alprazolam

Summary

Summary: A triazolobenzodiazepine compound with antianxiety and sedative-hypnotic actions, that is efficacious in the treatment of PANIC DISORDERS, with or without AGORAPHOBIA, and in generalized ANXIETY DISORDERS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p238)

Top Publications

  1. Zwanzger P, Eser D, Aicher S, Schule C, Baghai T, Padberg F, et al. Effects of alprazolam on cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide-induced panic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity: a placebo-controlled study. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003;28:979-84 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we investigated the effects of alprazolam and placebo on CCK-4-induced panic symptoms in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study...
  2. Mahaguna V, Talbert R, Peters J, Adams S, Reynolds T, Lam F, et al. Influence of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose polymer on in vitro and in vivo performance of controlled release tablets containing alprazolam. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2003;56:461-8 pubmed
    ..molecular weight on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of controlled release formulations containing alprazolam. Tablet formulations contained alprazolam, excipients, and either HPMC K4MP or HPMC K100LVP...
  3. Isbister G, O Regan L, Sibbritt D, Whyte I. Alprazolam is relatively more toxic than other benzodiazepines in overdose. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2004;58:88-95 pubmed
    To describe alprazolam poisoning and the relative toxicity of alprazolam compared with other benzodiazepines...
  4. Snyder P, Werth J, Giordani B, Caveney A, Feltner D, Maruff P. A method for determining the magnitude of change across different cognitive functions in clinical trials: the effects of acute administration of two different doses alprazolam. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2005;20:263-73 pubmed
    ..The cognitive effects of a single dose of alprazolam 0...
  5. Saha B, Mukherjee A, Santra C, Chattopadhyay A, Ghosh A, Choudhuri U, et al. Alprazolam intercalates into DNA. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2009;26:421-9 pubmed
    In vitro interaction of a benzodiazepine group of drugs Alprazolam (Alp), a hypnotic and tranquilizer, with DNA was studied by various methods...
  6. Wong S, Locke C, Staser J, Granneman G. Lack of multiple dosing effect of sertindole on the pharmacokinetics of alprazolam in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1998;135:236-41 pubmed
    The effect of sertindole (a new selective antipsychotic compound) on the pharmacokinetic disposition of alprazolam was investigated...
  7. Giordano R, Grottoli S, Brossa P, Pellegrino M, Destefanis S, Lanfranco F, et al. Alprazolam (a benzodiazepine activating GABA receptor) reduces the neuroendocrine responses to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia in humans. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2003;59:314-20 pubmed
    b>Alprazolam (ALP), a benzodiazepine-activating GABAergic receptor, possesses clear centrally mediated inhibitory effects on ACTH and cortisol secretion that could reflect an inhibitory influence on CRH- and/or AVP-secreting neurones...
  8. Shekhar A, Keim S. LY354740, a potent group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist prevents lactate-induced panic-like response in panic-prone rats. Neuropharmacology. 2000;39:1139-46 pubmed
    ..rats, we tested the efficacy of LY354740 in preventing the lactate-induced panic-like response, comparing it to alprazolam, a clinically effective anti-panic drug...
  9. Greenblatt D, von Moltke L, Harmatz J, Durol A, Daily J, Graf J, et al. Alprazolam-ritonavir interaction: implications for product labeling. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2000;67:335-41 pubmed
    ..The inhibitory effect of ritonavir on the metabolism of alprazolam, a CYP3A-mediated reaction in humans, was tested in vitro using human liver microsomes...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Wolf B, Lavezzi W, Sullivan L, Middleberg R, Flannagan L. Alprazolam-related deaths in Palm Beach County. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2005;26:24-7 pubmed
    b>Alprazolam is a commonly prescribed benzodiazepine. The abuse of benzodiazepines is most frequently seen in conjunction with the abuse of other drugs. Only rare fatalities have been attributed to alprazolam alone...
  2. Pérez Lozano P, García Montoya E, Orriols A, Miñarro M, Tico J, Suñé Negre J. Development and validation of a new HPLC analytical method for the determination of alprazolam in tablets. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2004;34:979-87 pubmed
    ..latter validation study, by means of a high resolution liquid chromatography (HPLC) of reverse phase to quantify alprazolam (8-chloro-1-methyl-6-phenyl-4H-[1,2,4] triazole [4,3,-alpha]-[1,4] benzodiazepine) in tablets...
  3. Schmider J, Brockmoller J, Arold G, Bauer S, Roots I. Simultaneous assessment of CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 activity in vivo with alprazolam and caffeine. Pharmacogenetics. 1999;9:725-34 pubmed
    b>Alprazolam (ALP) and caffeine (CAF) were suggested as probe drugs for the activities of CYP3A4 and CYP1A2, respectively...
  4. Yamadera H, Okawa M, Takahashi K. Open study of effects of alprazolam on seasonal affective disorder. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2001;55:27-30 pubmed
    ..Moreover, SAD is confined to a certain season of the year. We examined the pharmacological efficacy of alprazolam for treatment of patients with SAD. Six patients with SAD were treated with alprazolam at doses of 1...
  5. Pai H, Upadhya S, Chinta S, Hegde S, Ravindranath V. Differential metabolism of alprazolam by liver and brain cytochrome (P4503A) to pharmacologically active metabolite. Pharmacogenomics J. 2002;2:243-58 pubmed
    Cytochrome P450 (P450) is a superfamily of enzymes which mediates metabolism of xenobiotics including drugs. Alprazolam, an anti-anxiety agent, is metabolized in rat and human liver by P4503A1 and P4503A4 respectively, to 4-hydroxy ..
  6. Wennerholm A, Allqvist A, Svensson J, Gustafsson L, Mirghani R, Bertilsson L. Alprazolam as a probe for CYP3A using a single blood sample: pharmacokinetics of parent drug, and of alpha- and 4-hydroxy metabolites in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2005;61:113-8 pubmed
    1) To determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of alprazolam and its two metabolites in plasma from healthy volunteers; (2) to identify a suitable single time point to take a plasma sample for CYP3A phenotyping...
  7. Goyal R, Anil K. Protective effect of alprazolam in acute immobilization stress-induced certain behavioral and biochemical alterations in mice. Pharmacol Rep. 2007;59:284-90 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of alprazolam in acute immobilization-induced various behavioral and biochemical alteration in mice...
  8. Jalali M, Kousha A, Naghavi S, Soleimani R, Banan R. The effects of alprazolam on tinnitus: a cross-over randomized clinical trial. Med Sci Monit. 2009;15:PI55-60 pubmed
    ..To date there has been insufficient evidence to support the use of alprazolam in the treatment of tinnitus. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of alprazolam for relief of tinnitus...
  9. Donato M, Hallifax D, Picazo L, Castell J, Houston J, Gomez Lechon M, et al. Metabolite formation kinetics and intrinsic clearance of phenacetin, tolbutamide, alprazolam, and midazolam in adenoviral cytochrome P450-transfected HepG2 cells and comparison with hepatocytes and in vivo. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010;38:1449-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The kinetics of metabolite formation from phenacetin, tolbutamide, and alprazolam and midazolam, selected as substrates probes for CYP1A2, CYP2C9, and CYP3A4, respectively, were characterized in ..
  10. Jung M, Wallis C, Gatch M, Lal H. Abecarnil and alprazolam reverse anxiety-like behaviors induced by ethanol withdrawal. Alcohol. 2000;21:161-8 pubmed
    This study investigated the effects of a benzodiazepine partial agonist, abecarnil, and a full agonist, alprazolam, on ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behaviors in rats...
  11. Hedrington M, Farmerie S, Ertl A, Wang Z, Tate D, Davis S. Effects of antecedent GABAA activation with alprazolam on counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia in healthy humans. Diabetes. 2010;59:1074-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the effects of prior GABA(A) activation using the benzodiazepine alprazolam on the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous system (ANS) and metabolic counterregulatory responses during next-..
  12. García Gutiérrez M, Manzanares J. Overexpression of CB2 cannabinoid receptors decreased vulnerability to anxiety and impaired anxiolytic action of alprazolam in mice. J Psychopharmacol. 2011;25:111-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Anxiolytic effects of alprazolam (45 or 70?µg/kg, ip) were evaluated...
  13. Wolf D, Desjardins P, Black P, Francom S, Mohanlal R, Fleishaker J. Anticipatory anxiety in moderately to highly-anxious oral surgery patients as a screening model for anxiolytics: evaluation of alprazolam. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2003;23:51-7 pubmed
    b>Alprazolam, a benzodiazepine anxiolytic, was evaluated in anxious patients prior to oral surgery. This population represents a possible acute screening model for novel anxiolytic agents...
  14. Fries E, Hellhammer D, Hellhammer J. Attenuation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsivity to the Trier Social Stress Test by the benzodiazepine alprazolam. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2006;31:1278-88 pubmed
    ..The purpose of the present study was to assess effects of the anxiolytic alprazolam on responses of the HPA and the SAM axes to a standardized psychosocial stress protocol, the Trier Social Stress ..
  15. Baas J, Mol N, Kenemans J, Prinssen E, Niklson I, Xia Chen C, et al. Validating a human model for anxiety using startle potentiated by cue and context: the effects of alprazolam, pregabalin, and diphenhydramine. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009;205:73-84 pubmed publisher
  16. McAuley J, Friedman C. Influence of endogenous progesterone on alprazolam pharmacodynamics. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1999;19:233-9 pubmed
    ..The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral alprazolam were evaluated in twelve healthy, normally menstruating women who were not receiving oral contraceptive agents...
  17. Deuster P, Faraday M, Chrousos G, Poth M. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone and alprazolam on hypothalamic-pituitary responses to exercise. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:4777-83 pubmed
    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is restrained by activation of gamma-amino-butyric acid receptors. Alprazolam (APZ) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are purported to be gamma-amino-butyric acid agonists and antagonists, ..
  18. Broderick P. Alprazolam, diazepam, yohimbine, clonidine: in vivo CA1 hippocampal norepinephrine and serotonin release profiles under chloral hydrate anesthesia. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1997;21:1117-40 pubmed
    ..4. Time course studies showed that both the triazolobenzodiazepine (TBZD), alprazolam, and the benzodiazepine (BZD), diazepam, decreased hippocampal NE release. 5...
  19. Rickels K, Pollack M, Feltner D, Lydiard R, Zimbroff D, Bielski R, et al. Pregabalin for treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: a 4-week, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pregabalin and alprazolam. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62:1022-30 pubmed
    ..randomized to 4 weeks of treatment with pregabalin, 300 mg/d (n = 91), 450 mg/d (n = 90), or 600 mg/d (n = 89); alprazolam, 1.5 mg/d (n = 93); or placebo (n = 91). Psychiatry research and clinic settings...
  20. Rupprecht R, Rammes G, Eser D, Baghai T, Schule C, Nothdurfter C, et al. Translocator protein (18 kD) as target for anxiolytics without benzodiazepine-like side effects. Science. 2009;325:490-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, translocator protein (18 kD) ligands are promising candidates for fast-acting anxiolytic drugs with less severe side effects than benzodiazepines. ..
  21. Riba J, Rodriguez Fornells A, Münte T, Barbanoj M. A neurophysiological study of the detrimental effects of alprazolam on human action monitoring. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 2005;25:554-65 pubmed
    ..In the present article, we assessed the impact of alprazolam administration on relevant aspects of action monitoring, i.e...
  22. Verster J, Volkerts E. Clinical pharmacology, clinical efficacy, and behavioral toxicity of alprazolam: a review of the literature. CNS Drug Rev. 2004;10:45-76 pubmed
    b>Alprazolam is a benzodiazepine derivative that is currently used in the treatment of generalized anxiety, panic attacks with or without agoraphobia, and depression...
  23. Wismer T. Accidental ingestion of alprazolam in 415 dogs. Vet Hum Toxicol. 2002;44:22-3 pubmed
    b>Alprazolam is a benzodiazepine anti-anxiety agent that acts at the limbic, thalamic, and hypothalamic level of the CNS and has anxioytic. sedative, hypnotic, skeletal muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsant properties...
  24. Greenblatt D, Wright C, von Moltke L, Harmatz J, Ehrenberg B, Harrel L, et al. Ketoconazole inhibition of triazolam and alprazolam clearance: differential kinetic and dynamic consequences. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1998;64:237-47 pubmed
    ..of metabolic inhibition were evaluated in a study of the interaction of ketoconazole, a P4503A inhibitor, with alprazolam and triazolam, two 3A substrate drugs with different kinetic profiles...
  25. Jaiswal A. Effect of prenatal alprazolam exposure on anxiety patterns in rat offspring. Indian J Exp Biol. 2002;40:35-9 pubmed
    Prenatal alprazolam (APZ) treatment in 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg/day doses during 13-20 days of gestation induced significant increase in open-field ambulation, rearings, self-grooming and faecal pellets in rat offspring...
  26. Hindmarch I, Trick L, Ridout F. A double-blind, placebo- and positive-internal-controlled (alprazolam) investigation of the cognitive and psychomotor profile of pregabalin in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005;183:133-43 pubmed
    ..i.d.) using alprazolam (1 mg t.i.d.) as a positive internal control and placebo...
  27. Rintoul A, Dobbin M, Nielsen S, Degenhardt L, Drummer O. Recent increase in detection of alprazolam in Victorian heroin-related deaths. Med J Aust. 2013;198:206-9 pubmed
    To examine the rate of detection of alprazolam among cases of heroin-related death (HRD) in Victoria, including the relationship between alprazolam supply and HRDs...
  28. Owens M, Ritchie J, Nemeroff C. 5 alpha-pregnane-3 alpha, 21-diol-20-one (THDOC) attenuates mild stress-induced increases in plasma corticosterone via a non-glucocorticoid mechanism: comparison with alprazolam. Brain Res. 1992;573:353-5 pubmed
    5 alpha-Pregnane-3 alpha,21-diol-20-one (THDOC; 5 mg/kg) and the triazolobenzodiazepine alprazolam (1 mg/kg) attenuated mild stress-induced increases in plasma corticosterone concentrations via GABAergic mechanisms...
  29. Matar M, Zohar J, Kaplan Z, Cohen H. Alprazolam treatment immediately after stress exposure interferes with the normal HPA-stress response and increases vulnerability to subsequent stress in an animal model of PTSD. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2009;19:283-95 pubmed publisher
    ..a prospective animal model for PTSD was employed to assess the short- and long-term effects of a brief course of alprazolam following stress exposure...
  30. Hindmarch I, Dawson J, Stanley N. A double-blind study in healthy volunteers to assess the effects on sleep of pregabalin compared with alprazolam and placebo. Sleep. 2005;28:187-93 pubmed
    To assess the effects of pregabalin compared with alprazolam and placebo on aspects of sleep in healthy volunteers. Randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled, 3-way crossover. Single research center...
  31. Cropper M, Garner A, McEwan G, Munt D, Rushbrook L, Stevens V, et al. A double-blind comparative study of alprazolam and dothiepin hydrochloride in the treatment of anxiety associated with depression. Pharmatherapeutica. 1987;5:76-82 pubmed
    ..a prospective, multi-centre, randomized, double-blind study comparing the response to, and the side-effects of, alprazolam and dothiepin hydrochloride over 4 weeks of treatment. Mean daily doses were 2...
  32. Pietrzak R, Scott J, Harel B, Lim Y, Snyder P, Maruff P. A process-based approach to characterizing the effect of acute alprazolam challenge on visual paired associate learning and memory in healthy older adults. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2012;27:549-58 pubmed publisher
    b>Alprazolam is a benzodiazepine that, when administered acutely, results in impairments in several aspects of cognition, including attention, learning, and memory. However, the profile (i.e...
  33. Skelton K, Nemeroff C, Owens M. Spontaneous withdrawal from the triazolobenzodiazepine alprazolam increases cortical corticotropin-releasing factor mRNA expression. J Neurosci. 2004;24:9303-12 pubmed
    ..Previous studies revealed that chronic administration of the anxiolytic alprazolam reduced indices of CRF and CRF1 receptor function...
  34. Hirota N, Ito K, Iwatsubo T, Green C, Tyson C, Shimada N, et al. In vitro/in vivo scaling of alprazolam metabolism by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in humans. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2001;22:53-71 pubmed
    We attempted to predict the in vivo metabolic clearance of alprazolam from in vitro metabolic studies using human liver microsomes and human CYP recombinants...
  35. Verster J, Volkerts E, Verbaten M. Effects of alprazolam on driving ability, memory functioning and psychomotor performance: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002;27:260-9 pubmed
    b>Alprazolam is prescribed for the treatment of anxiety and panic disorder. Most users are presumably involved in daily activities such as driving. However, the effects of alprazolam on driving ability have never been investigated...
  36. Commissaris R, Fomum E, Leavell B. Effects of buspirone and alprazolam treatment on the startle-potentiated startle response. Depress Anxiety. 2004;19:146-51 pubmed
    ..This study examines the effects of two anxiolytic treatments, buspirone and alprazolam, on this SPS effect. Subjects were tested in the SPS paradigm 2 days a week (Monday and Thursday) for 10 weeks...
  37. Crowell Davis S, Seibert L, Sung W, Parthasarathy V, Curtis T. Use of clomipramine, alprazolam, and behavior modification for treatment of storm phobia in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2003;222:744-8 pubmed
    To evaluate use of clomipramine, alprazolam, and behavior modification for treatment of storm phobia in dogs. Prospective open clinical trial. 40 dogs with storm phobia. Dogs received clomipramine at a dosage of 2 mg/kg (0...
  38. Gray A. Effect of alprazolam on opiate withdrawal: a combined behavioural and microdialysis study. Eur J Pharmacol. 1996;313:73-7 pubmed
    ..The present study has addressed behaviourally and neurochemically the action of alprazolam on the naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal syndrome in male rats. In naloxone (1 mg kg-1 i.p...
  39. Riba J, Rodriguez Fornells A, Urbano G, Morte A, Antonijoan R, Barbanoj M. Differential effects of alprazolam on the baseline and fear-potentiated startle reflex in humans: a dose-response study. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2001;157:358-67 pubmed
    ..e., selective, effect on either. The effects of three increasing doses of the benzodiazepine alprazolam (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg) were assessed on the human baseline and fear-potentiated startle responses...
  40. Núñez M, Novio S, Amigo G, Freire Garabal M. The antioxidant potential of alprazolam on the redox status of peripheral blood leukocytes in restraint-stressed mice. Life Sci. 2011;89:650-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice were immobilized for a period of 6h. Alprazolam (0.1-0.8 mg/kg of body weight) was administered 30 min before subjecting the animals to acute stress...
  41. Grottoli S, Giordano R, Maccagno B, Pellegrino M, Ghigo E, Arvat E. The stimulatory effect of canrenoate, a mineralocorticoid antagonist, on the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis is abolished by alprazolam, a benzodiazepine, in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:4616-20 pubmed
    ..Benzodiazepines, namely alprazolam, activate central gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic receptors, which are mainly distributed in the hippocampus...
  42. Cannizzaro C, Martire M, Steardo L, Cannizzaro E, Gagliano M, Mineo A, et al. Prenatal exposure to diazepam and alprazolam, but not to zolpidem, affects behavioural stress reactivity in handling-naïve and handling-habituated adult male rat progeny. Brain Res. 2002;953:170-80 pubmed
    ..This study investigated the consequences of a late prenatal treatment with three GABA/BDZ R agonists (DZ) alprazolam (ALP) and zolpidem (ZOLP)), on different stress-related behavioural patterns, in non-handled (NH), short-lasting ..
  43. Michopoulos I, Douzenis A, Christodoulou C, Lykouras L. Topiramate use in alprazolam addiction. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2006;7:265-7 pubmed
    b>Alprazolam is successful in reducing anxiety but has a high addictive/misuse potential. Topiramate is a novel anticonvulsant which has been used as a mood stabilizer...
  44. Sasic S. Raman mapping of low-content API pharmaceutical formulations. I. Mapping of Alprazolam in Alprazolam/Xanax tablets. Pharm Res. 2007;24:58-65 pubmed
    ..out to provide information on whether there is any structural difference between the commercial Xanax and Alprazolam tablets (the API content less than 1% w/w in both cases) in the batches with low and good recovery...
  45. Grillon C, Baas J, Pine D, Lissek S, Lawley M, Ellis V, et al. The benzodiazepine alprazolam dissociates contextual fear from cued fear in humans as assessed by fear-potentiated startle. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;60:760-6 pubmed
    ..The present study tested the hypothesis that alprazolam would reduce the sustained startle potentiation to contextual threats but not the startle potentiation to a ..
  46. Bailey J, Papadopoulos A, Seddon K, Nutt D. A comparison of the effects of a subtype selective and non-selective benzodiazepine receptor agonist in two CO(2) models of experimental human anxiety. J Psychopharmacol. 2009;23:117-22 pubmed publisher
    ..agonist at the benzodiazepine receptor that binds to four alpha-subtypes of the receptor (alpha-1,-2,-3,-5) (alprazolam 1 mg), with zolpidem (5 mg), an agonist selective for the alpha-1 subtype of the gamma amino butyric acid-..
  47. De Witte J, Alegret C, Sessler D, Cammu G. Preoperative alprazolam reduces anxiety in ambulatory surgery patients: a comparison with oral midazolam. Anesth Analg. 2002;95:1601-6, table of contents pubmed
    Because an oral formulation of midazolam is not approved in certain countries, we evaluated oral alprazolam as an alternative...
  48. Agarwal V, Kommaddi R, Valli K, Ryder D, Hyde T, Kleinman J, et al. Drug metabolism in human brain: high levels of cytochrome P4503A43 in brain and metabolism of anti-anxiety drug alprazolam to its active metabolite. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2337 pubmed publisher
    ..We have earlier demonstrated an intrinsic difference in the biotransformation of alprazolam (ALP) in brain and liver, relatively more alpha-hydroxy alprazolam (alpha-OHALP) is formed in brain as compared ..
  49. de Bortoli V, Nogueira R, Zangrossi H. Alprazolam potentiates the antiaversive effect induced by the activation of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT (2A) receptors in the rat dorsal periaqueductal gray. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008;198:341-9 pubmed publisher
    ..to investigate whether facilitation of 5-HT neurotransmission in the DPAG is also observed after treatment with alprazolam, a pharmacologically distinct antipanic drug that acts primarily as a high potency benzodiazepine receptor ..
  50. Oda T, Ueda A, Shimizu N, Handa H, Kasahara T. Suppression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, but not IL-8, by alprazolam: effect of alprazolam on c-Rel/p65 and c-Rel/p50 binding to the monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 promoter region. J Immunol. 2002;169:3329-35 pubmed
    b>Alprazolam is a hypnotic/tranquilizer that has been shown to specifically inhibit the platelet-activating factor (PAF)-induced aggregation of human platelets...
  51. Finkle W, Der J, Greenland S, Adams J, Ridgeway G, Blaschke T, et al. Risk of fractures requiring hospitalization after an initial prescription for zolpidem, alprazolam, lorazepam, or diazepam in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011;59:1883-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Health maintenance organization members with an initial prescription for zolpidem (n = 43,343), alprazolam (n = 103,790), lorazepam (n = 150,858), or diazepam (n = 93,618)...
  52. Lu K, Gray M, Oliver C, Liley D, Harrison B, Bartholomeusz C, et al. The acute effects of L-theanine in comparison with alprazolam on anticipatory anxiety in humans. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2004;19:457-65 pubmed
    ..current study examined the acute effects of L-theanine in comparison with a standard benzodiazepine anxiolytic, alprazolam and placebo on behavioural measures of anxiety in healthy human subjects using the model of anticipatory anxiety ..
  53. Pomara N, Willoughby L, Ritchie J, Sidtis J, Greenblatt D, Nemeroff C. Sex-related elevation in cortisol during chronic treatment with alprazolam associated with enhanced cognitive performance. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005;182:414-9 pubmed
    ..in interdose morning plasma cortisol levels in healthy elderly individuals after chronic treatment with alprazolam, possibly consistent with increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and drug withdrawal...