oxotremorine

Summary

Summary: A non-hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist used as a research tool.

Top Publications

  1. Disingrini T, Muth M, Dallanoce C, Barocelli E, Bertoni S, Kellershohn K, et al. Design, synthesis, and action of oxotremorine-related hybrid-type allosteric modulators of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. J Med Chem. 2006;49:366-72 pubmed
    ..and, on the other, the acetylenic fragment typical for the nonselective orthosteric muscarinic agonists oxotremorine, oxotremorine-M, and related muscarinic agonists...
  2. Bymaster F, Carter P, Zhang L, Falcone J, Stengel P, Cohen M, et al. Investigations into the physiological role of muscarinic M2 and M4 muscarinic and M4 receptor subtypes using receptor knockout mice. Life Sci. 2001;68:2473-9 pubmed
    ..The binding of the muscarinic agonist, [3H]-oxotremorine-M, was reduced in cortical tissue from the M2 knockout mice and to a lesser extent from the M4 knockout mice, ..
  3. Srikumar B, Raju T, Shankaranarayana Rao B. The involvement of cholinergic and noradrenergic systems in behavioral recovery following oxotremorine treatment to chronically stressed rats. Neuroscience. 2006;143:679-88 pubmed
    ..Muscarinic cholinergic agonist, oxotremorine is demonstrated to have a beneficial effect in reversing brain injury-induced behavioral dysfunction...
  4. Li M, Sun Y, Tomiya N, Hsu Y, Chai T. Elevated polyamines in urothelial cells from OAB subjects mediate oxotremorine-evoked rapid intracellular calcium rise and delayed acetylcholine release. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013;305:F445-50 pubmed publisher
    ..modulated rapid intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) changes and delayed acetylcholine (ACh) release evoked by oxotremorine (OXO, a muscarinic agonist). BUC were cultured from cystoscopic biopsies...
  5. Wang N, Orr Urtreger A, Chapman J, Rabinowitz R, Korczyn A. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha5 subunits modulate oxotremorine-induced salivation and tremor. J Neurol Sci. 2004;222:87-91 pubmed
    ..The effects of oxotremorine (OXO) on autonomic functions and tremor were examined in mice lacking alpha5 nAChR subunits (alpha5-/-) and ..
  6. Höglund A, Hamilton C, Lindblom L. Effects of microdialyzed oxotremorine, carbachol, epibatidine, and scopolamine on intraspinal release of acetylcholine in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000;295:100-4 pubmed
    Intrathecally administered cholinergic agonists such as oxotremorine (muscarinic), carbachol (mixed nicotinic and muscarinic agonist), and epibatidine (nicotinic) have all been shown to reduce nociception in behavioral studies...
  7. Ostrom R, Ehlert F. Comparison of functional antagonism between isoproterenol and M2 muscarinic receptors in guinea pig ileum and trachea. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999;288:969-76 pubmed
    ..The contractile response to oxotremorine-M was measured subsequently in the presence of both histamine (10 microM) and isoproterenol (10 nM)...
  8. Puolivali J, Jakala P, Koivisto E, Riekkinen P. Oxotremorine suppresses thalamocortical oscillations via thalamic muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1998;140:285-92 pubmed
    We investigated whether the local intrathalamic infusion of a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist (oxotremorine) at either the reticular nucleus of thalamus (NRT) or the ventroposteromedial nucleus of thalamus (VPM) suppresses ..
  9. Thomas E, Hsu H, Griffin M, Hunter A, Luong T, Ehlert F. Conversion of N-(2-chloroethyl)-4-piperidinyl diphenylacetate (4-DAMP mustard) to an aziridinium ion and its interaction with muscarinic receptors in various tissues. Mol Pharmacol. 1992;41:718-26 pubmed
    ..ileum with 4-DAMP mustard caused an irreversible blockade of contractions elicited by the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M, and this blockade persisted after extensive washing...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Tran J, Matsui M, Ehlert F. Differential coupling of muscarinic M1, M2, and M3 receptors to phosphoinositide hydrolysis in urinary bladder and longitudinal muscle of the ileum of the mouse. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006;318:649-56 pubmed
    ..In urinary bladder from wild-type mice, the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M, elicited a robust phosphoinositide response characterized by an EC50 value of 0...
  2. Hirdes W, Horowitz L, Hille B. Muscarinic modulation of erg potassium current. J Physiol. 2004;559:67-84 pubmed
    ..tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein nor the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor dephostatin prevented inhibition by oxotremorine-M. Hence protein kinases are not needed...
  3. Chintoh A, Fulton J, Koziel N, Aziz M, Sud M, Yeomans J. Role of cholinergic receptors in locomotion induced by scopolamine and oxotremorine-M. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003;76:53-61 pubmed
    ..p.) or by oxotremorine-M (0.1 microg bilaterally in the VTA)...
  4. Almaguer Melian W, Rojas Reyes Y, Alvare A, Rosillo J, Frey J, Bergado J. Long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus in freely moving rats is reinforced by intraventricular application of norepinephrine, but not oxotremorine. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2005;83:72-8 pubmed
    ..NE or oxotremorine (OXO) were applied icv 10 min after the tetanus. Results show that low doses of NE (1...
  5. Griffin M, Hsu J, Shehnaz D, Ehlert F. Comparison of the pharmacological antagonism of M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors expressed in isolation and in combination. Biochem Pharmacol. 2003;65:1227-41 pubmed
    ..b>Oxotremorine-M, a muscarinic agonist, elicited a robust, pertussis toxin-insensitive stimulation of phosphoinositide ..
  6. Griffin M, Matsui M, Ostrom R, Ehlert F. The guinea pig ileum lacks the direct, high-potency, M(2)-muscarinic, contractile mechanism characteristic of the mouse ileum. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2009;380:327-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The muscarinic agonist, oxotremorine-M, elicited potent contractions in ileum from wild-type, M(2) receptor knockout, and M(3) receptor knockout ..
  7. Veena J, Srikumar B, Mahati K, Raju T, Shankaranarayana Rao B. Oxotremorine treatment restores hippocampal neurogenesis and ameliorates depression-like behaviour in chronically stressed rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2011;217:239-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Earlier, we have shown that oxotremorine, a cholinergic muscarinic agonist, ameliorates stress-induced cognitive impairment and restores cholinergic ..
  8. Mark G, Kinney A, Grubb M, Zhu X, Finn D, Mader S, et al. Injection of oxotremorine in nucleus accumbens shell reduces cocaine but not food self-administration in rats. Brain Res. 2006;1123:51-9 pubmed
    ..On the test day, rats were bilaterally infused in the NAcc with the muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine methiodide (OXO: 0.1, 0.3 or 1 nmol/side), OXO plus the M(1) selective antagonist pirenzepine (PIRENZ; 0...
  9. Ehlert F, Ahn S, Pak K, Park G, Sangnil M, Tran J, et al. Neuronally released acetylcholine acts on the M2 muscarinic receptor to oppose the relaxant effect of isoproterenol on cholinergic contractions in mouse urinary bladder. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007;322:631-7 pubmed
    ..When measured in urinary bladder from M(3) receptor knockout mice, the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M elicited only very weak contractions...
  10. Ostrom R, Ehlert F. M2 muscarinic receptors inhibit forskolin- but not isoproterenol-mediated relaxation in bovine tracheal smooth muscle. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998;286:234-42 pubmed
    ..In most experiments, we measured contractile responses to oxotremorine-M in smooth muscle isolated from bovine trachea in which a majority of M3 receptors were inactivated by ..
  11. Sawyer G, Ehlert F. Muscarinic M3 receptor inactivation reveals a pertussis toxin-sensitive contractile response in the guinea pig colon: evidence for M2/M3 receptor interactions. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999;289:464-76 pubmed
    The role of M2 and M3 receptors in the contractile and phosphoinositide responses elicited to oxotremorine-M was investigated in the guinea pig colon...
  12. Ehlert F, Griffin M, Abe D, Vo T, Taketo M, Manabe T, et al. The M2 muscarinic receptor mediates contraction through indirect mechanisms in mouse urinary bladder. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005;313:368-78 pubmed
    ..When measured in the absence of other agents, contractions elicited to the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M exhibited properties consistent with that expected for an M3 response in urinary bladder from wild-type and ..
  13. Zhang H, Li D, Chen S, Pan H. M2, M3, and M4 receptor subtypes contribute to muscarinic potentiation of GABAergic inputs to spinal dorsal horn neurons. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005;313:697-704 pubmed
    ..The muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine-M dose-dependently (1-10 microM) increased GABAergic sIPSCs but not miniature IPSCs...
  14. Winks J, Hughes S, Filippov A, Tatulian L, Abogadie F, Brown D, et al. Relationship between membrane phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate and receptor-mediated inhibition of native neuronal M channels. J Neurosci. 2005;25:3400-13 pubmed
    ..The muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine-M produced parallel time- and concentration-dependent M-current inhibition and GFP-PLCdelta-PH translocation; ..
  15. Timofeeva O, Gordon C. Changes in EEG power spectra and behavioral states in rats exposed to the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor chlorpyrifos and muscarinic agonist oxotremorine. Brain Res. 2001;893:165-77 pubmed
    ..The animals received CHP, 25 mg/kg, p.o., or oxotremorine (OX), 0.2 mg/kg, s.c. CHP led to a significant increase in delta (0.1-3.5 Hz), slow theta (4-6...
  16. Shapiro M, Roche J, Kaftan E, Cruzblanca H, Mackie K, Hille B. Reconstitution of muscarinic modulation of the KCNQ2/KCNQ3 K(+) channels that underlie the neuronal M current. J Neurosci. 2000;20:1710-21 pubmed
    ..Heteromeric KCNQ2/KCNQ3 currents were modulated by the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M (oxo-M) in a manner having all of the characteristics of modulation of native M current in sympathetic ..
  17. Li Y, Gamper N, Hilgemann D, Shapiro M. Regulation of Kv7 (KCNQ) K+ channel open probability by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. J Neurosci. 2005;25:9825-35 pubmed
    ..Divergent apparent affinities of Kv7.2-7.4 channels for PIP2 may underlie their highly differential maximal Po observed in cell-attached patches. ..
  18. Ueki S, Okamoto E, Kuwata K, Toyosaka A, Nagai K. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the piebald lethal mouse model of Hirschsprung's disease. Gastroenterology. 1985;88:1834-41 pubmed
    ..receptors was associated with a decrease in the 50% effective dose (ED50) of contractile response to oxotremorine from 3.8 X 10(-7) M to 6.5 X 10(-8) M...
  19. dos Santos A, Medina S, Sholl Franco A, de Araujo E. PMA decreases the proliferation of retinal cells in vitro: the involvement of acetylcholine and BDNF. Neurochem Int. 2003;42:73-80 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that PKC activation leads to a decrease in retinal cells proliferation through the release of acetylcholine and brain derived neurotrophic factor in the culture, and activation of M1 and TrkB receptors, respectively. ..
  20. Lai Y, Ho Y, Huang K, Tsai L. Effects of serotonin on acid secretion in isolated rat stomach: the role of 5-HT3 receptors. Chin J Physiol. 2009;52:395-405 pubmed
    ..5-HT at 1-100 microM reduced acid secretion stimulated by oxotremorine while 10 microM 5-HT did not modify the basal secretion of gastric acid...
  21. Ge Z, Zhang D, Chen Y, Yi F, Zou A, Campbell W, et al. Cyclic ADP-ribose contributes to contraction and Ca2+ release by M1 muscarinic receptor activation in coronary arterial smooth muscle. J Vasc Res. 2003;40:28-36 pubmed
    ..Both acetylcholine (ACh; 1 nmol/L to 1 micromol/L) and oxotremorine (OXO; 2.5-80 micromol/L) produced a concentration-dependent contraction...
  22. Gannon R, Millan M. LY2033298, a positive allosteric modulator at muscarinic M? receptors, enhances inhibition by oxotremorine of light-induced phase shifts in hamster circadian activity rhythms. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012;224:231-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Systemic administration of the muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine (0.01-0.04 mg/kg) inhibited light-induced phase delays and advances of hamster circadian wheel-running rhythms...
  23. Szekeres P, Koenig J, Edwardson J. The relationship between agonist intrinsic activity and the rate of endocytosis of muscarinic receptors in a human neuroblastoma cell line. Mol Pharmacol. 1998;53:759-65 pubmed
    ..An important implication of this analysis is that extremely weak partial agonists (which may in practice be indistinguishable from antagonists) may produce significant receptor internalization. ..
  24. Grudt T, Usowicz M, Henderson G. Ca2+ entry following store depletion in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1996;36:93-100 pubmed
    ..Application of the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M (oxo-M) caused an increase in [Ca2+]i...
  25. Núñez Taltavull J, Prat G, Rubio A, Robledo P, Casas M. Biphasic effects of oxotremorine-M on turning behavior induced by caffeine in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004;506:71-4 pubmed
    ..that purpose, we evaluated the effects of an intrastriatal administration of the muscarincic receptor agonist, oxotremorine-M on turning behavior induced by systemic caffeine in unilaterally 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats...
  26. Racke K, Schwörer H. Nicotinic and muscarinic modulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release from porcine and canine small intestine. Clin Investig. 1992;70:190-200 pubmed
    ..The muscarine receptor agonist oxotremorine inhibited 5-HT release from porcine tissue, but increased 5-HT release from canine tissue...
  27. Hudetz A, Wood J, Kampine J. Cholinergic reversal of isoflurane anesthesia in rats as measured by cross-approximate entropy of the electroencephalogram. Anesthesiology. 2003;99:1125-31 pubmed
    ..Cholinesterase inhibitor, neostigmine (25 mug), or the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine (25 mug) were infused intracerebroventricularly while the rats were inhaling 1.0% (0...
  28. Kurihara T, Suzuki H, Yanagisawa M, Yoshioka K. Muscarinic excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms involved in afferent fibre-evoked depolarization of motoneurones in the neonatal rat spinal cord. Br J Pharmacol. 1993;110:61-70 pubmed
    ..Other muscarinic agonists, arecoline (10 nM-10 microM) and oxotremorine (10 nM-1 microM), inhibited the mono-synaptic reflex with little or no depolarization of motoneurones...
  29. Hynie S. The action of pertussis toxin on heart adenylate cyclase and lipolysis in the parametrial adipose tissue of the rat. Biomed Biochim Acta. 1987;46:S456-9 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the strong inhibition of negative chronotropic effect of muscarinic drugs by pertussis toxin may be related to the recently described No protein rather then Ni protein from the adenylate cyclase complex. ..
  30. Lachowicz J, Duffy R, Ruperto V, Kozlowski J, Zhou G, Clader J, et al. Facilitation of acetylcholine release and improvement in cognition by a selective M2 muscarinic antagonist, SCH 72788. Life Sci. 2001;68:2585-92 pubmed
    ..SCH 72788 is a functional M2 antagonist that competitively inhibits the ability of the agonist oxotremorine-M to inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity...
  31. Sum C, Park P, Wells J. Effects of N-ethylmaleimide on conformational equilibria in purified cardiac muscarinic receptors. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:36188-203 pubmed
    ..Their apparent affinity for the agonists carbachol and oxotremorine-M was unchanged...
  32. Tominaga K, Hato F, Kinoshita Y, Tominaga M, Yamada M. Enhancement of DNA synthesis in rat thymocytes by stimulating their muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 1992;38:815-22 pubmed
    ..It is discussed that the enhancement of intracellular IP3 and cGMP concentrations after stimulation of muscarinic AChRs appears to be related with the increment of thymocyte DNA synthesis. ..
  33. Duttaroy A, Zimliki C, Gautam D, Cui Y, Mears D, Wess J. Muscarinic stimulation of pancreatic insulin and glucagon release is abolished in m3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-deficient mice. Diabetes. 2004;53:1714-20 pubmed
    ..in cholinergic stimulation of insulin release, we initially examined the effect of the muscarinic agonist, oxotremorine-M (Oxo-M), on insulin secretion from isolated pancreatic islets prepared from wild-type (WT) and M(3) receptor-..
  34. Gholami M, Saboory E, Zare S, Roshan Milani S, Hajizadeh Moghaddam A. The effect of dorsal hippocampal administration of nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic ligands on pentylenetetrazol-induced generalized seizures in rats. Epilepsy Behav. 2012;25:244-9 pubmed publisher
    ..5 or 1 ?g), atropine (0.25 or 1 ?g), oxotremorine-M (0.1 or 1 ?g), or mecamylamine (2 or 8 ?g)...
  35. Flynn D, Palermo N, Suarez A. Agonist binding to M1 muscarinic receptors is sensitive to guanine nucleotides. Eur J Pharmacol. 1989;172:363-72 pubmed
    ..Direct labeling of the high-affinity agonist state of M1 receptors was achieved with 5 nM [3H]oxotremorine-M by selectively uncoupling the high-affinity agonist state of M2 (low-affinity pirenzepine) receptors with NEM...
  36. Egashira N, Yuzurihara M, Hattori N, Sakakibara I, Ishige A. Ninjin-yoei-to (Ren-Shen-Yang-Rong-Tang) and Polygalae radix improves scopolamine-induced impairment of passive avoidance response in mice. Phytomedicine. 2003;10:467-73 pubmed
    ..Further, the same dose of Ninjin-yoei-to enhanced oxotremorine-induced tremors in mice...
  37. Wreggett K, Wells J. Cooperativity manifest in the binding properties of purified cardiac muscarinic receptors. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:22488-99 pubmed
    ..b>Oxotremorine-M displayed a biphasic inhibitory effect on the binding of [3H]AF-DX 384 in M2 and M2G, suggesting that ..
  38. Harper D. An assessment and comparison of the effects of oxotremorine, D-cycloserine, and bicuculline on delayed matching-to-sample performance in rats. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2000;8:207-15 pubmed
    The effects of a muscarinic antagonist (scopolamine), a muscarinic agonist (oxotremorine), an agonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor site (D-cycloserine), and a GABAa antagonist (bicuculline) on working memory were compared using ..
  39. Packard M, Teather L. Posttraining estradiol injections enhance memory in ovariectomized rats: cholinergic blockade and synergism. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 1997;68:172-88 pubmed
    ..In experiment 3a, posttraining injections of the cholinergic muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine (0.2 mg/kg) enhanced memory in ovariectomized rats...
  40. Oldfield S, Hancock J, Mason A, Hobson S, Wynick D, Kelly E, et al. Receptor-mediated suppression of potassium currents requires colocalization within lipid rafts. Mol Pharmacol. 2009;76:1279-89 pubmed publisher
  41. Hurwitz I, Ophir A, Korngreen A, Koester J, Susswein A. Currents contributing to decision making in neurons B31/B32 of Aplysia. J Neurophysiol. 2008;99:814-30 pubmed
    ..The currents identified are sufficient to explain the properties of B31/B32 that play a role in generating the decision to feed. ..
  42. Liu T, Liang K. Posttraining infusion of cholinergic drugs into the ventral subiculum modulated memory in an inhibitory avoidance task: interaction with the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2009;91:235-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Results of the 1-day retention tests showed that intra-vSUB infusion of oxotremorine (0.01 microg) or scopolamine (0.3 or 3.0 microg) enhanced or impaired retention, respectively...
  43. Gibbons A, Jeon W, Scarr E, Dean B. Changes in Muscarinic M2 Receptor Levels in the Cortex of Subjects with Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder and in Rats after Treatment with Mood Stabilisers and Antidepressants. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2016;19: pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we used Western blots to measure levels of CHRM2 protein and oxotremorine-M stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS binding as a measure of CHRM 2 / 4 signaling...
  44. Quinlan K, Buchanan J. Cellular and synaptic actions of acetylcholine in the lamprey spinal cord. J Neurophysiol. 2008;100:1020-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus endogenous cholinergic modulation of the lamprey spinal locomotor network is likely produced by both motoneurons and cholinergic interneurons acting via combined postsynaptic and presynaptic actions. ..
  45. Malomouzh A, Mukhtarov M, Nikolsky E. Role of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the control of the intensity of nonquantal acetylcholine release from rat motor nerve endings. Dokl Biol Sci. 2007;414:180-2 pubmed
  46. Ohno Shosaku T, Hashimotodani Y, Ano M, Takeda S, Tsubokawa H, Kano M. Endocannabinoid signalling triggered by NMDA receptor-mediated calcium entry into rat hippocampal neurons. J Physiol. 2007;584:407-18 pubmed
    ..These data clearly indicate that the activation of NMDA receptors facilitates the endocannabinoid release either alone or in concert with the G(q)-coupled receptors. ..
  47. Cruzblanca H. An M2-like muscarinic receptor enhances a delayed rectifier K+ current in rat sympathetic neurones. Br J Pharmacol. 2006;149:441-9 pubmed
    ..The muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M (Oxo-M) enhanced IKV by approximately 46% relative to its basal value...
  48. Gralewicz S. Behavioral sensitization to amphetamine induced by a single i.p. dose of oxotremorine in the rat. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2002;62:93-8 pubmed
    ..To attain this purpose, male rats were pretreated once with 0.00, 0.135, 0.27 or 0.55 mg/kg of oxotremorine, a muscarinic agonist, and challenged 15 days later with 1.0 mg/kg dose of AMPH...
  49. Del Giudice M, Mustazza C, Borioni A, Gatta F, Tayebati K, Amenta F, et al. Synthesis of 1-methyl-5-(pyrazol-3- and -5-yl- and 1, 2, 4-triazol-3- and 5-yl)-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine derivatives and their evaluation as muscarinic receptor ligands. Arch Pharm (Weinheim). 2003;336:143-54 pubmed
    ..Compounds 5 l and 6 i good M(1) and M(3) antagonistic properties in vitro and were devoid of cholinergic side effects in vivo. ..
  50. Postlethwaite M, Constanti A. Evidence for the involvement of G-proteins in the generation of the slow poststimulus afterdepolarisation (sADP) induced by muscarinic receptor activation in rat olfactory cortical neurones in vitro. Brain Res. 2003;978:124-35 pubmed
    ..b>Oxotremorine-M (OXO-M; 10 microM) produced a reversible slow depolarisation, an increase in R(N) ( approximately 90%) and ..
  51. Tryba A, Pena F, Lieske S, Viemari J, Thoby Brisson M, Ramirez J. Differential modulation of neural network and pacemaker activity underlying eupnea and sigh-breathing activities. J Neurophysiol. 2008;99:2114-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that timing and amplitude characteristics of fictive eupneic and sigh rhythms are set by the same set of pacemakers that are tuned by changes in the neuromodulatory state. ..
  52. Thor K, Muhlhauser M, Sauerberg P, Shannon H, Springer J. Central muscarinic inhibition of lower urinary tract nociception. Brain Res. 2000;870:126-34 pubmed
    ..e. activation of a nociceptive vesicoanal reflex). Oxotremorine (a muscarinic agonist) and (-)butylthio[2.2...
  53. Yang T, Pei J, Yang S, Liu Z, Sun R. Medical prevention of space motion sickness--animal model of therapeutic effect of a new medicine on motion sickness. Adv Space Res. 2002;30:751-5 pubmed
    ..01). (3) PMPA could inhibit tremor evoked by oxotremorine or by nicotine-procaine in rats like SCOP, and play an important role in the antagonism to central M-choline ..