diltiazem

Summary

Summary: A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.

Top Publications

  1. Bertera F, Mayer M, Opezzo J, Taira C, Bramuglia G, Hocht C. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of diltiazem in spontaneously hypertensive rats: a microdialysis study. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2007;56:290-9 pubmed
    ..of a modified E(max) pharmacodynamic model for the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling of diltiazem in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats...
  2. Gibson C, Meyer R, Hamm R. Traumatic brain injury and the effects of diazepam, diltiazem, and MK-801 on GABA-A receptor subunit expression in rat hippocampus. J Biomed Sci. 2010;17:38 pubmed publisher
    ..We then used pre-injury injections of MK-801 to block calcium influx through the NMDA receptor, diltiazem to block L-type voltage-gated calcium influx, or diazepam to enhance chloride conductance, and re-examined the ..
  3. Zhang D, Wang S, Chen H, Jiang X, Chao S. Effects of diltiazem and propafenone on the inactivation and recovery kinetics of fKv1.4 channel currents expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2011;32:465-77 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effects of diltiazem, an L-type calcium channel blocker, and propafenone, a sodium channel blocker, on the inactivation and recovery kinetics of fKv1...
  4. Saba T, Manduz S, Sapmaz I, Tunel A, Aker H, Dogan K. Neuroprotective effects of diltiazem in rabbits with occluded aorta. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2007;22:416-24 pubmed
    In the present study, we aimed to determine the protective effect of the perfusion of the distal aorta with diltiazem and ringer lactate solution on the spinal cord...
  5. Zachar B, Graham K, Jaslow D. Prehospital pharmacology: diltiazem. Emerg Med Serv. 2006;35:53-7 pubmed
  6. Bobbio A, Caporale D, Internullo E, Ampollini L, Bettati S, Rossini E, et al. Postoperative outcome of patients undergoing lung resection presenting with new-onset atrial fibrillation managed by amiodarone or diltiazem. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2007;31:70-4 pubmed
    ..The postoperative course of AF was also evaluated in relation to either amiodarone or diltiazem employed as anti-arrhythmic agents...
  7. Levine M, Boyer E, Pozner C, Geib A, Thomsen T, Mick N, et al. Assessment of hyperglycemia after calcium channel blocker overdoses involving diltiazem or verapamil. Crit Care Med. 2007;35:2071-5 pubmed
    ..retrospective review of all adult (age, >or=15 yrs) patients with a discharge diagnosis of acute verapamil or diltiazem overdose at five university-affiliated teaching hospitals...
  8. Ma M, Kwan L, Mok M, Yap D, Tang C, Chan T. Significant reduction of Tacrolimus trough level after conversion from twice daily Prograf to once daily Advagraf in Chinese renal transplant recipients with or without concomitant diltiazem treatment. Ren Fail. 2013;35:942-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Chinese kidney transplant recipients after conversion, including subjects receiving concomitant treatment with diltiazem. Eighteen stable renal allograft recipients were followed prospectively for 12 weeks after conversion from ..
  9. Abeysinghe N, Aston J, Polouse S. Diltiazem overdose: a role for high-dose insulin. Emerg Med J. 2010;27:802-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This case supports the use of rescue hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemia in patients with an overdose of calcium channel blockers who remain hypotensive despite standard pharmacological measures. ..

More Information

Publications66

  1. Matsushita S, Kurihara H, Watanabe M, Okada T, Sakai T, Amano A. Inhibition of connexin43 dephosphorylation is involved in protective effects of diltiazem on cardiac function during hypoxic injury. Histol Histopathol. 2011;26:315-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This may be a factor contributing to reentrant arrhythmia. The calcium channel blocker diltiazem is known for its protective and anti-arrhythmogenic effect in ischemic heart disease...
  2. Sultana Y, Mall S, Maurya D, Kumar D, Das M. Preparation and in vitro characterization of diltiazem hydrochloride loaded alginate microspheres. Pharm Dev Technol. 2009;14:321-31 pubmed publisher
    The main objective of the present study was to improve bioavailability of diltiazem hydrochloride and decrease the frequency of dosage form administration by increasing the encapsulation efficiency of the drug, residence time of the ..
  3. Wang Y, Wang C, Li J, Wang X, Zhu G, Chen X, et al. Effect of genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A5 and MDR1 on cyclosporine concentration during the early stage after renal transplantation in Chinese patients co-treated with diltiazem. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2009;65:239-47 pubmed publisher
    ..trough concentration during the early stage after renal transplantation in Chinese patients co-treated with diltiazem. CYP3A5*3 (A6986G) and MDR1 C1236T, G2677T/A and C3435T polymorphisms were determined by PCR followed by ..
  4. Sakamoto A, Kitakaze M, Takamoto S, Namiki A, Kasanuki H, Hosoda S. Landiolol, an ultra-short-acting ??-blocker, more effectively terminates atrial fibrillation than diltiazem after open heart surgery: prospective, multicenter, randomized, open-label study (JL-KNIGHT study). Circ J. 2012;76:1097-101 pubmed
    ..A prospective, randomized, open-label comparison between i.v. landiolol and diltiazem in patients with postoperative AF was undertaken between January 2008 and June 2009 in Japan...
  5. Luszczki J, Trojnar M, Trojnar M, Kimber Trojnar Z, Szostakiewicz B, Zadrozniak A, et al. Effects of three calcium channel antagonists (amlodipine, diltiazem and verapamil) on the protective action of lamotrigine in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model. Pharmacol Rep. 2007;59:672-82 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of three calcium channel antagonists (amlodipine, diltiazem and verapamil) on the anticonvulsant action of lamotrigine (a second generation antiepileptic drug) against maximal electroshock-..
  6. Bodson C, Rozet E, Ziemons E, Evrard B, Hubert P, Delattre L. Validation of manufacturing process of Diltiazem HCl tablets by NIR spectrophotometry (NIRS). J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007;45:356-61 pubmed
    ..Direct compression powder blends containing Diltiazem HCl as a model drug were pressed into tablets for the calibration and the validation steps...
  7. Kim J, Lee K, Kim H, Jo Y, Kwak H. Effect of diltiazem on kidney function during laparoscopic surgery. Surg Endosc. 2009;23:1785-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was designed to investigate the effect of diltiazem on acute kidney injury during positive pneumoperitoneum in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery...
  8. Hong S, Choi D, Choi J. Effects of resveratrol on the pharmacokinetics of diltiazem and its major metabolite, desacetyldiltiazem, in rats. Cardiovasc Ther. 2008;26:269-75 pubmed publisher
    ..purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol, an antioxidant, on the pharmacokinetics of diltiazem and its active metabolite, desacetyldiltiazem, in rats...
  9. Yang Y, Gao M, Guo Y, Qiao J. Calcium antagonists, diltiazem and nifedipine, protect broilers against low temperature-induced pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Anim Sci J. 2010;81:494-500 pubmed publisher
    This study was designed to determine whether calcium antagonists, diltiazem and nifedipine, can depress low temperature-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) in broilers (also known as ascites) and to characterize their efficacy on ..
  10. Matsumura C, Pertille A, Albuquerque T, Santo Neto H, Marques M. Diltiazem and verapamil protect dystrophin-deficient muscle fibers of MDX mice from degeneration: a potential role in calcium buffering and sarcolemmal stability. Muscle Nerve. 2009;39:167-76 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined whether the calcium channel blockers diltiazem and verapamil protect dystrophic muscles from degeneration...
  11. Rudijanto A. Calcium channel blocker (diltiazem) inhibits apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cell exposed to high glucose concentration through lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) pathway. Acta Med Indones. 2010;42:59-65 pubmed
    to examine the role of diltiazem in the prevention of VSMC apoptosis exposed to high glucose through inhibition of LOX-1 expression. we performed experimental study on the primary culture of VSMCs...
  12. Wilson B, Cruikshank J, Wiebe K, Dias V, Yarema M. Intravenous lipid emulsion therapy for sustained release diltiazem poisoning: a case report. J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol. 2012;19:e218-22 pubmed
    We present a case of refractory cardiogenic shock secondary to sustained release diltiazem poisoning.  Intravenous lipid emulsion therapy was initiated approximately 13 hours after ingestion...
  13. Carosati E, Budriesi R, Ioan P, Ugenti M, Frosini M, Fusi F, et al. Discovery of novel and cardioselective diltiazem-like calcium channel blockers via virtual screening. J Med Chem. 2008;51:5552-65 pubmed publisher
    ..L-type calcium channels (LTCCs), ligand-based virtual screening was applied with a specific interest toward the diltiazem binding site. Roughly 50000 commercially available compounds served as a database for screening...
  14. Luszczki J, Trojnar M, Trojnar M, Kimber Trojnar Z, Szostakiewicz B, Zadrozniak A, et al. Effects of amlodipine, diltiazem, and verapamil on the anticonvulsant action of topiramate against maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2008;86:113-21 pubmed publisher
    To assess the effect of 3 calcium channel antagonists (amlodipine, diltiazem, and verapamil) on the anticonvulsant action of topiramate (a new generation antiepileptic drug) in the mouse maximal electroshock seizure (MES) model...
  15. Thompson A, Duke R, Lummis S. Binding sites for bilobalide, diltiazem, ginkgolide, and picrotoxinin at the 5-HT3 receptor. Mol Pharmacol. 2011;80:183-90 pubmed publisher
    Bilobalide (BB), ginkgolide B (GB), diltiazem (DTZ), and picrotoxinin (PXN) are 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT(3)) receptor antagonists in which the principal sites of action are in the channel...
  16. Chen Y, Liang Y, Chen L, Lu Y, Liang J, Zhang J, et al. [Nephrotoxicity of tacrolimus and preventive effect of diltiazem: experiment with rats]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2009;89:704-8 pubmed
    To study the nephrotoxicity tacrolimus (FK506) at the therapeutic dose the preventive effect of diltiazem (Dil), a calcium antagonist against the FK506-induced pathological changes...
  17. Zhang X, Quinney S, Gorski J, Jones D, Hall S. Semiphysiologically based pharmacokinetic models for the inhibition of midazolam clearance by diltiazem and its major metabolite. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009;37:1587-97 pubmed publisher
    Prediction of the extent and time course of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between the mechanism-based inhibitor diltiazem (DTZ) and the CYP3A4 substrate midazolam (MDZ) is confounded by time- and concentration-dependent clearance of the ..
  18. Paquet Durand F, Gierse A, Bicker G. Diltiazem protects human NT-2 neurons against excitotoxic damage in a model of simulated ischemia. Brain Res. 2006;1124:45-54 pubmed
    ..ischemic conditions in cultures of purified NT-2 neurons and found that low doses of the antihypertensive drug diltiazem protected against excitotoxic neuronal damage in vitro...
  19. Cevik M, Boleken M, Koruk I, Ocal S, Balcioglu M, Aydinoglu A, et al. A prospective, randomized, double-blind study comparing the efficacy of diltiazem, glyceryl trinitrate, and lidocaine for the treatment of anal fissure in children. Pediatr Surg Int. 2012;28:411-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Although adult patients with AF have been treated successfully using diltiazem, it has not been studied in children...
  20. Kania B, Sutiak V. Influence of centrally administered diltiazem on behavioural responses, clinical symptoms, reticulo-ruminal contractions and plasma catecholamine level after experimentally induced duodenal distension in sheep. Res Vet Sci. 2011;90:291-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Present study examined the role of VGCC blocker - diltiazem administered icv (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and/or 2...
  21. Yamabe M, Sanyal S, Miyamoto S, Hadama T, Isomoto S, Ono K. Three different bradycardic agents, zatebradine, diltiazem and propranolol, distinctly modify heart rate variability and QT-interval variability. Pharmacology. 2007;80:293-303 pubmed
    Zatebradine, diltiazem and propranolol are all antiarrhythmic agents, and all induce bradycardia, but each is known to have a different initial molecular mechanism: zatebradine is a channel blocker of the hyperpolarization-activated ..
  22. Gambhire M, Ambade K, Kurmi S, Kadam V, Jadhav K. Development and in vitro evaluation of an oral floating matrix tablet formulation of diltiazem hydrochloride. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2007;8:E73 pubmed
    The purpose of this research was to prepare a floating drug delivery system of diltiazem hydrochloride (DTZ). Floating matrix tablets of DTZ were developed to prolong gastric residence time and increase its bioavailability...
  23. Heinicke G, Schwartz J. The influence of surfactants and additives on drug release from a cationic eudragit coated multiparticulate diltiazem formulation. Pharm Dev Technol. 2007;12:381-9 pubmed
    A cationic polymethacrylate coated multiparticulate diltiazem formulation exhibited sigmoidal drug release...
  24. Friedman E, Fraser I, Wang Y, Bergman A, Li C, Larson P, et al. Effect of different durations and formulations of diltiazem on the single-dose pharmacokinetics of midazolam: how long do we go?. J Clin Pharmacol. 2011;51:1561-70 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Diltiazem interaction studies assess a given compound's sensitivity to moderate CYP3A inhibition...
  25. Fansa I, Altug M, Melek I, Ucar E, Kontas T, Akcora B, et al. The neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of diltiazem in spinal cord ischaemia-reperfusion injury. J Int Med Res. 2009;37:520-33 pubmed
    The protective effects of diltiazem were examined in a rabbit model of spinal cord ischaemia-reperfusion induced by infrarenal aortic occlusion for 30 min...
  26. Viale M, Cordazzo C, de Totero D, Budriesi R, Rosano C, Leoni A, et al. Inhibition of MDR1 activity and induction of apoptosis by analogues of nifedipine and diltiazem: an in vitro analysis. Invest New Drugs. 2011;29:98-109 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, together with compound 3 (the diltiazem-like 8-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-methyl-8-[(2Z)-pent-2-en-1-yloxy]-8H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[3,4-c][1,4]thiazin-3-one) we ..
  27. Kikuchi S, Takayama K. Multivariate statistical approach to optimizing sustained-release tablet formulations containing diltiazem hydrochloride as a model highly water-soluble drug. Int J Pharm. 2010;386:149-55 pubmed publisher
    A multivariate statistical technique was applied to designing a tablet for the sustained release over 24h of diltiazem hydrochloride, a model highly water-soluble drug...
  28. Rowland Yeo K, Jamei M, Yang J, Tucker G, Rostami Hodjegan A. Physiologically based mechanistic modelling to predict complex drug-drug interactions involving simultaneous competitive and time-dependent enzyme inhibition by parent compound and its metabolite in both liver and gut - the effect of diltiazem on the. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2010;39:298-309 pubmed publisher
    To predict the magnitude of metabolic drug-drug interaction (mDDI) between triazolam and diltiazem and its primary metabolite N-desmethyldiltiazem (MA)...
  29. Zhao X, Cui X, Wang L, Zhang Y. Potentiating effect of diltiazem on pentobarbital-induced hypnosis is augmented by serotonergic system: the TMN and VLPO as key elements in the pathway. Neuropharmacology. 2009;56:937-43 pubmed publisher
    ..effects on pentobarbital-induced hypnosis, the present study was undertaken to determine if the interaction of diltiazem and serotonergic system influences the architecture of pentobarbital sleep in rats and examined c-Fos expression ..
  30. Kato Y, Iwase M, Takagi K, Nishizawa T, Kanazawa H, Matsushita A, et al. Differential myolysis of myocardium and skeletal muscle in hamsters with dilated cardiomyopathy: beneficial protective effect of diltiazem. Circ J. 2006;70:1497-502 pubmed
    ..Treatment of TO-2 hamsters with diltiazem from 5 to 8 weeks of age could avert the LV functional deterioration and the increment in alpha-HBD activity, ..
  31. Arzi A, Sarahroodi S, Honarmand M, Jamshidi S, Latifi M. Effect of diltiazem on retention and retrieval of memory in young and aged mice. Pak J Biol Sci. 2010;13:1042-6 pubmed
    b>Diltiazem (DTZ) is widely used in the prophylaxis of hypertension and treatment of angina...
  32. Kim Y, Choi K, Jung J, Park S, Kim P, Park J. Aquatic toxicity of acetaminophen, carbamazepine, cimetidine, diltiazem and six major sulfonamides, and their potential ecological risks in Korea. Environ Int. 2007;33:370-5 pubmed
    ..the four most abundantly used pharmaceuticals in Korea, namely acetaminophen, carbamazepine, cimetidine, and diltiazem, and six sulfonamide related antibiotics, including sulfamethoxazole, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfathiazole, ..
  33. Boyapally H, Nukala R, Douroumis D. Development and release mechanism of diltiazem HCl prolonged release matrix tablets. Drug Deliv. 2009;16:67-74 pubmed
    A coated matrix tablet formulation has been used to develop controlled release diltiazem HCl (DIL) tablets. The developed drug delivery system provided prolonged drug release rates over a defined period of time...
  34. Levine M, Curry S, Padilla Jones A, Ruha A. Critical care management of verapamil and diltiazem overdose with a focus on vasopressors: a 25-year experience at a single center. Ann Emerg Med. 2013;62:252-8 pubmed publisher
    Verapamil or diltiazem overdose can cause severe morbidity and death, and there exist limited human data describing management and outcome of a large number of such patients...
  35. Bunnag S, Vareesangthip K, Ong ajyooth L. Effect of diltiazem on the pharmacokinetics of microemulsion cyclosporine A in renal transplantation. J Med Assoc Thai. 2006;89 Suppl 2:S228-34 pubmed
    b>Diltiazem might be used as a cyclosporine A (CsA)-sparing agent. There is evidence that CsA (C2) level is the best single point blood sampling for monitoring the CsA level...
  36. Choi D, Choi J, Li C, Choi J. Effects of simvastatin on the pharmacokinetics of diltiazem and its main metabolite, desacetyldiltiazem, after oral and intravenous administration in rats: possible role of P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4 inhibition by simvastatin. Pharmacol Rep. 2011;63:1574-82 pubmed
    ..of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, simvastatin, on the pharmacokinetics of diltiazem and its main metabolite, desacetyldiltiazem, in rats...
  37. Zhang H, Liao P, Wang J, Yu D, Soong T. Alternative splicing modulates diltiazem sensitivity of cardiac and vascular smooth muscle Ca(v)1.2 calcium channels. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;160:1631-40 pubmed publisher
    As a calcium channel blocker, diltiazem acts mainly on the voltage-gated calcium channels, Ca(v)1.2, for its beneficial effects in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, angina and/or supraventricular arrhythmias...
  38. Hong S, Chang K, Choi D, Choi J. Effect of atorvastatin on the pharmacokinetics of diltiazem and its main metabolite, desacetyldiltiazem, in rats. Arch Pharm Res. 2007;30:90-5 pubmed
    ..study was to investigate the effect of atorvastatin, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics of diltiazem and its active metabolite, desacetyldiltiazem, in rats...
  39. Sajid M, Whitehouse P, Sains P, Baig M. Systematic review of the use of topical diltiazem compared with glyceryltrinitrate for the nonoperative management of chronic anal fissure. Colorectal Dis. 2013;15:19-26 pubmed publisher
    The study analyzed clinical trials investigating the effectiveness of diltiazem (DTZ) and glyceryltrinitrate (GTN) for the nonsurgical management of chronic anal fissure (CAF)...
  40. Montiel V, Gougnard T, Hantson P. Diltiazem poisoning treated with hyperinsulinemic euglycemia therapy and intravenous lipid emulsion. Eur J Emerg Med. 2011;18:121-3 pubmed publisher
    ..An 18-year-old healthy woman was admitted 8 h after the voluntary ingestion of sustained-release diltiazem (3600 mg), with severe hypotension refractory to fluid therapy, calcium salts, and high-dose norepinephrine (6...
  41. Levin T, Bakr M, Nikolova T. Case report: delirium due to a diltiazem-fentanyl CYP3A4 drug interaction. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2010;32:648.e9-648.e10 pubmed publisher
    Fentanyl and diltiazem are frequently used medications. Diltiazem inhibits cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzymes. This can suppress fentanyl metabolism. We present a case of delirium after coadministration of fentanyl and diltiazem...
  42. Shrivastava U, Jain B, Kumar P, Saifee Y. A comparison of the effects of diltiazem and glyceryl trinitrate ointment in the treatment of chronic anal fissure: a randomized clinical trial. Surg Today. 2007;37:482-5 pubmed
    ..Group I was treated with 2% diltiazem ointment, Group II was treated with 0...
  43. Bologa C, Lionte C, Coman A, Sorodoc L. Lipid emulsion therapy in cardiodepressive syndrome after diltiazem overdose--case report. Am J Emerg Med. 2013;31:1154.e3-4 pubmed publisher
    We present a case of diltiazem overdose in which the patient ingested 5.6 g in an apparent suicide attempt. She was admitted in the emergency department 2 hours postingestion with cardiodepressive syndrome...
  44. Rigat B, Mahuran D. Diltiazem, a L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, also acts as a pharmacological chaperone in Gaucher patient cells. Mol Genet Metab. 2009;96:225-32 pubmed publisher
    Recently, inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels, using either Diltiazem or Verapamil, has been reported to partially restore mutant glucocerebrosidase activity in cells from patients with Gaucher disease homozygous for the N370S or L444P ..
  45. Roberts D, Roberts J, Boots R, Mason R, Lipman J. Lessons learnt in the pharmacokinetic analysis of the effect of haemoperfusion for acute overdose with sustained-release diltiazem. Anaesthesia. 2008;63:714-8 pubmed publisher
    The effect of charcoal haemoperfusion on the pharmacokinetics of diltiazem is described in a patient with severe clinical toxicity following acute overdose...
  46. Wills B, Liu J, Wahl M. Third-degree AV block from extended-release diltiazem ingestion in a nine-month-old. J Emerg Med. 2010;38:328-31 pubmed publisher
    ..A 9-month-old girl was found playing with tablets of extended-release diltiazem 120 mg...
  47. Yorgun H, Deniz A, Aytemir K. Cardiogenic shock secondary to combination of diltiazem and sotalol. Intern Med J. 2008;38:221-2 pubmed publisher
  48. Nunia V, Goyal P. Protective effect of diltiazem (a calcium channel blocker) against cadmium-induced toxicity in mice. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2007;26:185-93 pubmed
    Protective efficacy of diltiazem (a calcium channel blocker) has been studied against cadmium chloride (CdCl2) induced hematological and biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice. CdCl2 (5 mg/kg b.wt.; i.p...
  49. Nunia V, Sancheti G, Goyal P. Protection of Swiss albino mice against whole-body gamma irradiation by diltiazem. Br J Radiol. 2007;80:77-84 pubmed
    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of diltiazem (DTZ) on Swiss albino mice exposed to gamma radiation...
  50. Ingsathit A, Sumethkul V, Chalermsanyakorn P, Jirasiritham S. Co-administration of diltiazem and cyclosporine for kidney transplant recipients: a four year follow-up study. J Med Assoc Thai. 2006;89 Suppl 2:S235-41 pubmed
    b>Diltiazem and cyclosporin A (CsA) share a similar metabolism and degradation via the hepatic cytochrome p 450 subfamily 3A4...
  51. Carosati E, Budriesi R, Ioan P, Cruciani G, Fusi F, Frosini M, et al. Stereoselective behavior of the functional diltiazem analogue 1-[(4-chlorophenyl)sulfonyl]-2-(2-thienyl)pyrrolidine, a new L-type calcium channel blocker. J Med Chem. 2009;52:6637-48 pubmed publisher
    ..a recently described blocker of cardiovascular L-type calcium channels that binds to the diltiazem site...
  52. Färbom P, Wahlstrand B, Almgren P, Skrtic S, Lanke J, Weiss L, et al. Interaction between renal function and microalbuminuria for cardiovascular risk in hypertension: the nordic diltiazem study. Hypertension. 2008;52:115-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Because estimation of the total cardiovascular risk is essential for the aggressiveness of risk factor interventions, simultaneous inclusion of GFR and microalbuminuria in global cardiovascular risk assessment is essential. ..
  53. Ray S, Maiti S, Sa B. Preliminary investigation on the development of diltiazem resin complex loaded carboxymethyl xanthan beads. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2008;9:295-301 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to develop a multiunit sustained release dosage form of diltiazem using a natural polymer from a completely aqueous environment...
  54. Silva S, Hu L, Sousa J, Pais A, Michniak Kohn B. A combination of nonionic surfactants and iontophoresis to enhance the transdermal drug delivery of ondansetron HCl and diltiazem HCl. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2012;80:663-73 pubmed publisher
    ..as skin permeation enhancers in the transdermal drug delivery of two drugs: ondansetron hydrochloride and diltiazem hydrochloride, formulated as hydrogels. The enhancers are used alone, or in combination with iontophoresis (0...
  55. Kovarik J, Lu M, Riviere G, Barbet I, Maton S, Goldwater D, et al. The effect on heart rate of combining single-dose fingolimod with steady-state atenolol or diltiazem in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2008;64:457-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors determined the effect of combining a single dose of fingolimod with steady-state atenolol or diltiazem on heart rate and mean arterial pressure...
  56. Gal A, Nussinovitch A. Hydrocolloid carriers with filler inclusion for diltiazem hydrochloride release. J Pharm Sci. 2007;96:168-78 pubmed
    ..Release profiles of diltiazem hydrochloride from different carriers were obtained during immersion in dissolution medium...
  57. Choi J, Piao Y, Han H. Pharmacokinetic interaction between fluvastatin and diltiazem in rats. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2006;27:437-41 pubmed
    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of fluvastatin on the pharmacokinetics of diltiazem in rats...