrointestinal motility are commonly detected in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and are associated with significant morbidity. They contribute to poor metabolic control of diabetes...
  5. Ward B, Morocho A, Kandil A, Galinsky R, Flockhart D, Desta Z. Characterization of human cytochrome P450 enzymes catalyzing domperidone N-dealkylation and hydroxylation in vitro. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2004;58:277-87 pubmed
    To confirm the identity of the major metabolites of domperidone and to characterize the cytochrome P450s (CYPs) involved in their formation...
  6. Gomez Ochoa P, Sabate D, Homedes J, Ferrer L. Use of the nitroblue tetrazolium reduction test for the evaluation of Domperidone effects on the neutrophilic function of healthy dogs. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2012;146:97-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Domperidone is a drug used for the treatment of canine leishmaniosis having been claimed to stimulate the dogs' cell-..
  7. Sugumar A, Singh A, Pasricha P. A systematic review of the efficacy of domperidone for the treatment of diabetic gastroparesis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;6:726-33 pubmed publisher
    ..being widely used in more than 20 countries for the treatment of diabetic gastroparesis for several decades, domperidone is approved only on an investigational basis in the United States...
  8. Ingram J, Taylor H, Churchill C, Pike A, Greenwood R. Metoclopramide or domperidone for increasing maternal breast milk output: a randomised controlled trial. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2012;97:F241-5 pubmed publisher
    To compare the effects of metoclopramide and domperidone on the breast milk output of mothers with infants in neonatal intensive care.
  9. Veldhuyzen van Zanten S, Jones M, Verlinden M, Talley N. Efficacy of cisapride and domperidone in functional (nonulcer) dyspepsia: a meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96:689-96 pubmed
    The efficacy of prokinetic agents in functional (nonulcer) dyspepsia has been questioned based on recent trial results. We performed a meta-analysis to determine the efficacy of cisapride and domperidone in functional dyspepsia.
  10. Pritchard D, Baber N, Stephenson T. Should domperidone be used for the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux in children? Systematic review of randomized controlled trials in children aged 1 month to 11 years old. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2005;59:725-9 pubmed
    To determine whether there is robust evidence of efficacy for domperidone in reducing the symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) in children...
  11. da Silva O, Knoppert D, Angelini M, Forret P. Effect of domperidone on milk production in mothers of premature newborns: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. CMAJ. 2001;164:17-21 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of domperidone in augmenting milk production in mothers of premature newborns...
  12. Schoffer K, Henderson R, O Maley K, O Sullivan J. Nonpharmacological treatment, fludrocortisone, and domperidone for orthostatic hypotension in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2007;22:1543-9 pubmed
    ..this study was to determine the efficacy of three treatments (nonpharmacological therapy, fludrocortisone, and domperidone). Phase I assessed the compliance, safety, and efficacy of nonpharmacological measures...
  13. Gabay M. Galactogogues: medications that induce lactation. J Hum Lact. 2002;18:274-9 pubmed
    ..b>Domperidone crosses the blood brain barrier and into the breast milk to a lesser extent than metoclopramide, decreasing the ..
  14. Parkman H, Jacobs M, Mishra A, Hurdle J, Sachdeva P, Gaughan J, et al. Domperidone treatment for gastroparesis: demographic and pharmacogenetic characterization of clinical efficacy and side-effects. Dig Dis Sci. 2011;56:115-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Domperidone is a useful alternative to metoclopramide for treatment of gastroparesis due to better tolerability...
  15. Albano F, Bruzzese E, Spagnuolo M, De Marco G. Antiemetics for children with gastroenteritis: off-label but still on in clinical practice. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2006;43:402-4 pubmed
    ..The majority of responders reported prescribing antiemetics for pediatric gastroenteritis. Although there is insufficient evidence to justify their use, the use of antiemetics is widely present among pediatricians. ..
  16. Collins K, Sondheimer J. Domperidone-induced QT prolongation: add another drug to the list. J Pediatr. 2008;153:596-8 pubmed publisher
  17. Sharma B, Sharma M, Daga M, Sachdev G, Bondi E. Effect of omeprazole and domperidone on adult asthmatics with gastroesophageal reflux. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:1706-10 pubmed
    To study the effect of combined omeprazole (Ome) and domperidone (Dom) therapy on asthma symptoms and pulmonary function in asthmatics with gastroesophageal reflux...
  18. Walash M, Belal F, el Enany N, Abdelal A. Second-derivative synchronous fluorometric method for the simultaneous determination of cinnarizine and domperidone in pharmaceutical preparations. Application to biological fluids. J Fluoresc. 2008;18:61-74 pubmed
    ..fluorometric method has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of binary mixture of cinnarizine (CN) and domperidone (DOM)...
  19. Wei W, Yu L, Wang Y, Li X, Qiu Z, Wang L, et al. Efficacy and safety of modified sequential three-step empirical therapy for chronic cough. Respirology. 2010;15:830-6 pubmed publisher
    ..7% vs 21.7%, chi(2) = 4.32, P = 0.04). Modified three-step empirical therapy was as efficacious as primary three-step therapy for chronic cough, but was preferable because it had fewer side-effects. ..
  20. Edwards L. Hyperprolactinaemia in a patient with cystic fibrosis. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2007;68:448 pubmed
  21. Vanklompenberg M, Manjarin R, Trott J, McMicking H, Hovey R. Late gestational hyperprolactinemia accelerates mammary epithelial cell differentiation that leads to increased milk yield. J Anim Sci. 2013;91:1102-11 pubmed publisher
    ..inducing hyperprolactinemia in primiparous gilts during late gestation by administering the dopamine antagonist domperidone (DOM) would increase MG epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation, subsequent milk yield, and piglet ..
  22. Olala L, Seremwe M, Tsai Y, Bollag W. A role for phospholipase D in angiotensin II-induced protein kinase D activation in adrenal glomerulosa cell models. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2013;366:31-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that PKD is downstream of PLD and suggest that PKD is one of the mechanisms through which PLD promotes aldosterone production in response to AngII in adrenal glomerulosa cells. ..
  23. Khashaba P, Ali H, El Wekil M. A rapid Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic method for analysis of certain proton pump inhibitors in binary and ternary mixtures. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2018;190:10-14 pubmed publisher
    ..lansoprazole (LAN), pantoprazole sodium (PAN sodium) and rabeprazole sodium (RAB sodium) in binary mixture with domperidone (DOM) and ternary mixture of OMZ, clarithromycin (CLM) and tinidazole (TNZ) were determined in the solid-state ..
  24. Kawano H, Kawano T, Tanaka K, Eguchi S, Takahashi A, Nakaya Y, et al. Effects of dopamine on ATP-sensitive potassium channels in porcine coronary artery smooth-muscle cells. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2008;51:196-201 pubmed publisher
    ..the selective D1-like antagonist, Sch-23390, but they were not influenced by the selective D2-like antagonist, domperidone, or the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol...
  25. Hussein R, Lockyer M, Yusuf A, Al Gaai E, Abdelgaleel A, Hammami M. Bioeqivalence assessment of two domperidone 1 tablet formulations. Arzneimittelforschung. 2007;57:269-73 pubmed
    A randomized, single-dose, crossover study was conducted to assess the bioavailability of two domperidone (CAS 57808-66-9) tablet formulations, Domperidone (test) and a commercially available original preparation (reference) under ..
  26. Sultan M, Maher H, Alzoman N, Alshehri M, Rizk M, Elshahed M, et al. Capillary electrophoretic determination of antimigraine formulations containing caffeine, ergotamine, paracetamol and domperidone or metoclopramide. J Chromatogr Sci. 2013;51:502-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The two combinations are ergotamine tartrate (ERG), caffeine (CAF) and paracetamol (PAR) with either domperidone (DOM), combination (I) or metoclopramide (MET), combination (II)...
  27. Brown T, Fernandes P, Grant L, Hutsul J, McCoshen J. Effect of parity on pituitary prolactin response to metoclopramide and domperidone: implications for the enhancement of lactation. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2000;7:65-9 pubmed
    The gastrointestinal motility agents metoclopramide and domperidone are known to increase pituitary prolactin (PRL) secretion and breast milk production...
  28. Lidor A, Ensor C, Sheer A, Orens J, Clarke J, McDyer J. Domperidone for delayed gastric emptying in lung transplant recipients with and without gastroesophageal reflux. Prog Transplant. 2014;24:27-32 pubmed publisher
    ..This retrospective observational study reports the use of domperidone in the management of delayed gastric emptying in lung transplant recipients...
  29. Pinto L, Hanna F, Evans L, Davies J, John R, Scanlon M. The TSH response to domperidone reflects the biological activity of prolactin in macroprolactinaemia and hyperprolactinaemia. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2003;59:580-4 pubmed
    ..Comparison of the TSH and PRL responses to dopamine antagonism with domperidone (10 mg i.v.) in patients with hyperprolactinaemia due to macroprolactinaemia or microprolactinomas...
  30. Ye Q, Kantonen S, Gomez Cambronero J. Serum deprivation confers the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer line with an EGFR/JAK3/PLD2 system that maximizes cancer cell invasion. J Mol Biol. 2013;425:755-66 pubmed publisher
    ..This is especially important in the absence of growth factors in serum, coincidental with migration of these cells to new locations. ..
  31. Imrich R, Rovensky J, Cervenakova Z, Ksinantova L, Kvetnansky R, Koska J. Hyperprolactinemia does not influence hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical function during hypoglycemia in women. Int J Tissue React. 2002;24:73-8 pubmed
    ..1 IU/kg) in 10 female volunteers of fertile age during their follicular phase twice: 60 min after either domperidone (10 mg orally) or placebo administration...
  32. Samuels E, Hou R, Langley R, Szabadi E, Bradshaw C. Comparison of pramipexole with and without domperidone co-administration on alertness, autonomic, and endocrine functions in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2007;64:591-602 pubmed
    ..agonist pramipexole with and without the co-administration of the peripherally acting D2-receptor antagonist domperidone on measures of alertness, autonomic and endocrine function...
  33. Zhang D, Chen K, Teng Y, Zhang J, Liu S, Wei C, et al. Determination of domperidone in human plasma using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and its pharmacokinetic study. Arzneimittelforschung. 2012;62:128-33 pubmed publisher
    ..ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of domperidone (CAS number: 57808-66-9) in human plasma using paracetamol (CAS number: 103-90-2) as an internal standard (IS)...
  34. Rochoy M, Auffret M, Bene J, Gautier S. [Antiemetics and cardiac effects potentially linked to prolongation of the QT interval: Case/non-case analysis in the national pharmacovigilance database]. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique. 2017;65:1-8 pubmed publisher
    Observational retrospective studies have linked domperidone and prolonged QT interval, ventricular arrhythmias and risk of sudden death. Since then, antiemetic prescription was applied to other molecules (including metopimazine)...
  35. Fais P, Vermiglio E, Laposata C, Lockwood R, Gottardo R, De Leo D. A case of sudden cardiac death following Domperidone self-medication. Forensic Sci Int. 2015;254:e1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the well-known triggers of SCD is drug-induced prolongation of the QT interval, such as that caused by Domperidone (D)...
  36. Johannes C, Varas Lorenzo C, McQuay L, Midkiff K, Fife D. Risk of serious ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death in a cohort of users of domperidone: a nested case-control study. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2010;19:881-8 pubmed publisher
    ..spontaneous reports and results of two case-control studies raised concern about the cardiotoxicity of oral domperidone therapy...
  37. Wu M, Gao L, Cai X, Wang G. Determination of domperidone in human plasma by LC-MS and its pharmacokinetics in healthy Chinese volunteers. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2002;23:285-8 pubmed
    To determine the concentration of domperidone in human plasma and investigate its pharmacokinetics in Chinese male volunteers following oral administration of a single dose of the medicine 20 mg...
  38. Leonard S, Ferry Leeper P, Mailman R. Low affinity binding of the classical D1 antagonist SCH23390 in rodent brain: potential interaction with A2A and D2-like receptors. Brain Res. 2006;1117:25-37 pubmed
    ..hippocampus, the affinity of the low affinity site is shifted rightward in the presence of the D(2) antagonist domperidone and is largely absent in the hippocampus of D(2) knockout animals...
  39. Elvers M, Grenegård M, Khoshjabinzadeh H, Münzer P, Borst O, Tian H, et al. A novel role for phospholipase D as an endogenous negative regulator of platelet sensitivity. Cell Signal. 2012;24:1743-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar effects of FIPI were observed in platelets from mouse wild-type and Pld1(-/-) mice pointing to a new role for PLD2 as a negative regulator of platelet sensitivity. ..
  40. Rios M, Puente J, Sapag Hagar M. Hormonal modulation of the rat mammary gland gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase. Z Naturforsch C. 1989;44:651-4 pubmed
    1. The in vivo effect of estradiol and domperidone (a hypophysis stimulator of prolactin secretion) in immature ovariectomized-adrenalectomized and hypophysectomized rat mammary gland was studied. 2...
  41. Young P, Finn B, Bruetman J, Trimarchi H. [Gastroesophageal reflux as a cause of night sweating]. An Med Interna. 2007;24:285-8 pubmed
    ..The presentation of our two patients coupled with a deep literature review, underscores the importance of gastroesophageal reflux as a cause of night sweating. ..
  42. Horowitz M, O Donovan D, Jones K, Feinle C, Rayner C, Samsom M. Gastric emptying in diabetes: clinical significance and treatment. Diabet Med. 2002;19:177-94 pubmed
    ..A number of therapies currently in development are designed to improve post-prandial glycaemic control by modulating the rate of delivery of nutrients to the small intestine. ..
  43. Carvalho Freitas M, Anselmo Franci J, Teodorov E, Nasello A, Palermo Neto J, Felicio L. Reproductive experience modifies dopaminergic function, serum levels of prolactin, and macrophage activity in female rats. Life Sci. 2007;81:128-36 pubmed
    ..burst by peritoneal macrophage, an extra experiment was done with adult virgin female rats treated with domperidone, an antagonist of DA receptors...
  44. Franco R, Seeman P, Barrera C, Aymerich M. Cocaine self-administration markedly increases dopamine D2 receptor negative cooperativity for dopamine binding: A receptor dimer-based analysis. Synapse. 2010;64:566-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present article, the data of competition by dopamine of [(3)H]domperidone binding to striatal samples from naïve and cocaine-addicted animals (Briand et al...
  45. Deng J, Fan H, Zhang A, Xie M, Tan X. [Efficacy controlled observation on acupuncture and western medicine for gastrointestinal dysmotility in liver cirrhosis]. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2013;33:389-93 pubmed
    ..CONCLUSION Acupuncture effectively alleviates digestive tract symptoms and improves liver function for the patients of liver cirrhosis, its efficacy on gastrointestinal dysmotility in liver cirrhosis is superior to motilium. ..
  46. Tai M, Teo K, Pan J. Serotonin-stimulated prolactin secretion may not involve the dopaminergic system. Chin J Physiol. 1990;33:345-52 pubmed
    ..with alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (250 mg/kg BW, ip), a dopamine (DA) synthesis inhibitor, or two DA antagonists, domperidone and haloperidol (0...
  47. Sawant P, Sahani S, Dongre N, Kulkarni S, Dewan B, Sudarshan S. Ranitidine alone and in combination with domperidone in reflux-type dyspepsia. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2002;21:84 pubmed
  48. Sjöblom M, Flemström G. Melatonin in the duodenal lumen is a potent stimulant of mucosal bicarbonate secretion. J Pineal Res. 2003;34:288-93 pubmed
    ..05) this rise in secretion. The study thus demonstrates that luminal melatonin is a potent stimulant of duodenal HCO secretion and, furthermore, strongly suggests melatonin as an important mediator of acid-induced secretion. ..
  49. Sharaf S. Effect of GnRHa, pimozide and Ovaprim on ovulation and plasma sex steroid hormones in African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Theriogenology. 2012;77:1709-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Ovaprim is more than 3 to 5-fold of the cost of (GnRH + PIM). Therefore, this method could be useful tool for commercial catfish breeders to ensure spawning success. ..
  50. Boyce M, Baisley K, Warrington S. Pharmacokinetic interaction between domperidone and ketoconazole leads to QT prolongation in healthy volunteers: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2012;73:411-21 pubmed publisher
    To assess the steady-state pharmacokinetic and QT(c) effects of domperidone and ketoconazole, given alone and together. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study was carried out...
  51. Tassin J, Torrens Y, Salomon L, Lanteri C, Seeman P. Elevated dopamine D2High receptors in alpha-1b-adrenoceptor knockout supersensitive mice. Synapse. 2007;61:569-72 pubmed
    ..9%, an increase of 2.3-fold. This elevation agrees with other types of DA-supersensitive animal striata and could assist in eliciting a supersensitive response in these alpha1b-adrenoceptor knockout mice. ..
  52. Takeda N, Hasegawa S, Morita M, Horii A, Uno A, Yamatodani A, et al. Neuropharmacological mechanisms of emesis. I. Effects of antiemetic drugs on motion- and apomorphine-induced pica in rats. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1995;17:589-90 pubmed
    The effects of diphenhydramine, domperidone, ondansetron, and diphenidol on motion- and apomorphine-induced pica (i.e., kaolin ingestion) in rats as the measure analogous to emesis in other species were examined...
  53. Gong Q, Zhou K. [Study on relationship between the reflux laryngitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease]. Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi. 2001;15:548-9 pubmed
    ..3 of 22 cases (13.6%) were healed in control (P < 0.01). The gastroesophageal reflux disease was an important cause of the reflux laryngitis which symptoms and signs can be healed by antacids and motile medications. ..