quinine

Summary

Summary: An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.

Top Publications

  1. Gorka A, Sherlach K, De Dios A, Roepe P. Relative to quinine and quinidine, their 9-epimers exhibit decreased cytostatic activity and altered heme binding but similar cytocidal activity versus Plasmodium falciparum. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:365-74 pubmed publisher
    The 9-epimers of quinine (QN) and quinidine (QD) are known to exhibit poor cytostatic potency against P. falciparum (Karle JM, Karle IL, Gerena L, Milhous WK, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36:1538-1544, 1992)...
  2. Sayang C, Gausseres M, Vernazza Licht N, Malvy D, Bley D, Millet P. Treatment of malaria from monotherapy to artemisinin-based combination therapy by health professionals in rural health facilities in southern Cameroon. Malar J. 2009;8:174 pubmed publisher
    ..In 2005, only three anti-malarial drugs were used in rural health facilities, including: amodiaquine, quinine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. Only 2...
  3. Essuman V, Ntim Amponsah C, Astrup B, Adjei G, Kurtzhals J, Ndanu T, et al. Retinopathy in severe malaria in Ghanaian children--overlap between fundus changes in cerebral and non-cerebral malaria. Malar J. 2010;9:232 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the high prevalence of any retinopathy in the latter suggests that the brain and the retina may be suffering from ischaemia in both CM and non-CM. ..
  4. Piola P, Nabasumba C, Turyakira E, Dhorda M, Lindegardh N, Nyehangane D, et al. Efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine compared with quinine in pregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria: an open-label, randomised, non-inferiority trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2010;10:762-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to assess whether artemether-lumefantrine was at least as efficacious as oral quinine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy in ..
  5. Nkrumah L, Riegelhaupt P, Moura P, Johnson D, Patel J, Hayton K, et al. Probing the multifactorial basis of Plasmodium falciparum quinine resistance: evidence for a strain-specific contribution of the sodium-proton exchanger PfNHE. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2009;165:122-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Quinine (QN) continues to be an important treatment option for severe malaria, however resistance to this drug has emerged in field isolates of the etiologic agent Plasmodium falciparum...
  6. Sinou V, Pelleau S, Huong V, Huong N, Bertaux L, Desbordes M, et al. Polymorphism of Plasmodium falciparum Na(+)/H(+) exchanger is indicative of a low in vitro quinine susceptibility in isolates from Viet Nam. Malar J. 2011;10:164 pubmed publisher
    The Plasmodium falciparum NA+/H+ exchanger (pfnhe1, gene PF13_0019) has recently been proposed to influence quinine (QN) susceptibility...
  7. Pires M, Emmert D, Hrycyna C, Chmielewski J. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein-mediated paclitaxel resistance by reversibly linked quinine homodimers. Mol Pharmacol. 2009;75:92-100 pubmed publisher
    ..designed second-generation P-gp inhibitors are disclosed, based on dimerized versions of the substrates quinine and quinidine. These dimeric agents include reversible tethers with a built-in clearance mechanism...
  8. Wilby K, Ensom M. Pharmacokinetics of antimalarials in pregnancy: a systematic review. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2011;50:705-23 pubmed publisher
    ..For quinine and its metabolites, there were three articles (one level II-1 and two level III); for artemisinin compounds, two ..
  9. Islahudin F, Pleass R, Avery S, Ting K. Quinine interactions with tryptophan and tyrosine in malaria patients, and implications for quinine responses in the clinical setting. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012;67:2501-5 pubmed publisher
    Recent work with the yeast model revealed that the antiprotozoal drug quinine competes with tryptophan for uptake via a common transport protein, causing cellular tryptophan starvation...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Noedl H, Se Y, Schaecher K, Smith B, Socheat D, Fukuda M. Evidence of artemisinin-resistant malaria in western Cambodia. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:2619-20 pubmed publisher
  2. Cramer J, Lopez Velez R, Burchard G, Grobusch M, de Vries P. Treatment of imported severe malaria with artesunate instead of quinine--more evidence needed?. Malar J. 2011;10:256 pubmed publisher
    Rapid and fast acting anti-malarials are essential to treat severe malaria. Quinine has been the only option for parenteral therapy until recently...
  3. Uriel A, Lewthwaite P. Malaria therapy in HIV: drug interactions between nevirapine and quinine. Int J STD AIDS. 2011;22:768 pubmed publisher
    ..Infection with Plasmodium falciparum malaria was confirmed and treatment with quinine commenced together with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and clarithromycin for possible respiratory infection...
  4. Briolant S, Pelleau S, Bogreau H, Hovette P, Zettor A, Castello J, et al. In vitro susceptibility to quinine and microsatellite variations of the Plasmodium falciparum Na+/H+ exchanger (Pfnhe-1) gene: the absence of association in clinical isolates from the Republic of Congo. Malar J. 2011;10:37 pubmed publisher
    b>Quinine is still recommended as an effective therapy for severe cases of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but the parasite has developed resistance to the drug in some cases...
  5. Amuasi J, Diap G, Blay Nguah S, Boakye I, Karikari P, Dismas B, et al. Access to artesunate-amodiaquine, quinine and other anti-malarials: policy and markets in Burundi. Malar J. 2011;10:34 pubmed publisher
    ..artesunate-amodiaquine (AS-AQ) as first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria and oral quinine as second-line treatment in its national treatment policy in 2003...
  6. Obonyo C, Juma E. Clindamycin plus quinine for treating uncomplicated falciparum malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Malar J. 2012;11:2 pubmed publisher
    ..Clindamycin plus quinine is an alternative non-artemisinin-based combination recommended by World Health Organization...
  7. Ralli M, Lobarinas E, Fetoni A, Stolzberg D, Paludetti G, Salvi R. Comparison of salicylate- and quinine-induced tinnitus in rats: development, time course, and evaluation of audiologic correlates. Otol Neurotol. 2010;31:823-31 pubmed publisher
    Salicylate and quinine have been shown to reliably induce short-term tinnitus when administered at high doses...
  8. Hashimoto K, Spector A. Extensive lesions in the gustatory cortex in the rat do not disrupt the retention of a presurgically conditioned taste aversion and do not impair unconditioned concentration-dependent licking of sucrose and quinine. Chem Senses. 2014;39:57-71 pubmed publisher
    ..the effects of ibotenic acid-induced lesions targeting the GC on unconditioned licking to a sucrose and then a quinine concentration series in a specialized lickometer. As a functional lesion assessment, a presurgical CTA to 0...
  9. Mukonzo J, Waako P, Ogwal Okeng J, Gustafsson L, Aklillu E. Genetic variations in ABCB1 and CYP3A5 as well as sex influence quinine disposition among Ugandans. Ther Drug Monit. 2010;32:346-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Quinine is one of the most effective antimalarial drugs, although its clinical use is limited as a result of its narrow safety margin. Quinine is a substrate of the polymorphic p-glycoprotein and CYP3A4/3A5...
  10. Illa O, Arshad M, Ros A, McGarrigle E, Aggarwal V. Practical and highly selective sulfur ylide mediated asymmetric epoxidations and aziridinations using an inexpensive, readily available chiral sulfide. Applications to the synthesis of quinine and quinidine. J Am Chem Soc. 2010;132:1828-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The epoxidation has been used as the key step in a convergent and stereoselective synthesis of each of the diastereoisomers of the cinchona alkaloids, quinine and quinidine.
  11. van Genderen P, Hesselink D, Bezemer J, Wismans P, Overbosch D. Efficacy and safety of exchange transfusion as an adjunct therapy for severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in nonimmune travelers: a 10-year single-center experience with a standardized treatment protocol. Transfusion. 2010;50:787-94 pubmed publisher
    ..PCT(90%) were all significantly shorter for patients treated with ET than for patients treated with parenteral quinine only...
  12. Bhattacharyya P, Agarwal J, Sharma M. Symmetric peripheral gangrene of the lower limbs in a case of complicated falciparum malaria. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2008;39:589-92 pubmed
    ..Here we report a case of complicated falciparum malaria with SPG involving both lower limbs from the mid-calf downwards, probably due to antibody mediated vasculitis...
  13. Moon S, Lee Y, Jiao Y, Montell C. A Drosophila gustatory receptor essential for aversive taste and inhibiting male-to-male courtship. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1623-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Gr33a mutant flies were impaired in avoiding all nonvolatile repellents tested, ranging from quinine to denatonium, lobeline, and caffeine...
  14. Henry M, Briolant S, Zettor A, Pelleau S, Baragatti M, Baret E, et al. Plasmodium falciparum Na+/H+ exchanger 1 transporter is involved in reduced susceptibility to quinine. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:1926-30 pubmed publisher
    ..in the Plasmodium falciparum crt (Pfcrt), Pfmdr1, and Pfmrp genes were not significantly associated with quinine (QN) 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) in 23 strains of Plasmodium falciparum...
  15. Vieira J, Gomes A, Borges L, Guimarães E. Relationship between plasma and red blood cell concentrations of quinine in Brazilian children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria on oral therapy. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2009;51:109-10 pubmed
    We determined the relationship between plasma and red blood cell concentrations of quinine in children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria from an endemic area of Amazonian region...
  16. Khozoie C, Pleass R, Avery S. The antimalarial drug quinine disrupts Tat2p-mediated tryptophan transport and causes tryptophan starvation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:17968-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Quinine is a major drug of choice for the treatment of malaria. However, the primary mode of quinine action is unclear, and its efficacy is marred by adverse reactions among patients...
  17. da Silva A, Benchimol J. Malaria and quinine resistance: a medical and scientific issue between Brazil and Germany (1907-19). Med Hist. 2014;58:1-26 pubmed publisher
    This article addresses the discussion about quinine-resistant malaria plasmodium in the early decades of the twentieth century...
  18. dos Santos S, Tenreiro S, Palma M, Becker J, Sá Correia I. Transcriptomic profiling of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae response to quinine reveals a glucose limitation response attributable to drug-induced inhibition of glucose uptake. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:5213-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Quinine has been employed in the treatment of malaria for centuries and is still used against severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, its interactions with the parasite remain poorly understood and subject to debate...
  19. Nyunt M, Lu Y, El Gasim M, Parsons T, Petty B, Hendrix C. Effects of ritonavir-boosted lopinavir on the pharmacokinetics of quinine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2012;91:889-95 pubmed publisher
    The centuries-old antimalarial drug, quinine, continues to play a critical role in the treatment of severe falciparum malaria and uncomplicated malaria in pregnant women...
  20. Richter J, Abbasi Boroudjeni N, Koch S, Müller Stöver I, Haussinger D. [Parenteral combined quinine-artesunate therapy in life-threatening malaria]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2009;134:187-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Immediate intravenous quinine with a loading dose of 20 mg/kg body weight was initiated followed by 10 mg/kg every 8 hrs...
  21. Lubell Y, Yeung S, Dondorp A, Day N, Nosten F, Tjitra E, et al. Cost-effectiveness of artesunate for the treatment of severe malaria. Trop Med Int Health. 2009;14:332-7 pubmed publisher
    To explore the cost-effectiveness of artesunate against quinine based principally on the findings of a large multi-centre trial carried out in Southeast Asia...
  22. Pelleau S, Bertaux L, Briolant S, Ferdig M, Sinou V, Pradines B, et al. Differential association of Plasmodium falciparum Na+/H+ exchanger polymorphism and quinine responses in field- and culture-adapted isolates of Plasmodium falciparum. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:5834-41 pubmed publisher
    Plasmodium falciparum isolates with decreased susceptibility to quinine are increasingly being found in malaria patients. Mechanisms involved in this resistance are not yet understood...
  23. Noedl H, Se Y, Sriwichai S, Schaecher K, Teja Isavadharm P, Smith B, et al. Artemisinin resistance in Cambodia: a clinical trial designed to address an emerging problem in Southeast Asia. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51:e82-9 pubmed publisher
    ..falciparum malaria were randomized to receive high-dose artesunate therapy (4 mg/kg/day orally for 7 days) or quinine-tetracycline...
  24. Yeka A, Achan J, D Alessandro U, Talisuna A. Quinine monotherapy for treating uncomplicated malaria in the era of artemisinin-based combination therapy: an appropriate public health policy?. Lancet Infect Dis. 2009;9:448-52 pubmed publisher
    ..combination therapy (ACT) as first-line treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria also use quinine monotherapy as second-line therapy...
  25. Watsierah C, Onyango R, Ombaka J, Abong o B, Ouma C. Provider knowledge of treatment policy and dosing regimen with artemether-lumefantrine and quinine in malaria-endemic areas of western Kenya. Malar J. 2012;11:436 pubmed publisher
    ..Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is the first-line ACT for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Kenya, while quinine is preferred for complicated and severe malaria...
  26. Medina Ceja L, Ventura Mejía C. Differential effects of trimethylamine and quinine on seizures induced by 4-aminopyridine administration in the entorhinal cortex of vigilant rats. Seizure. 2010;19:507-13 pubmed publisher
    ..the influence of the gap junction opener trimethylamine (TMA) and the connexin 36 (Cx36) gap junctional blocker, quinine, on epileptiform activity induced by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) in the rat entorhinal cortex (EC) and the CA1 ..
  27. Lim P, Wongsrichanalai C, Chim P, Khim N, Kim S, Chy S, et al. Decreased in vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum isolates to artesunate, mefloquine, chloroquine, and quinine in Cambodia from 2001 to 2007. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:2135-42 pubmed publisher
    ..were examined for their in vitro susceptibilities to four antimalarials (artesunate, mefloquine, chloroquine, and quinine), and 851 isolates were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
  28. Ai C, Li Y, Wang Y, Chen Y, Yang L. Insight into the effects of chiral isomers quinidine and quinine on CYP2D6 inhibition. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009;19:803-6 pubmed publisher
    The distinct inhibitory effects against CYP2D6 enzyme of the stereoisomers quinidine and quinine were investigated in this work by employing various methods, including the comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), the comparative ..
  29. Kyu H, Fernandez E. Artemisinin derivatives versus quinine for cerebral malaria in African children: a systematic review. Bull World Health Organ. 2009;87:896-904 pubmed publisher
    ..To summarize the existing evidence on the efficacy of artemether and arteether, two artemisinin derivatives, versus quinine for treating cerebral malaria in children...
  30. Kone A, Mu J, Maiga H, Beavogui A, Yattara O, Sagara I, et al. Quinine treatment selects the pfnhe-1 ms4760-1 polymorphism in Malian patients with Falciparum malaria. J Infect Dis. 2013;207:520-7 pubmed publisher
    The mechanism of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to quinine is not known. In vitro quantitative trait loci mapping suggests involvement of a predicted P. falciparum sodium-hydrogen exchanger (pfnhe-1) on chromosome 13...
  31. Poyomtip T, Suwandittakul N, Sitthichot N, Khositnithikul R, Tan ariya P, Mungthin M. Polymorphisms of the pfmdr1 but not the pfnhe-1 gene is associated with in vitro quinine sensitivity in Thai isolates of Plasmodium falciparum. Malar J. 2012;11:7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Quinine (QN) with tetracycline/doxycycline has been used as the second-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum ..
  32. Parquet V, Henry M, Wurtz N, Dormoi J, Briolant S, Gil M, et al. Atorvastatin as a potential anti-malarial drug: in vitro synergy in combinational therapy with quinine against Plasmodium falciparum. Malar J. 2010;9:139 pubmed publisher
    b>Quinine (QN) remains the first line anti-malarial drug for the treatment of complicated malaria in Europe and Africa. The emergence of QN resistance has been documented...
  33. dos Santos S, Sá Correia I. A genome-wide screen identifies yeast genes required for protection against or enhanced cytotoxicity of the antimalarial drug quinine. Mol Genet Genomics. 2011;286:333-46 pubmed publisher
    b>Quinine is used in the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum severe malaria. However, both the drug's mode of action and mechanisms of resistance are still poorly understood and subject to debate...
  34. Yavo W, Bla K, Djaman A, Assi S, Basco L, Mazabraud A, et al. In vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to monodesethylamodiaquine, quinine, mefloquine and halofantrine in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire). Afr Health Sci. 2010;10:111-6 pubmed
    ..5%, 15.6% and 25.9%, respectively. For quinine, none of isolates showed evidence of in vitro resistance. However, two isolates (6...
  35. Kurth F, Pongratz P, Bélard S, Mordmuller B, Kremsner P, Ramharter M. In vitro activity of pyronaridine against Plasmodium falciparum and comparative evaluation of anti-malarial drug susceptibility assays. Malar J. 2009;8:79 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, follow-up assessment on the in vitro activity of chloroquine, artesunate and quinine was performed. In vitro response of field isolates of P...
  36. Okombo J, Kiara S, Rono J, Mwai L, Pole L, Ohuma E, et al. In vitro activities of quinine and other antimalarials and pfnhe polymorphisms in Plasmodium isolates from Kenya. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:3302-7 pubmed publisher
    Resistance to the amino alcohol quinine has been associated with polymorphisms in pfnhe, a sodium hydrogen exchanger. We investigated the role of this gene in quinine resistance in vitro in isolates from Kenya...
  37. Picot S, Bienvenu A, Konate S, Sissoko S, Barry A, Diarra E, et al. Safety of epoietin beta-quinine drug combination in children with cerebral malaria in Mali. Malar J. 2009;8:169 pubmed publisher
    ..In this context, a new adjunctive strategy using a neuroprotective drug: erythropoietin (epoietin-beta, Epo) was proposed...
  38. Reed D, Zhu G, Breslin P, Duke F, Henders A, Campbell M, et al. The perception of quinine taste intensity is associated with common genetic variants in a bitter receptor cluster on chromosome 12. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:4278-85 pubmed publisher
    The perceived taste intensities of quinine HCl, caffeine, sucrose octaacetate (SOA) and propylthiouracil (PROP) solutions were examined in 1457 twins and their siblings...
  39. Kharal S, Hussain Q, Ali S, Fakhuruddin -. Quinine is bactericidal. J Pak Med Assoc. 2009;59:208-12 pubmed
    To determine the antibacterial properties of Quinine dihydrochloride and its MIC. A Quasi-Experimental study was conducted at the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi from July 2006 to November 2006...
  40. Mathes C, Gregson J, Spector A. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine decreases breakpoint of rats engaging in a progressive ratio licking task for sucrose and quinine solutions. Chem Senses. 2013;38:211-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8/taste stimulus) were trained to respond for a concentration series of sucrose or quinine on fixed and PR schedules of reinforcement...
  41. Sinclair D, Donegan S, Isba R, Lalloo D. Artesunate versus quinine for treating severe malaria. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;:CD005967 pubmed publisher
    ..This review examines whether treatment with artesunate, instead of the standard treatment quinine, would result in fewer deaths and better treatment outcomes...
  42. Garavito G, Bertani S, Quiliano M, Valentin A, Aldana I, Deharo E. The in vivo antimalarial activity of methylene blue combined with pyrimethamine, chloroquine and quinine. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2012;107:820-3 pubmed
    The effectiveness of methylene blue (MB) combined with pyrimethamine (PYR), chloroquine (CQ) or quinine (Q) was examined in a classical four-day suppressive test against a causative agent of rodent malaria, Plasmodium berghei...
  43. Eltahir H, Omer A, Mohamed A, Adam I. Comparison of artesunate and quinine in the treatment of Sudanese children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2010;104:684-6 pubmed publisher
    ..each arm) to receive either intravenous artesunate 2·4 mg/kg at 0, 12, and 24 hours, then daily, or intravenous quinine 20mg/kg initially then 10mg/kg three times a day...
  44. Kayentao K, Guirou E, Doumbo O, Venkatesan M, Plowe C, Parsons T, et al. Preliminary study of quinine pharmacokinetics in pregnant women with malaria-HIV co-infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014;90:530-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted a preliminary clinical study to assess quinine pharmacokinetics in Malian pregnant women with acute malaria who reported taking nevirapine-based antiretroviral ..
  45. Eder M, Farne H, Cargill T, Abbara A, Davidson R. Intravenous artesunate versus intravenous quinine in the treatment of severe falciparum malaria: a retrospective evaluation from a UK centre. Pathog Glob Health. 2012;106:181-7 pubmed publisher
    Despite evidence from developing world trials that intravenous (IV) artesunate (AS) is superior to IV quinine (Q) in severe falciparum malaria (FM), IV AS remains unlicensed in the UK with national guidelines listing it as an acceptable ..
  46. Elbadawi N, Mohamed M, Dawod O, Ali K, Daoud O, AlI E, et al. Effect of quinine therapy on plasma glucose and plasma insulin levels in pregnant women infected with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Gezira state. East Mediterr Health J. 2011;17:697-700 pubmed
    To determine if quinine has a metabolic effect during treatment of severe or complicated malaria, we studied its effects on plasma glucose and plasma insulin levels in 150 pregnant women with malaria referred to Madani maternity teaching ..
  47. Mehrotra S, Juneja R, Naik N, Pavri B. Successful use of quinine in the treatment of electrical storm in a child with Brugada syndrome. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2011;22:594-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonavailability of quinidine led us to try its diastereomer, intravenous quinine, which succeeded in controlling the ventricular tachycardia...
  48. Mirghani R, Elagib I, Elghazali G, Hellgren U, Gustafsson L. Effects of Plasmodium falciparum infection on the pharmacokinetics of quinine and its metabolites in pregnant and non-pregnant Sudanese women. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2010;66:1229-34 pubmed publisher
    The study aimed to investigate the effects of Plasmodium falciparum infection on the pharmacokinetics of quinine and its metabolites in pregnant and non-pregnant Sudanese women...
  49. HOPF F, Chang S, Sparta D, BOWERS M, Bonci A. Motivation for alcohol becomes resistant to quinine adulteration after 3 to 4 months of intermittent alcohol self-administration. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2010;34:1565-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Then, after brief operant training, the effect of the bitter-tasting quinine (0.1 g/l) on the motivation to seek alcohol was quantified via progressive ratio (PR)...
  50. Achan J, Tibenderana J, Kyabayinze D, Wabwire Mangen F, Kamya M, Dorsey G, et al. Effectiveness of quinine versus artemether-lumefantrine for treating uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Ugandan children: randomised trial. BMJ. 2009;339:b2763 pubmed publisher
    To compare the effectiveness of oral quinine with that of artemether-lumefantrine in treating uncomplicated malaria in children. Randomised, open label effectiveness study...
  51. Soyinka J, Onyeji C, Omoruyi S, Owolabi A, Sarma P, Cook J. Effects of concurrent administration of nevirapine on the disposition of quinine in healthy volunteers. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2009;61:439-43 pubmed publisher
    Nevirapine and quinine are likely to be administered concurrently in the treatment of patients with HIV and malaria...
  52. Baliraine F, Nsobya S, Achan J, Tibenderana J, Talisuna A, Greenhouse B, et al. Limited ability of Plasmodium falciparum pfcrt, pfmdr1, and pfnhe1 polymorphisms to predict quinine in vitro sensitivity or clinical effectiveness in Uganda. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:615-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Quinine is a standard drug for treating severe malaria in Africa, and it is also increasingly used to treat uncomplicated disease...
  53. Yeka A, Tibenderana J, Achan J, D Alessandro U, Talisuna A. Efficacy of quinine, artemether-lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine as rescue treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Ugandan children. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53772 pubmed publisher
    ..Though several African countries continue to use quinine as the second line treatment for patients with recurrent infections, there is little information on its efficacy ..