pentolinium tartrate


Summary: A nicotinic antagonist that has been used as a ganglionic blocking agent in hypertension.

Top Publications

  1. Methvin J, Martin J. Cardiovascular responses evoked by carbachol microinjection into the posterior hypothalamus involves ganglionic nicotinic and muscarinic mechanisms. J Auton Pharmacol. 1998;18:177-87 pubmed
    ..The sympathoexcitation involves nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in autonomic ganglia. ..
  2. Woods R, Smolich J. Regional blood flow effects of ANP in conscious dogs: preferential gastrointestinal vasoconstriction. Am J Physiol. 1991;261:H1961-9 pubmed
    ..Thus our results in conscious dogs demonstrate that alpha-hANP causes a systemic vasoconstriction, most pronounced in the GI region. ..
  3. Rodríguez Gómez I, Baca Y, Moreno J, Wangensteen R, Pérez Abud R, Payá J, et al. Role of sympathetic tone in BSO-induced hypertension in mice. Am J Hypertens. 2010;23:882-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Acute pentolinium produced a greater percentage MAP (control, 43 +/- 4.2; BSO-10, 66 +/- 4.5) and HR decrease in BSO-treated mice vs. controls. Sympathetic tone plays a major role in the increased BP and HR of BSO hypertensive mice. ..
  4. Moriguchi S, Ohzuru N, Koga N, Honda K, Saito R, Takano Y, et al. Central administration of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor causes pressor responses via the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system in Wistar rats. Neurosci Lett. 1998;245:109-12 pubmed
    ..v). These results suggest that the response of the blood pressure to L-NAME is mediated by both the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system. ..
  5. Fortaleza E, Scopinho A, Correa F. Cardiovascular responses to microinjection of noradrenaline into the medial amygdaloid nucleus of conscious rats result from ??-receptor activation and vasopressin release. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;33:1677-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results show that microinjection of NA into the MeA of conscious rats activates local ??-adrenoceptors, evoking pressor and bradycardic responses, which are mediated by vasopressin release. ..
  6. Fujii T, Kurata H, Takaoka M, Muraoka T, Fujisawa Y, Shokoji T, et al. The role of renal sympathetic nervous system in the pathogenesis of ischemic acute renal failure. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003;481:241-8 pubmed
  7. Alves F, Crestani C, Resstel L, Correa F. Cardiovascular effects of carbachol microinjected into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of the rat brain. Brain Res. 2007;1143:161-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, results suggest that microinjection of CBH in the BST activates local M(2)-muscarinic receptor evoking pressor and bradycardiac responses, which are mediated by acute vasopressin release into circulation. ..
  8. Atkinson J, Sautel M, Sonnay M, Fluckiger J, de Rivaz J, Boillat N, et al. Greater vasodepressor sensitivity to nicardipine in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) compared to normotensive rats. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1988;337:471-6 pubmed
    ..This suggests that hypertension may be accompanied by an increase in the sensitivity of peripheral resistance beds to calcium entry blockers. ..
  9. Matsumura K, Abe I, Tsuchihashi T, Fujishima M. Central effects of leptin on cardiovascular and neurohormonal responses in conscious rabbits. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2000;278:R1314-20 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that intracerebroventricular leptin acts in the central nervous system and activates sympathoadrenal outflow, resulting in increases in arterial pressure and plasma glucose levels in conscious rabbits...

More Information


  1. Lin Y, Matsumura K, Fukuhara M, Kagiyama S, Fujii K, Iida M. Ghrelin acts at the nucleus of the solitary tract to decrease arterial pressure in rats. Hypertension. 2004;43:977-82 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that ghrelin acts at the nucleus of the solitary tract to suppress sympathetic activity and to decrease arterial pressure in rats. ..
  2. Subramanian S, Vollmer R. Sympathetic activation by fenfluramine depletes brown adipose tissue norepinephrine content in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2002;73:639-45 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, NE depletion by FEN could be blocked with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg ip) pretreatment, indicating that the action of FEN is mediated through the release of serotonin. ..
  3. Smith D, Day T. Catecholamine and oxytocin cells respond to hypovolaemia as well as hypotension. Neuroreport. 2003;14:1493-5 pubmed
  4. Rechtman M, King R, Boura A. Hypothermia augments non-cholinergic neuronal bronchoconstriction in pithed guinea-pigs. Eur J Pharmacol. 1991;201:69-74 pubmed
    ..The data support previous conclusions regarding the role of Na+/K+ activated ATPase in temperature-induced changes in sensitivity to bronchoconstrictor stimuli. ..
  5. Abegaz B, Davern P, Jackson K, Nguyen Huu T, Bassi J, Connelly A, et al. Cardiovascular role of angiotensin type1A receptors in the nucleus of the solitary tract of mice. Cardiovasc Res. 2013;100:181-91 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests a novel mechanism by which the NTS may modulate MAP in the long-term via AT1A receptors. ..
  6. Bravo G, Hong E, Rojas G, Guizar Sahagun G. Sympathetic blockade significantly improves cardiovascular alterations immediately after spinal cord injury in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2002;319:95-8 pubmed
    ..Likewise, propranolol and pentolinium completely abolished the effects in HR. These data suggest that the early cardiovascular alterations secondary to SCI results from an increased parasympathetic activity and a sympathetic withdrawal. ..
  7. Kubo T, Katsumata Y, Fukumori R, Taguchi K, Hagiwara Y. Central nicotinic receptor blockade inhibits emotionally conditioned pressor responses in rats. Experientia. 1996;52:348-52 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with the possibility that central nicotinic receptors play a role in the expression of the emotionally conditioned pressor response in rats...
  8. Jablonskis L, Howe P. Vasopressin compensates for acute loss of sympathetic pressor tone in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1993;20:380-3 pubmed
    ..This tends to mask the loss of sympathetic mediated pressor tone after ganglion blockade.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  9. Garcia Pelosi G, Fiacadori Tavares R, Barros Parron Fernandes K, Morgan Aguiar Corrêa F. Cardiovascular effects of noradrenaline microinjection into the medial part of the superior colliculus of unanesthetized rats. Brain Res. 2009;1290:21-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, results indicate that stimulation of noradrenergic receptors in the SC causes cardiovascular responses which are mediated by activation of both neural and adrenal sympathetic nervous system components. ..
  10. Sedy J, Zicha J, Kunes J, Hejcl A, Sykova E. The role of nitric oxide in the development of neurogenic pulmonary edema in spinal cord-injured rats: the effect of preventive interventions. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;297:R1111-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, nitric oxide has a partial protective effect on NPE development because it attenuates sympathetic vasoconstriction and consequent baroreflex-induced bradycardia following spinal cord injury. ..
  11. Bachelard H, Gardiner S, Bennett T. Cardiovascular responses elicited by chemical stimulation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla in conscious, unrestrained rats. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1990;31:185-90 pubmed
  12. Kushiku K, Yamada H, Shibata K, Tokunaga R, Katsuragi T, Furukawa T. Upregulation of immunoreactive angiotensin II release and angiotensinogen mRNA expression by high-frequency preganglionic stimulation at the canine cardiac sympathetic ganglia. Circ Res. 2001;88:110-6 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that an intrinsic angiotensin I-converting enzyme-dependent angiotensin system exists in the cardiac sympathetic ganglia, which is activated by high-frequency preganglionic stimulation. ..
  13. Rioux F, Lemieux M. Haemodynamic and abdominal motor reflexes elicited by neurotensin in anaesthetized guinea-pigs. Br J Pharmacol. 1992;106:187-95 pubmed
    ..The nature and time-response characteristics of the reflexes caused by i.p. NT, raise the possibility that i.p. NT is a noxious stimulus, at least in guinea-pigs. ..
  14. Rioux F, Lemieux M, Kérouac R, Bernoussi A, Roy G. Local application of neurotensin to abdominal organs triggers cardiovascular reflexes in guinea pigs: possible mechanisms. Peptides. 1989;10:647-55 pubmed
  15. Gardiner S, Bennett T, Compton A. Regional haemodynamic effects of neuropeptide Y, vasopressin and angiotensin II in conscious, unrestrained, Long Evans and Brattleboro rats. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1988;24:15-27 pubmed
    ..It is feasible that, in the intact rat, AII stimulated adrenal medullary adrenal release which caused beta-adrenoceptor-mediated vasodilatation that acted to offset the direct vasoconstrictor effects of AII. ..
  16. Pelosi G, Correa F. Cardiovascular effects of noradrenaline microinjected into the dorsal periaqueductal gray area of unanaesthetized rats. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22:3188-94 pubmed
    ..v. pretreatment with the vasopressin antagonist dTyr(CH2)5(Me)AVP. The results suggest that activation of noradrenergic receptors within the dPAG can evoke pressor responses, which are mediated by acute vasopressin release. ..
  17. Anderson W, Ramsey D, Takata M. Development of hypertension from unilateral renal artery stenosis in conscious dogs. Hypertension. 1990;16:441-51 pubmed
    ..Thus, the hypertension was due at all times to reduced peripheral conductance, with the two kidneys responsible for 40% of this reduced conductance. ..
  18. Matsumura K, Tsuchihashi T, Abe I. Central human cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide 55-102 increases arterial pressure in conscious rabbits. Hypertension. 2001;38:1096-100 pubmed
  19. Pertwee R, Hedley D, McQueen A, Gentleman S. The hypothermic response of mice to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol is enhanced by chlorpromazine, thioxanthenes, alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists and pentolinium but not by SCH 23390 or sulpiride. Neuropharmacology. 1988;27:149-55 pubmed
    ..The present data also support the hypothesis that flupentixol and piflutixol interacted with THC not by antagonizing dopamine at D1 or D2 receptors but rather by blocking alpha-adrenoceptors...
  20. Foo M, Burton B, Ahmed R. Phaeochromocytoma. Br J Hosp Med. 1995;54:318-21 pubmed
    ..Pharmacological mismanagement can cause fatal hypertensive crisis. ..
  21. Branch C, Knuepfer M. Causes of differential cardiovascular sensitivity to cocaine. I: Studies in conscious rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994;269:674-83 pubmed
    ..Amphetamine (1 mg/kg) elicited smaller pressor responses but still evoked a net decrease in cardiac output in responders.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  22. Gardiner S, Bennett T, O Neill T. Synthetic capsaicin reversibly impairs vasopressin-mediated blood pressure recovery. Am J Physiol. 1989;257:R1429-35 pubmed
    ..By extrapolation from other studies of capsaicin, damage to some central neurons may also be involved. ..
  23. Del Monte M, Omini C, Subissi A. Ganglion-blocking agents enhance neurally mediated bronchoconstriction in the guinea-pig: possible role of sensory neuropeptides. Eur J Pharmacol. 1990;180:239-45 pubmed
    The effect of ganglion blockade by hexamethonium bromide (0.1-100 and pentolinium tartrate (0.01-3 on the bronchoconstriction induced by vagal nerve stimulation (15 Hz, 0...
  24. Ganguly P, Sherwood G. Noradrenaline turnover and metabolism in myocardium following aortic constriction in rats. Cardiovasc Res. 1991;25:579-85 pubmed
    ..Noradrenaline turnover and metabolism are altered soon after imposing increased workload on heart. Whether or not the changes in the sympathetic activity are a prerequisites for hypertrophy still remains to be seen. ..
  25. Wynter Adams D, Simon O, Gossell Williams M, West M. Isolation of a muscarinic alkaloid with ocular hypotensive action from Trophis racemosa. Phytother Res. 1999;13:670-4 pubmed
    ..6 microg/mL), but nicotine-induced contractions were inhibited by these ganglionic blockers. These results suggest that a muscarinic alkaloid from Trophis racemosa produced ocular hypotension via M(3) receptor stimulation in dogs. ..
  26. Anderson W, Shweta A, Evans R, Edgley A, Gao Y. Total peripheral resistance responsiveness during the development of secondary renal hypertension in dogs. J Hypertens. 2007;25:649-62 pubmed
    ..There was no evidence of vascular amplification of the effects of vasoconstrictor agents, indicating that this did not play a role in the development of hypertension. ..
  27. Chan Y, Orie N, Dyson A, Taylor V, Stidwill R, Clapp L, et al. Inhibition of vascular adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels by sympathetic tone during sepsis. Crit Care Med. 2012;40:1261-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This may explain, at least in part, the reduced efficacy of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel blockers in human septic shock. ..
  28. Jackson K, Marques F, Watson A, Palma Rigo K, Nguyen Huu T, Morris B, et al. A novel interaction between sympathetic overactivity and aberrant regulation of renin by miR-181a in BPH/2J genetically hypertensive mice. Hypertension. 2013;62:775-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that renal hyperinnervation and enhanced sympathetically induced renin synthesis mediated by lower micro-RNA-181a contributes to hypertension in BPH/2J mice. ..
  29. Chiu E, McNeill J. Role of autonomic function in the antihypertensive effect of vasopressin withdrawal in spontaneous hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 1992;5:187-92 pubmed
    ..6 to 100 +/- 2.9 mm Hg) and WKY (from 76 +/- 2.7 to 75 +/- 2.6 mm Hg). The results suggest that an intact ANS is important to the expression of the WAP in the SHR, in that the WAP may require a withdrawal of sympathetic tone. ..
  30. Hew R, Hodgkinson C, Hill S. Characterization of histamine H3-receptors in guinea-pig ileum with H3-selective ligands. Br J Pharmacol. 1990;101:621-4 pubmed
    ..5. These data suggest that the histamine receptor mediating inhibition of cholinergic neurotransmission by R-(alpha)-methylhistamine in guinea-pig ileum is the same as the H3-receptor present in rat cerebral cortex...
  31. Murakami E, Ishii J, Muneta S, Hiwada K, Kokubu T. Blood pressure elevation caused by inhibition of brain glutathione reductase. J Hypertens Suppl. 1989;7:S24-5 pubmed
    ..effects were totally abolished by pretreatment with a sympathetic ganglion blocker (4 mg pentolinium tartrate, administered subcutaneously) except for the increased ratio of glutathione disulphide to reduced ..
  32. Luk J, Ajaelo I, Wong V, Wong J, Chang D, Chou L, et al. Role of V1 receptors in the action of vasopressin on the baroreflex control of heart rate. Am J Physiol. 1993;265:R524-9 pubmed
    ..0 +/- 2.2 to 63.8 +/- 2.2 mmhg (p < 0.05).(abstract truncated at 250 words) ..
  33. Yamaguchi N. Implication of L-type Ca2+ channels in noncholinergic adrenal catecholamine secretion by endothelin-1 in vivo. Am J Physiol. 1995;269:R287-93 pubmed
    ..The study suggests the existence of noncholinergic mechanisms involved in the secretory action of ET on the adrenal medulla in the dog in vivo. ..
  34. Hebden R, Bennett T, Gardiner S. Pressor sensitivities to vasopressin, angiotensin II, or methoxamine in diabetic rats. Am J Physiol. 1987;253:R726-34 pubmed
  35. May C, Whitehead C, Heslop K, Mathias C. Evidence that intravenous morphine stimulates central opiate receptors to increase sympatho-adrenal outflow and cause hypertension in conscious rabbits. Clin Sci (Lond). 1989;76:431-7 pubmed
    ..Vasopressin release is not involved in the hypertensive response to morphine. The effects of morphine appear to result from stimulation of central opiate receptors leading to enhanced sympathoadrenal outflow. ..
  36. Foulkes R, Gardiner S, Bennett T. Exogenous corticosterone acetate attenuates the hypotension induced by ganglion blockade in conscious Long Evans and Brattleboro rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1987;243:1048-54 pubmed
  37. Staszewska Woolley J, Nolan P, Luk D. Studies of reflexogenic effects of capsaicin and neuropeptides on neural afferents in the dog parietal pericardium. Neuropeptides. 1991;20:191-200 pubmed
  38. Rioux F, Lemieux M, Roy G. Capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents are involved in the hypotensive effect of neurotensin in ganglion-blocked guinea pigs. Peptides. 1989;10:1033-40 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words) ..
  39. Gardiner S, Bennett T. Interactions between neural mechanisms, the renin-angiotensin system and vasopressin in the maintenance of blood pressure during water deprivation: studies in Long Evans and Brattleboro rats. Clin Sci (Lond). 1985;68:647-57 pubmed
    ..However, evidence was obtained that vasopressin may exert important effects on cardiovascular regulation via neural mechanisms and through interactions with the renin-angiotensin system. ..
  40. Moretti J, Burke S, Evans R, Lambert G, Head G. Enhanced responses to ganglion blockade do not reflect sympathetic nervous system contribution to angiotensin II-induced hypertension. J Hypertens. 2009;27:1838-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Enhanced depressor responses to ganglion blockade in AngII hypertension do not reflect augmented SNS activity, but rather, augmented sympathetic vasoconstriction mediated by a vascular amplifier effect. ..
  41. Pelosi G, Tavares R, Antunes Rodrigues J, Correa F. Cardiovascular responses to noradrenaline microinjection in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray of unanesthetized rats. J Neurosci Res. 2008;86:712-9 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that activation of noradrenergic synapses within the vlPAG modulates vasopressin release in unanesthetized rats. ..
  42. McBryde F, Guild S, Barrett C, Osborn J, Malpas S. Angiotensin II-based hypertension and the sympathetic nervous system: the role of dose and increased dietary salt in rabbits. Exp Physiol. 2007;92:831-40 pubmed
    ..The depressor response to the ganglionic blocker pentolinium tartrate (5 mg kg(-1)) was used to assess pressor sympathetic drive on days 0, 7 and 21 of a 20 or 50 ng kg(-1) min(-..
  43. Kunes J, Dobesova Z, Zicha J. Altered balance of main vasopressor and vasodepressor systems in rats with genetic hypertension and hypertriglyceridaemia. Clin Sci (Lond). 2002;102:269-77 pubmed
    ..The altered balance between enhanced SNS-dependent vasoconstriction and unchanged NO-dependent vasodilation ('relative NO deficiency' in rats with high BP) might result in BP elevation in this form of genetic hypertension. ..
  44. Hojna S, Kadlecová M, Dobesova Z, Valousková V, Zicha J, Kunes J. The participation of brain NO synthase in blood pressure control of adult spontaneously hypertensive rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007;297:21-9 pubmed
    ..Our data do not support the hypothesis that altered brain NO formation contributes to sympathetic hyperactivity and high BP of adult SHR with established hypertension. ..
  45. Ueno T, Tremblay J, Kunes J, Zicha J, Dobesova Z, Pausova Z, et al. Resolving the composite trait of hypertension into its pharmacogenetic determinants by acute pharmacological modulation of blood pressure regulatory systems. J Mol Med (Berl). 2003;81:51-60 pubmed
    ..This pharmocogenetic approach enabled us to determine the main causative acute BP regulatory systems and should lead to better selection of suitable antihypertensive drugs for individual patients. ..
  46. Lin Y, Tsuchihashi T, Matsumura K, Abe I, Iida M. Central cardiovascular action of urotensin II in conscious rats. J Hypertens. 2003;21:159-65 pubmed
    ..05). Central urotensin II produces pressor and tachycardic responses through sympathetic activation, while peripheral urotensin II exerts a vasodilation-mediated depressor response in conscious rats. ..
  47. Kurihara J, Takata Y, Suzuki S, Okubo Y, Kato H. Effect of midodrine on chlorpromazine-induced orthostatic hypotension in rabbits: comparison with amezinium, etilefrine and droxidopa. Biol Pharm Bull. 2000;23:1445-9 pubmed
    ..Midodrine may be useful to protect patients with impaired baroreflex activity from accidental orthostatic hypotension during treatment with neuroleptics...
  48. Dobesová Z, Kunes J, Zicha J. The altered balance between sympathetic nervous system and nitric oxide in salt hypertensive Dahl rats: ontogenetic and F2 hybrid studies. J Hypertens. 2002;20:945-55 pubmed
    ..The findings obtained in our young salt-loaded F2 population also confirm the major importance of both sympathetic hyperactivity and relative NO deficiency for the maintenance of salt hypertension in Dahl rats. ..
  49. Lin Y, Matsumura K, Tsuchihashi T, Abe I, Iida M. Chronic central infusion of orexin-A increases arterial pressure in rats. Brain Res Bull. 2002;57:619-22 pubmed
  50. Zicha J, Dobesova Z, Kunes J. Antihypertensive mechanisms of chronic captopril or N-acetylcysteine treatment in L-NAME hypertensive rats. Hypertens Res. 2006;29:1021-7 pubmed
    ..Chronic captopril treatment prevented L-NAME hypertension by lowering of sympathetic tone, whereas chronic NAC treatment attenuated L-NAME hypertension by reduction in the vasodilator deficit due to enhanced NO-dependent vasodilation. ..
  51. Ueno T, Tremblay J, Kunes J, Zicha J, Dobesova Z, Pausova Z, et al. Gender-specific genetic determinants of blood pressure and organ weight: pharmacogenetic approach. Physiol Res. 2003;52:689-700 pubmed
    ..Concordance of the identified locus for KW/BW and BP through the SNS on Chr8 with the PKD locus revealed the importance of this region for renal complications in various diseases. ..
  52. Kooner J, May C, Peart S, Mathias C. Separation of peripheral and central cardiovascular actions of angiotensin II. Am J Physiol. 1997;273:H2620-6 pubmed
    ..Our results separate, in conscious rabbits, the direct vascular effects of ANG II from its indirect vascular actions, which are mediated by central sympathetic stimulation in the brain. ..
  53. Tomlinson K, Gardiner S, Bennett T. Blood pressure in streptozotocin-treated Brattleboro and Long-Evans rats. Am J Physiol. 1990;258:R852-9 pubmed
    ..In the presence of captopril and the ganglion blocker, pentolinium tartrate, the AVP-mediated recovery in BP was impaired in STZ-treated Long-Evans rats...