clorazepate dipotassium


Summary: A water-soluble benzodiazepine derivative effective in the treatment of anxiety. It has also muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant actions.

Top Publications

  1. Boothe D. Anticonvulsant therapy in small animals. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 1998;28:411-48 pubmed
  2. Laube T, Krohner H, Franke G, Brockmann C, Steuhl K. Clorazepate dipotassium versus midazolam for premedication in clear corneal cataract surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2003;29:1956-61 pubmed
    To evaluate and compare the efficacy of oral clorazepate dipotassium (Tranxilium) and intravenous midazolam (Dormicum) as premedication agents in retrobulbar anesthesia and clear corneal phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (IOL) ..
  3. Kułak W, Sobaniec W, Sobaniec Lotowska M. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation in rat brain by nifedipine and clorazepate after electrically induced seizures. Mater Med Pol. 1993;25:33-5 pubmed
    ..Nifedipine combined with clorazepate brought an inhibition of LP formation and an additive anticonvulsant activity. ..
  4. Airaudo C, Gayte Sorbier A, Bianchi C, Verdier M. Interactions between six psychotherapeutic drugs and plastic containers. Influence of plastic material and infusion solutions. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1993;31:261-6 pubmed
    The interactions of chlorpromazine, clomipramine, maprotiline and viloxazine hydrochlorides, and of clorazepate dipotassium salt and diazepam with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and Stedim 6 infusion bags were studied...
  5. Nibler R, Weninger E, Illner W. [Prolonged post-anesthesia recovery in hemodialysis-induced hypothyroidism]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther. 1998;33:810-2 pubmed
    ..Further controls showed euthyroidism. 14 month later, she underwent an antirefluxive surgical procedure, at excellent graft-function. Anesthesia was uneventful that time. ..
  6. Scherkl R, Kurudi D, Frey H. Tolerance to the anticonvulsant effect of clorazepate and clonazepam in mice. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1988;62:38-41 pubmed
    ..Clorazepate, a prodrug of the main metabolite of diazepam, desmethyldiazepam, regards further interest for anticonvulsant therapy because of a relatively slow onset of tolerance. ..
  7. Kretz F, Gonzales I, Peidersky P. [Oral premedication with clorazepate dipotassium. Comparison with oral premedication with flunitrazepam and intramuscular premedication with promethazine, pethidine and atropine in adults]. Anaesthesist. 1993;42:15-22 pubmed
    ..The preferred route of administration is by mouth. The intention of this study was to examine whether clorazepate dipotassium has the same sedative-hypnotic and anxiolytic effects as i.m...
  8. Moore N, Pierfitte C, Pehourcq F, Lagnaoui R, Begaud B. Comparison of patient questionnaires, medical records, and plasma assays in assessing exposure to benzodiazepines in elderly subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2001;69:445-50 pubmed
    ..Patient recall and medical records are not reliable measures of current exposure to benzodiazepines in elderly persons, although this unreliability may be more marked with certain drugs used as hypnotic agents. ..
  9. Hauser P, Devinsky O, De Bellis M, Theodore W, Post R. Benzodiazepine withdrawal delirium with catatonic features. Occurrence in patients with partial seizure disorders. Arch Neurol. 1989;46:696-9 pubmed
    ..with medically intractable seizures in whom withdrawal of treatment with a long-acting benzodiazepine (clorazepate dipotassium, 2 patients; clonazepam, 1 patient) was followed by delirium with catatoniclike features...

More Information


  1. Joseph A, Wroblewski B. Potentially toxic serum concentrations of desipramine after discontinuation of valproic acid. Brain Inj. 1993;7:463-5 pubmed
    ..This case demonstrates the important point that it is not simply the addition of one drug to another that may cause interaction, but the withdrawal of a particular drug which may then adversely impact the remaining drug regimen...
  2. Rawls S, Cavallo F, Capasso A, Ding Z, Raffa R. The beta-lactam antibiotic ceftriaxone inhibits physical dependence and abstinence-induced withdrawal from cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and clorazepate in planarians. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;584:278-84 pubmed publisher
  3. El Bayoumi A, Amer S, Moustafa N, Tawakkol M. Spectrodensitometric determination of clorazepate dipotassium, primidone and chlorzoxazone each in presence of its degradation product. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1999;20:727-35 pubmed
    The present work describes a quantitative thin layer procedure for estimating primidone, clorazepate dipotassium and chlorzoxazone in bulk powders and in dosage forms, each in the presence of its degradation product...
  4. Naidu S, Gruener G, Brazis P. Excellent results with clorazepate in recalcitrant childhood epilepsies. Pediatr Neurol. 1986;2:18-22 pubmed
    ..One patient was restarted on therapy after 6 months and seizure control improved. Clorazepate may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of primary generalized seizures in children. ..
  5. Berendes E, Scherer R, Rotthove K, Prien T. [Anxiolysis, sedation, and stress reduction following oral premedication with midazolam in adults. A comparison with dipotassium clorazepate and placebo]. Anaesthesist. 1996;45:506-11 pubmed
    ..the present study was performed to compare anxiolysis, sedation and stress reduction with midazolam and clorazepate dipotassium in adults. METHODS...
  6. Amano K, Takamatu J, Kaneyama H, Miyazaki C, Deshimaru M, Sumiyoshi S, et al. Anticonvulsant effects of dipotassium clorazepate on hippocampal kindled seizures in rats. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1998;52:459-62 pubmed
    ..It is reasonable to assume that its anticonvulsant efficacy is primarily due to attenuation of AD propagation rather than the raising of the seizure triggering threshold at the kindling focus. ..
  7. Pok P, Mauras M, De Saint Léger M, Kuhlmann E, Charpenel Durat C, Navarette C, et al. Blood concentrations of clobazam and norclobazam in a lethal case involving clobazam, meprobamate and clorazepate. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2010;12:300-4 pubmed publisher
    ..72 ?g/mL) was clearly toxic, but was not necessarily fatal. Other associated drugs concentrations were within their therapeutic ranges. Interactions due to drug association were discussed. ..
  8. Uehlinger C, Barrelet L, Touabi M, Baumann P. Alopecia and mood stabilizers: two case reports. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1992;242:85-8 pubmed
    ..The evaluation and therapeutic attitude in the presence of alopecia in patients needing mood stabilizers are also discussed. ..
  9. Erb T, Sluga M, Hampl K, Ummenhofer W, Schneider M. Preoperative anxiolysis with minimal sedation in elderly patients: bromazepam or clorazepate-dipotassium?. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1998;42:97-101 pubmed
    ..Bromazepam is superior to clorazepate in its anxiolytic action and suitable as preoperative medication in the elderly patient because of lack of overt sedative effects. ..
  10. Seabra M, Esteves S, Diaz J, Sanmartin D, Araujo M. [Evaluation of dipotassium clorazepate in pre-anesthetic medication]. Acta Med Port. 1991;4:131-3 pubmed
    ..01) and only few side-effects were noted. As a conclusion we suggested that clorazepate PO as anaesthetic premedication is suitable for anxiety relief. ..
  11. Meybohm P, Hanss R, Bein B, Schaper C, Buttgereit B, Scholz J, et al. [Comparison of premedication regimes. A randomized, controlled trial]. Anaesthesist. 2007;56:890-2, 894-6 pubmed
    ..Fixed time application of 25 mg CD at 07.00 hours or 7.5 mg midazolam 30 min prior to anesthesia did not further affect these variables preoperatively. ..
  12. Amano K, Takamatsu J, Ogata A, Katsuragi S, Miyazaki C, Deshimaru M, et al. Effect of dipotassium clorazepate on amygdaloid-kindling and comparison between amygdaloid- and hippocampal-kindled seizures in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999;385:111-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, differences in effective dosages in both amygdaloid- and hippocampal-kindled seizures may suggest a difference in the neuronal mechanisms involved in this kindling. ..
  13. Ito T, Miura Y, Kadokawa T, Hori S, Shimada J, Miyahara T. Effects of enoxacin and its combination with 4-biphenylacetate, an active metabolite of fenbufen, on population spikes in rat hippocampal slices. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1991;68:220-5 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the combination of enoxacin with BPA exerts a drug interaction to elicit the second spikes or epileptiform bursts with its mode of action different from that of bicuculline. ..
  14. Scherkl R, Kurudi D, Frey H. Clorazepate in dogs: tolerance to the anticonvulsant effect and signs of physical dependence. Epilepsy Res. 1989;3:144-50 pubmed
    ..This shows that severe withdrawal symptoms, even lethal seizures, may appear after abrupt discontinuation of chronic clorazepate treatment, in spite of the relatively low tolerance liability of clorazepate. ..
  15. Forrester S, Brown S, Lees G, Hartsfield S. Disposition of clorazepate in dogs after single- and multiple-dose oral administration. Am J Vet Res. 1990;51:2001-5 pubmed
    b>Clorazepate dipotassium was administered orally to 8 healthy dogs at a dosage of 2 mg/kg of body weight, q 12 h, for 21 days...
  16. Maguire C, O CONNELL C, Regan C. Clorazepate synchronizes cultured rat C6 glioma in the early G1 phase of the cell cycle. Brain Res. 1992;590:74-80 pubmed
    ..The majority of cells were somewhat rounded and attached to the substratum by cytoplasmic 'skirts' with punctate structures which may represent focal adhesion points. ..
  17. Lelong Boulouard V, Quentin T, Moreaux F, Debruyne D, Boulouard M, Coquerel A. Interactions of buprenorphine and dipotassium clorazepate on anxiety and memory functions in the mouse. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006;85:103-13 pubmed
  18. Haginaka J, Kanasugi N. Enantioselectivity of bovine serum albumin-bonded columns produced with isolated protein fragments. II. Characterization of protein fragments and chiral binding sites. J Chromatogr A. 1997;769:215-23 pubmed
    ..These results might be due to changes in the globular structure of the BSA fragment and/or changes in the local environment around the binding sites. ..
  19. Millan M, Brocco M, Gobert A, Dekeyne A. Anxiolytic properties of agomelatine, an antidepressant with melatoninergic and serotonergic properties: role of 5-HT2C receptor blockade. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005;177:448-58 pubmed
    ..The anxiolytic profile of agomelatine differs from that of benzodiazepines from which it may also be distinguished by its contrasting influence on corticolimbic monoaminergic pathways. ..
  20. Keyl C, Lemberger P, Rödig G, Dambacher M, Frey A. Hypoxaemia and myocardial ischaemia on the night before coronary bypass surgery. Br J Anaesth. 1994;73:157-61 pubmed
    ..Despite marked nocturnal hypoxaemia, simultaneous occurrence of desaturation episodes and myocardial ischaemia was a rare event in our study. ..
  21. Sugai K. Clobazam as a new antiepileptic drug and clorazepate dipotassium as an alternative antiepileptic drug in Japan. Epilepsia. 2004;45 Suppl 8:20-5 pubmed
    ..Excellent efficacy of CLB and excellent and prolonged efficacy of CLP for refractory epilepsies were confirmed. Frequent tolerance and adverse effects were major problems, but were manageable. ..
  22. Böttiger B, Rauch H, Haussmann R, Keller M, Christmann G, Fleischer F, et al. Safety and effectiveness of an oral premedication regimen before cardiac surgery. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 1995;12:341-4 pubmed
    ..The combination of clorazepate and flunitrazepam is effective oral premedication for adult cardiac surgery, causing no obvious desaturation even when supplemental oxygen is not given. ..
  23. Kiejna A, Kantorska Janiec M, Małyszczak K. [The use of chlorazepate dipotassium (Tranxene) in the states of restlessness and agitation]. Psychiatr Pol. 1997;31:753-60 pubmed
    b>Clorazepate dipotassium (Tranxene), benzodiazepine of retarded anxiety-relieving, sedative and sleep-inducing action was used in an open sample of 36 patients for fast control of anxiety and aggression in the course of schizophrenia, ..
  24. Ferfra S, Zellou A, Essassi E, Cherrah Y, Hassar M. [Synthesis and pharmacological study of three 1-alkyl-3-(ethoxycarbonylmethylene)-2-oxo quinoxalines]. Ann Pharm Fr. 2002;60:341-4 pubmed
    ..In the animal, these compounds have sedative, myorelaxant and anxiolytic properities. ..
  25. Uhlig T, Schon J, Schmucker P. [Optimizing anesthesiologic premedication with reference to biopsychological theories. Exemplified by the effect of dipotassium clorazepate and zolpidem in combination with promethazine]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther. 1997;32:S355-64 pubmed
    ..The study stresses the significance of multidimensional rating scales for the measurement of emotions before anaesthesia. ..
  26. Caspari D, Wappler M, Bellaire W. [Treatment of delirium tremens--a comparison between clomethiazole and clorazepate with reference to effectiveness and rate of side effects]. Psychiatr Prax. 1992;19:23-7 pubmed
    ..So treatment with clorazepate proved to be an alternative to standard therapy with clomethiazol even for severe cases of delirium tremens regarding its wide therapeutical range and the low rate of cardio-pulmonary complications...
  27. Plinkert P, Gitter A, Mohler H, Zenner H. Structure, pharmacology and function of GABA-A receptors in cochlear outer hair cells. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1993;250:351-7 pubmed
    ..This probably gates a GABAA-receptor-associated chloride channel in the postsynaptic OHC membrane, allowing hyperpolarization and elongation of the cell. ..
  28. Polarz H, Bohrer H, Martin E, Wolfrum J, Völcker H. Oral clonidine premedication prevents the rise in intraocular pressure following succinylcholine administration. Ger J Ophthalmol. 1993;2:97-9 pubmed
    ..In group 2, succinylcholine caused an increase in IOP when compared with the post induction value. We conclude that clonidine premedication can prevent the increase in IOP following succinylcholine administration. ..
  29. Laqueille X, Launay C, Dervaux A, Kanit M. [Abuse of alcohol and benzodiazepine during substitution therapy in heroin addicts: a review of the literature]. Encephale. 2009;35:220-5 pubmed publisher
  30. Arouko H, Matray M, Bragança C, Mpaka J, Chinello L, Castaing F, et al. [Voluntary poisoning by ingestion of Datura stramonium. Another cause of hospitalization in youth seeking strong sensations]. Ann Med Interne (Paris). 2003;154 Spec No 1:S46-50 pubmed
    ..He presented confusions and dreamlike frenzy. The clinical course was favorable in 72 hours with symptomatic treatment, marked by amnesia of the episode...
  31. Fujii T, Okuno T, Go T, Ochi J, Hattori H, Kataoka K, et al. Clorazepate therapy for intractable epilepsy. Brain Dev. 1987;9:288-91 pubmed
    ..epileptic patients with seizures refractory to conventional anticonvulsants were treated by adding clorazepate dipotassium to their regimen...
  32. Malgorn G, Leboucher B, Harry P, Turcant A, Catala L, Ginies J. [Benzodiazepine poisoning in a neonate: clinical and toxicokinetic evaluation following enterodialysis with activated charcoal]. Arch Pediatr. 2004;11:819-21 pubmed
    ..was admitted to the maternity ward at 38 weeks and 4 days amenorrhea after a massive overdose of clorazepate dipotassium, a benzodiazepine. The exact quantity ingested was undetermined...
  33. Patry L, Guillem E, Pontonnier F, Ferreri M. [Catatonia de novo, report on a case: immediate vital prognosis and psychiatric prognosis in longer term]. Encephale. 2003;29:72-9 pubmed
    ..In the light of literature, there is no proband clinical criterion during the episode that is of relevant diagnostic value to ascertain the psychiatric etiology. ..
  34. Perneger T, Mino A, Giner F, Broers B. Patterns of opiate use in a heroin maintenance programme. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2000;152:7-13 pubmed
    ..5 g heroin per day. Consumption patterns vary, but the daily amount of opiates remains stable or decreases over time. A substantial minority of patients elect for alternative treatments after several months of heroin maintenance. ..
  35. Gil Agustí M, Carda Broch S, Garcia Alvarez Coque M, Esteve Romero J. Use of micellar mobile phases for the chromatographic determination of clorazepate, diazepam, and diltiazem in pharmaceuticals. J Chromatogr Sci. 2000;38:521-7 pubmed
    ..The drug contents evaluated with the proposed procedure are compared with the declared contents given by the manufacturers. The achieved percentages of label claim are usually between 95 and 104%. ..
  36. Forrester S, Wilcke J, Jacobson J, Dyer K. Effects of a 44-day administration of phenobarbital on disposition of clorazepate in dogs. Am J Vet Res. 1993;54:1136-8 pubmed
    ..Adequate control of seizures in epileptic dogs, therefore, may require higher dosages of clorazepate when it is coadministered with phenobarbital. ..
  37. Greenblatt D, Divoll M, Soong M, Boxenbaum H, Harmatz J, Shader R. Desmethyldiazepam pharmacokinetics: studies following intravenous and oral desmethyldiazepam, oral clorazepate, and intravenous diazepam. J Clin Pharmacol. 1988;28:853-9 pubmed
    ..After oral administration of DMDZ in tablet form (10 mg), or of clorazepate dipotassium in capsule form (15 mg), systemic availability of DMDZ from each of the oral dosage forms was not ..
  38. Raffa R, Cavallo F, Capasso A. Flumazenil-sensitive dose-related physical dependence in planarians produced by two benzodiazepine and one non-benzodiazepine benzodiazepine-receptor agonists. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;564:88-93 pubmed
  39. Montoliu García A, Escudero J, Fabuel Deltoro M, Serrano de la Cruz Torrijos F, Alvarez Barrera A, Amorós Torres A, et al. [Tolerance of prostate biopsy with use of local anesthesia and benzodiazepines: a randomized, prospective study]. Actas Urol Esp. 2010;34:43-50 pubmed, while group B received intracapsular anesthesia (8 mL of 2% lidocaine), group C 5 mg of oral clorazepate dipotassium one hour before biopsy, and group D both local anesthesia and clorazepate...
  40. Sussman N. Treating anxiety while minimizing abuse and dependence. J Clin Psychiatry. 1993;54 Suppl:44-51 pubmed
    ..Specific recommendations about how to minimize abuse and dependence through such measures as diagnostic assessment, patient education, drug selection, and treatment planning will be offered. ..
  41. Aznar R, Calatayud M, Martin M, López D, Hernandez A. Hypersensitivity to chlorazepate dipotassium. Allergy. 2005;60:264-5 pubmed
  42. Debruyne D, Quentin T, Poisnel G, Lelong Boulouard V, Barre L, Coquerel A. Acute and chronic administration of clorazepate modifies the cell surface regulation of mu opioid receptors induced by buprenorphine in specific regions of the rat brain. Brain Res. 2005;1052:222-31 pubmed
    ..These pharmacodynamic findings may explain, at least in part, the well-established preference of patients for the BPN-benzodiazepine combination and the toxicity with which it is associated. ..
  43. Sakkas P, Psarros C, Papadimitriou G, Theleritis C, Soldatos C. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in a patient suffering from comorbid depression and panic disorder following a myocardial infarction. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2006;30:960-2 pubmed
    ..Application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation was effective and safe in treating a 55-year-old man with comorbid depression and panic disorder, which occurred 6 months after a myocardial infarction. ..
  44. Neve M, Huyser J, Eshuis J, Storosum J. [Electroconvulsive therapy in therapy-resistant mania. A case study]. Tijdschr Psychiatr. 2007;49:851-4 pubmed
    ..ect can bring about rapid improvement in patients with therapy-resistant manic symptoms. ..
  45. Hilleret H, Voirol P, Bovier P, Giannakopoulos P, Zullino D, Baumann P, et al. Very long half-life of paroxetine following intoxication in an extensive cytochrome P4502D6 metabolizer. Ther Drug Monit. 2002;24:567-9 pubmed
  46. Llano López L, Caif F, Fraile M, Tinnirello B, de Gargiulo A, Lafuente J, et al. Differential behavioral profile induced by the injection of dipotassium chlorazepate within brain areas that project to the nucleus accumbens septi. Pharmacol Rep. 2013;65:566-78 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the injection of dipotassium chlorazepate has a differential effect depending of the brain area, leading to facilitatory and inhibitory effects on anxiety processing. ..
  47. Sachs B, Erdmann S, Al Masaoudi T, Merk H. In vitro drug allergy detection system incorporating human liver microsomes in chlorazepate-induced skin rash: drug-specific proliferation associated with interleukin-5 secretion. Br J Dermatol. 2001;144:316-20 pubmed
    ..We conclude that addition of a metabolizing system may be advantageous for in vitro detection of T-cell reactivity to drug metabolites in the LTT. ..
  48. Ng Wingtin L, Glomaud D, Hardy F, Phil S. Omeprazole for prophylaxis of acid aspiration in elective surgery. Anaesthesia. 1990;45:436-8 pubmed
    ..7) ml in the control group and 9.2 (1.8) ml in the omeprazole group, but the results were not statistically significant. A single dose of 40 mg omeprazole significantly decreased the number of patients at risk of aspiration pneumonitis. ..
  49. Rickels K, Fox I, Greenblatt D, Sandler K, Schless A. Clorazepate and lorazepam: clinical improvement and rebound anxiety. Am J Psychiatry. 1988;145:312-7 pubmed
    ..The clinical relevance of these findings is discussed. ..
  50. Frey H, Scherkl R. Clorazepate, correlation between metabolism and anticonvulsant activity. Eur J Pharmacol. 1988;158:213-6 pubmed
    ..This may be explained by a time lag needed to reach and bind to the benzodiazepine receptor. ..
  51. Bianchi C, Airaudo C, Gayte Sorbier A. Sorption studies of dipotassium clorazepate salt (Tranxène) and midazolam hydrochloride (Hypnovel) in polyvinyl chloride and glass infusion containers. J Clin Pharm Ther. 1992;17:223-7 pubmed
  52. Sigel E, Baur R. Allosteric modulation by benzodiazepine receptor ligands of the GABAA receptor channel expressed in Xenopus oocytes. J Neurosci. 1988;8:289-95 pubmed
    ..All the tested carboline compounds and Ro 15-1788 showed a biphasic action and stimulated GABA current at concentrations higher than 1 microM.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  53. Mielke L, Breinbauer B, Schubert M, Kling M, Entholzner E, Hargasser S, et al. [Comparison of the effectiveness of orally administered clorazepate dipotassium and nordiazepam on preoperative anxiety]. Anaesthesiol Reanim. 1995;20:144-8 pubmed
    b>Clorazepate dipotassium (Tranxilium) is one of the benzodiazepines which is widely used for oral premedication. After oral administration it is decarboxylated to its active metabolite nordiazepam (desmethyldiazepam)...
  54. Hanawa T, Ohta T, Kimura F, Tsuchiya T, Ikoma R, Uchida T, et al. Stability of the powdered dosage form prepared by unsealing the capsules: water vapor sorption and discoloration of the powdery contents of clorazepate dipotassium capsules. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2000;26:1199-205 pubmed
    The hygroscopicity of the contents of clorazepate dipotassium (Mendon) capsules (CM) was investigated by storage at various relative humidities (RHs). The CM adsorbed water vapor significantly at more than 75% RH...
  55. Amano K, Katsuragi S, Takamatsu J, Ogata A, Miyazaki C, Deshimaru M, et al. Differences between the tolerance characteristics of two anticonvulsant benzodiazepines in the amygdaloid-kindled rat. Life Sci. 2001;69:1049-55 pubmed
  56. Zevzikoviene A, Zevzikovas A, Bertulis A. [Investigations of poisonings with benzodiazepine derivatives mixtures by thin-layer chromatography]. Medicina (Kaunas). 2003;39:1100-2 pubmed
    ..method was proposed for separation and identification of drugs in mixture alprazolam : brotizolam : clorazepate dipotassium. The mixture of these drugs excreted from body fluid (blood) was investigated by the thin-layer ..
  57. Skubella U, Schorr W, Krauskopf R. [Changes in affect in the postoperative phase: droperidol versus dipotassium chlorazepate]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther. 1991;26:137-42 pubmed
    ..The results of a comparison group who received the benzodiazepine dipotassium clorazepate instead of dehydrobenzperidol showed a better postoperative condition and sleep behaviour. ..
  58. Gil Tejedor A, Fernandez Hernando P, Durand Alegría J. A rapid fluorimetric screening method for the 1,4-benzodiazepines: determination of their metabolite oxazepam in urine. Anal Chim Acta. 2007;591:112-5 pubmed
    ..15 ng mL(-1) for k=3. The method was successfully used for the determination of oxazepam in urine samples collected at different times after the oral administration of Valium and Tranxilium. ..
  59. Heidler I, Mares J, Trojan S, Mares P, Vorlicek J. Action of clonazepam and clorazepate on cortical self-sustained after-discharges in the rat. Pharmacology. 1988;37:321-7 pubmed
    ..Clorazepate in the lowest dose used (10 mg/kg) did not change SSADs. The two higher doses (25 and 50 mg/kg) blocked the prolongation of the 4th SSAD, i.e. this effect had a relatively long latency. ..
  60. Belzung C, Misslin R, Vogel E, Dodd R, Chapouthier G. Anxiogenic effects of methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate in a light/dark choice situation. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1987;28:29-33 pubmed
    ..0 mg/kg of beta-CCM had opposite effects. The benzodiazepine antagonist RO 15-1788 completely counteracted the anxiolytic effects of clorazepate dosed at 2.0 mg/kg and the anxiogenic effects of beta-CCM. ..
  61. Gross E, Hull H, Lytton G, Hill J, Piersel W. Case study of neuroleptic-induced akathisia: important implications for individuals with mental retardation. Am J Ment Retard. 1993;98:156-64 pubmed
    ..The importance of the diagnosis and treatment of neuroleptic-induced akathisia in individuals with mental retardation was discussed. ..
  62. Weisman A, Berman M, Taylor S. Effects of clorazepate, diazepam, and oxazepam on a laboratory measurement of aggression in men. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1998;13:183-8 pubmed
    ..Implications regarding the clinical use of various benzodiazepines for the tranquilization of potentially assaultive patients are discussed. ..
  63. Rickels K, Schweizer E, Csanalosi I, Case W, Chung H. Long-term treatment of anxiety and risk of withdrawal. Prospective comparison of clorazepate and buspirone. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1988;45:444-50 pubmed
    Risk of withdrawal was investigated in a prospective, double-blind comparison of clorazepate dipotassium, a benzodiazepine with a long half-life, and the nonbenzodiazepine buspirone hydrochloride in the long-term treatment of anxious ..
  64. Culine S, Azab M, Pietri F, Ghosn M, Ben Amor B, Lupera H, et al. [A phase III trial comparing the antiemetic activity of tetracosactide with dexamethasone in combination with metoclopramide, diphenhydramine and clorazepate during chemotherapy including cisplatin]. Bull Cancer. 1989;76:583-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that TCS can serve as a substitute for DXM in combination antiemetic regimens for management of cisplatin-induced nausea and vomiting. ..
  65. Plotnikoff N, O Brien G. Comparison of anticonvulsant effects of clorazepate dipotassium and diazepam. Four week anticonvulsant study in Rhesus monkeys. Dis Nerv Syst. 1974;35:87-90 pubmed
    b>Clorazepate dipotassium and diazepam were administered daily for the first 5 days of each week to Rhesus monkeys at equimolar doses and challanged once a week with a convulsant dose of pentylenetetrazol...
  66. Guglielminotti J, Maury E, Alzieu M, Delhotal Landes B, Becquemont L, Guidet B, et al. Prolonged sedation requiring mechanical ventilation and continuous flumazenil infusion after routine doses of clorazepam for alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Intensive Care Med. 1999;25:1435-6 pubmed
    ..Caution is required when prescribing benzodiazepines to alcoholic patients and the use of benzodiazepine which do not undergo hepatic oxidation by cytochrome P 450 such as oxazepam or lorazepam is suggested...
  67. Drautz M, Feucht A, Heuser D. [A comparative study of the efficacy and tolerance of dipotassium clorazepate and flunitrazepam for oral premedication]. Anaesthesist. 1991;40:651-60 pubmed
    ..There were no signs of restricted tolerance for either of the test drugs. In the premedicated groups, pre- and postoperative anxiety decreased significantly.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  68. Stubbig K, Bohrer H, Bauer H, Jürs G. [Optimized analgesic sedation techniques for ESWL]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther. 1991;26:306-10 pubmed
    ..Patients with anxiolytic premedication benefited in terms of reduction in blood pressure and heart rate. The study also showed that anaesthesiologists may underestimate the pain intensity experienced and assessed by the patient. ..
  69. Quentin T, Debruyne D, Lelong Boulouard V, Poisnel G, Barre L, Coquerel A. Clorazepate affects cell surface regulation of delta and kappa opioid receptors, thereby altering buprenorphine-induced adaptation in the rat brain. Brain Res. 2005;1063:84-95 pubmed
    ..The effects described are likely to influence addictive behavior among people abusing BZD and BPN. ..
  70. Millan M, Brocco M, Gobert A, Schreiber R, Dekeyne A. S-16924 [(R)-2-[1-[2-(2,3-dihydro-benzo[1,4]dioxin-5-yloxy)-ethyl]- pyrrolidin-3yl]-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-ethanone], a novel, potential antipsychotic with marked serotonin1A agonist properties: III. Anxiolytic actions in comparison with clozapine and ha. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999;288:1002-14 pubmed
    ..Its principal mechanism of action was activation of 5-HT1A (auto)receptors. ..
  71. Nadal R, Pallares M, Ferre N. Effects of ethanol, caffeine, and clorazepate on hypertonic NaCl solution intake in rats. Physiol Behav. 1995;57:113-6 pubmed
    ..However, following repeated administration of caffeine and ethanol, the effects on saline intake were not maintained in a reliable manner. ..
  72. Perez G, Tudor R. A post-marketing surveillance survey on the use of dipotassium clorazepate in clinical practice in the Philippines. Curr Med Res Opin. 1993;13:175-81 pubmed
    ..Overall, 85% of patients were reported to have recovered and only 2% reported minor side-effects. Dipotassium clorazepate was thus confirmed to be a highly effective and relatively safe anxiolytic agent. ..