Summary: A long-acting calcium-blocking agent with significant anti-anginal activity. The drug produces significant coronary vasodilation and modest peripheral effects. It has antihypertensive and selective anti-arrhythmia activities and acts as a calmodulin antagonist.

Top Publications

  1. Sato T, Costa A, Saito T, Ogura T, Ishida H, Garlid K, et al. Bepridil, an antiarrhythmic drug, opens mitochondrial KATP channels, blocks sarcolemmal KATP channels, and confers cardioprotection. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006;316:182-8 pubmed
    b>Bepridil, which is clinically useful in the treatment of arrhythmias, has been reported to inhibit sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K(+) (sarcK(ATP)) channels...
  2. Murakami M, Nakamura K, Kusano K, Morita H, Nakagawa K, Tanaka M, et al. Efficacy of low-dose bepridil for prevention of ventricular fibrillation in patients with Brugada syndrome with and without SCN5A mutation. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2010;56:389-95 pubmed publisher
    It has been reported that bepridil prevents ventricular fibrillation (VF) in patients with Brugada syndrome, but the comparative efficacy with and without mutation in the SCN5A gene has not been elucidated...
  3. Takanari H, Honjo H, Takemoto Y, Suzuki T, Kato S, Harada M, et al. Bepridil facilitates early termination of spiral-wave reentry in two-dimensional cardiac muscle through an increase of intercellular electrical coupling. J Pharmacol Sci. 2011;115:15-26 pubmed
    b>Bepridil is effective for conversion of atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm and in the treatment of drug-refractory ventricular tachyarrhythmias...
  4. Sarajärvi T, Lipsanen A, Mäkinen P, Peräniemi S, Soininen H, Haapasalo A, et al. Bepridil decreases A? and calcium levels in the thalamus after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. J Cell Mol Med. 2012;16:2754-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated whether the non-selective calcium channel blocker bepridil, which also inhibits ?-secretase cleavage of APP, affects thalamic accumulation of A? and calcium and in turn ..
  5. Wang X, Li M, Sykes B. Structure of the regulatory N-domain of human cardiac troponin C in complex with human cardiac troponin I147-163 and bepridil. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:31124-33 pubmed "open" conformational transition occurs in the regulatory domain upon binding cTnI(147-163) or bepridil. This raises the question of whether cTnI(147-163) and bepridil compete for cNTnC.Ca(2+)...
  6. Nawada T, Tanaka Y, Hisatome I, Sasaki N, Ohtahara A, Kotake H, et al. Mechanism of inhibition of the sodium current by bepridil in guinea-pig isolated ventricular cells. Br J Pharmacol. 1995;116:1775-80 pubmed
    1. Effects of bepridil, a sodium-, calcium-, and potassium-antagonistic agent, on the Na+ current were studied by the whole cell voltage clamp technique (tip resistance = 0.5 MOhm, [Na]i and [Na]o 10 mmol l-1 at 20 degrees C). 2...
  7. Fujiki A, Tsuneda T, Sugao M, Mizumaki K, Inoue H. Usefulness and safety of bepridil in converting persistent atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm. Am J Cardiol. 2003;92:472-5 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of bepridil (a multichannel blocker including several potassium channels) for conversion of long-lasting atrial fibrillation (AF)...
  8. Fukaya H, Niwano S, Satoh D, Masaki Y, Niwano H, Kojima J, et al. Inhomogenic effect of bepridil on atrial electrical remodeling in a canine rapid atrial stimulation model. Circ J. 2008;72:318-26 pubmed
    The antiarrhythmic or reverse remodeling effects of bepridil, a multi-ion channel blocker, have been recently reported, but inhomogeneity of the electrical remodeling and effects of bepridil have been observed in previous reports...
  9. Sanchez A, Thomas D, Gillespie E, Damoiseaux R, Rogers J, Saxe J, et al. Amiodarone and bepridil inhibit anthrax toxin entry into host cells. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:2403-11 pubmed
    ..identified, and we report here on the characterization of the two most potent antitoxic compounds, amiodarone and bepridil. These drugs are used to treat cardiac arrhythmia or angina in humans at doses similar to those that provide ..

More Information


  1. Mitterreiter S, Page R, Kamp F, Hopson J, Winkler E, Ha H, et al. Bepridil and amiodarone simultaneously target the Alzheimer's disease beta- and gamma-secretase via distinct mechanisms. J Neurosci. 2010;30:8974-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified two drugs, bepridil and amiodarone, that are weak bases and are in clinical use as calcium antagonists...
  2. Nishida K, Fujiki A, Sakamoto T, Iwamoto J, Mizumaki K, Hashimoto N, et al. Bepridil reverses atrial electrical remodeling and L-type calcium channel downregulation in a canine model of persistent atrial tachycardia. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2007;18:765-72 pubmed
    This study tested whether bepridil, a multichannel blocker, would reverse electrical remodeling induced by persistent atrial tachycardia...
  3. Hwang B, Kim H, Lee J, Hong Y, Ro J, Lee K, et al. Antioxidant benzoylated flavan-3-ol glycoside from Celastrus orbiculatus. J Nat Prod. 2001;64:82-4 pubmed
    ..The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, and compound 1 and its aglycon, (-)-epicatechin-3-benzoate (2), were found to be moderately active as antioxidants in the DPPH assay. ..
  4. Yoshida T, Niwano S, Inuo K, Saito J, Kojima J, Ikeda Murakami K, et al. Bepridil prevents paroxysmal atrial fibrillation by a class III antiarrhythmic drug effect. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2003;26:314-7 pubmed
    corrected] Bepridil, a multiple ion-channel blocker, has been reported to prevent paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). The f-f interval of PAF during treatment with bepridil versus class Ic antiarrhythmic drugs was compared...
  5. Seifert T, Zschornig O, Arnhold J, Arnold K. Beta-blockers inhibit the modification of low-density lipoproteins by sodium hypochlorite in vitro. Chem Phys Lipids. 1997;85:13-21 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of LDL modification in vivo by beta-blockers may reduce the risk of atherosclerosis and, therefore, compensate for the cholesterol-raising effect of these drugs in human plasma...
  6. Sadanaga T, Ogawa S. Bepridil produces prominent bradycardia-dependent QT prolongation in patients with structural heart disease. J Electrocardiol. 2007;40:426-31 pubmed
    The aim of the present study is to elucidate the effect of bepridil on heart rate-dependent QT prolongation in patients with or without structural heart disease...
  7. Abe N, Sugimoto O, Arakawa T, Tanji K, Hirota A. Sorbicillinol, a key intermediate of bisorbicillinoid biosynthesis in Trichoderma sp. USF-2690. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001;65:2271-9 pubmed
  8. Niwano S, Sasaki T, Kurokawa S, Kiryu M, Fukaya H, Hatakeyama Y, et al. Predicting the efficacy of antiarrhythmic agents for interrupting persistent atrial fibrillation according to spectral analysis of the fibrillation waves on the surface ECG. Circ J. 2009;73:1210-8 pubmed
    ..The 59 patients with PAF were randomly assigned to pilsicainide (150 mg/day) or bepridil (200 mg/day) therapy for 4 weeks under optimal anticoagulation therapy...
  9. Kobayashi S, Reien Y, Ogura T, Saito T, Masuda Y, Nakaya H. Inhibitory effect of bepridil on hKv1.5 channel current: comparison with amiodarone and E-4031. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001;430:149-57 pubmed
    Effects of bepridil on the depolarization-activated outward K(+) currents (I(out)) in rat atrial myocytes and the human cardiac K(+) (hKv1...
  10. Van Amsterdam F, Punt N, Haas M, Zaagsma J. Stereoisomers of calcium antagonists distinguish a myocardial and vascular mode of protection against cardiac ischemic injury. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1990;15:198-204 pubmed
    Concentration-dependent effects of the enantiomers of the calcium antagonists, gallopamil, diltiazem, and bepridil have been studied in the Langendorff-perfused rat heart, subjected to 30 min of global ischemia...
  11. Kweon M, Hwang H, Sung H. Identification and antioxidant activity of novel chlorogenic acid derivatives from bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis). J Agric Food Chem. 2001;49:4646-55 pubmed
    ..0%). On the other hand, other compounds including 1, 2, chlorogenic acid, and other antioxidants were weakly active (24.8-10.1%) in the suppression of superoxide generation. ..
  12. Tamiya S, Delamere N. The influence of sodium-calcium exchange inhibitors on rabbit lens ion balance and transparency. Exp Eye Res. 2006;83:1089-95 pubmed
    ..Intact lenses were incubated up to 48 h in the presence or absence of the NCX inhibitor bepridil. Lens sodium, potassium and calcium content were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry...
  13. Masuda T, Iritani K, Yonemori S, Oyama Y, Takeda Y. Isolation and antioxidant activity of galloyl flavonol glycosides from the seashore plant, Pemphis acidula. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001;65:1302-9 pubmed
    ..The galloyl flavonoids showed more efficient activity than that of the corresponding flavonol glycosides, but not more than that of the corresponding aglycones in the three assays applied. ..
  14. Chen L, Jan C. Effect of the antianginal drug bepridil on intracellular Ca2+ release and extracellular Ca2+ influx in human neutrophils. Int Immunopharmacol. 2001;1:945-53 pubmed
    To understand more fully the effects of bepridil, an antiarrhythmic and antianginal drug, on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and systemic immune responses, its effect on intracellular Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i) in human neutrophils was ..
  15. Sugi K. [Strategy for cardiac arrhythmias in acute coronary syndrome]. Nihon Rinsho. 2006;64:729-33 pubmed
    ..Aprindine, amiodarone, or bepridil will be the choice to prevent recurrent atrial fibrillation after direct current cardioversion.
  16. Søgaard R, Ljungstrøm T, Pedersen K, Olesen S, Jensen B. KCNQ4 channels expressed in mammalian cells: functional characteristics and pharmacology. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001;280:C859-66 pubmed
    ..5 and 14 microM, respectively. The antiarrhythmic KCNQ1 channel blocker bepridil inhibited KCNQ4 with an IC(50) value of 9...
  17. Vines C, Yoshida K, Griffin F, Pillai M, Morisawa M, Yanagimachi R, et al. Motility initiation in herring sperm is regulated by reverse sodium-calcium exchange. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:2026-31 pubmed
    ..This mechanism of regulation of motility initiation may have evolved for both maintenance of immotility after spawning as well as ligand-induced motility initiation. ..
  18. Chung Y, Chang C, Chao W, Lin C, Chou S. Antioxidative activity and safety of the 50 ethanolic extract from red bean fermented by Bacillus subtilis IMR-NK1. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:2454-8 pubmed
    ..No mutagenicity or toxicity effect toward all tester strains was found in the 50% ethanolic extract of fermented red bean by means of the Ames test. The results suggested that the 50% ethanolic extract was safe in genotoxicity. ..
  19. Fossa A, Wisialowski T, Wolfgang E, Wang E, Avery M, Raunig D, et al. Differential effect of HERG blocking agents on cardiac electrical alternans in the guinea pig. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004;486:209-21 pubmed
    ..At concentrations known to be proarrhythmic, E-4031 and bepridil increased mean alternans 10 and 40 ms at pacing frequencies </=160 ms...
  20. Okumura Y, Watanabe I, Nakai T, Sugimura H, Hashimoto K, Masaki R, et al. Recurrence of atrial fibrillation after internal cardioversion of persistent atrial fibrillation: prognostic importance of electrophysiologic parameters. Circ J. 2005;69:1514-20 pubmed
    ..b>Bepridil (150-200 mg/day) and carvedilol (10 mg/day) were administered to all patients after cardioversion...
  21. Aoyama Y, Niwano S, Niwano H, Satoh A, Kishihara J, Ishikawa S, et al. Repetitive evaluation of fibrillation cycle length predicts the efficacy of bepridil for interruption of long-lasting persistent atrial fibrillation. Int Heart J. 2011;52:353-8 pubmed
    Although bepridil is effective for conversion of long-lasting persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) to sinus rhythm, it sometimes takes a long time to interrupt AF and there is no feasible index to predict its efficacy...
  22. Okawa M, Kinjo J, Nohara T, Ono M. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity of flavonoids obtained from some medicinal plants. Biol Pharm Bull. 2001;24:1202-5 pubmed
    ..The structure-activity relationships suggested that not only the numbers of hydroxy group but also the position of hydroxy group might be important for mediating potent activity. ..
  23. Dai D, Jiang J. p-Chlorobenzyltetrahydroberberine inhibits vascular smooth muscle contractions caused by Ca2+. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1998;19:543-7 pubmed
    ..Three kinds of contractions of rat thoracic aortic rings were used to compare suppression by CPU-86017, bepridil (Bep), verapamil (Ver), and nimodipine (Nim) in euthyroid- and Lev-induced hyperthyroidism rats...
  24. Takahara A, Takeda K, Hagiwara M, Tanaka H. Electrophysiological effects of the antiarrhythmic drug bepridil on the guinea-pig pulmonary vein myocardium. Biol Pharm Bull. 2013;36:311-5 pubmed
    We compared effects of the antiarrhythmic drug bepridil on the electrophysiological parameters in the isolated pulmonary vein preparation from guinea pigs with those in the left atrium...
  25. Hirota A, Taki S, Kawaii S, Yano M, Abe N. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging compounds from soybean miso and antiproliferative activity of isoflavones from soybean miso toward the cancer cell lines. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2000;64:1038-40 pubmed
    ..The antiproliferative activity of four of the isolated isoflavones toward three cancer cell lines was examined. 8-Hydroxygenistein showed the highest activity (IC50=5.2 microM) toward human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60). ..
  26. Shiotani M, Harada T, Abe J, Sawada Y, Hashimoto K, Hamada Y, et al. Practical application of guinea pig telemetry system for QT evaluation. J Toxicol Sci. 2005;30:239-47 pubmed
    ..pig using 10 reference compounds whose effects on human QT interval are well established: 8 positive references (bepridil, terfenadine, cisapride, haloperidol, pimozide, quinidine, E-4031 and thioridazine), and 2 negative references (..
  27. Dinis T, Maderia V, Almeida L. Action of phenolic derivatives (acetaminophen, salicylate, and 5-aminosalicylate) as inhibitors of membrane lipid peroxidation and as peroxyl radical scavengers. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1994;315:161-9 pubmed
    ..Such a stabilization is not possible with salicylate and is decreased in acetaminophen by an electron withdrawing effect of the p-acetyl. ..
  28. Badolo L, Rasmussen L, Hansen H, Sveigaard C. Screening of OATP1B1/3 and OCT1 inhibitors in cryopreserved hepatocytes in suspension. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2010;40:282-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The most potent inhibitors of rOatp and rOct1 were dantrolene sodium (K(i)=2 +/- 9 microM) and bepridil (K(i)=14 +/- 2 microM), respectively...
  29. Makkar R, Fromm B, Steinman R, Meissner M, Lehmann M. Female gender as a risk factor for torsades de pointes associated with cardiovascular drugs. JAMA. 1993;270:2590-7 pubmed
    ..To test the hypothesis that female prevalence is greater than expected among reported cases of torsades de pointes associated with cardiovascular drugs that prolong cardiac repolarization...
  30. Jimenez M, Escribano Cebrián J, Garcia Carmona F. Oxidation of the flavonol fisetin by polyphenol oxidase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1425:534-42 pubmed
    ..4 mM) and 4-hexylresorcinol, which behaved as a slow-binding inhibitor. The results reported show that fisetin oxidation was strictly dependent on the presence of polyphenol oxidase. ..
  31. Lipsanen A, Flunkert S, Kuptsova K, Hiltunen M, Windisch M, Hutter Paier B, et al. Non-selective calcium channel blocker bepridil decreases secondary pathology in mice after photothrombotic cortical lesion. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60235 pubmed publisher
    ..were subjected to unilateral cortical photothrombosis and treated with the non-selective calcium channel blocker bepridil (50 mg/kg, p.o., once a day) or vehicle for 28 days, starting administration 2 days after the operation...
  32. Dupont R, Goossens J, Cotelle N, Vrielynck L, Vezin H, Henichart J, et al. New bis-catechols 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem. 2001;9:229-35 pubmed
    ..5 times less potent than NDGA. The reliability of the 3-D structures with the 5-LO inhibition properties is discussed. Their antioxidant properties show that tested compounds are expected to act as redox inhibitors. ..
  33. Burits M, Asres K, Bucar F. The antioxidant activity of the essential oils of Artemisia afra, Artemisia abyssinica and Juniperus procera. Phytother Res. 2001;15:103-8 pubmed
    ..afra and J. procera were identified and then assessed for their effects in the various test systems. Finally, the qualitative and quantitative compositions of the essential oils were studied by GC-MS...
  34. Mensor L, Menezes F, Leitão G, Reis A, dos Santos T, Coube C, et al. Screening of Brazilian plant extracts for antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free radical method. Phytother Res. 2001;15:127-30 pubmed
    ..Among the partitions, the more polar ones (ethyl acetate and n-butanol) are those that generally have higher antioxidant activity (AA). ..
  35. Kikuzaki H, Hisamoto M, Hirose K, Akiyama K, Taniguchi H. Antioxidant properties of ferulic acid and its related compounds. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:2161-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicated that not only the radical scavenging activity of antioxidants, but also their affinity with lipid substrates, might be important factors in their activity. ..
  36. Magi S, Castaldo P, Carrieri G, Scorziello A, di Renzo G, Amoroso S. Involvement of Na+-Ca2+ exchanger in intracellular Ca2+ increase and neuronal injury induced by polychlorinated biphenyls in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005;315:291-6 pubmed
    ..Two rather specific sodium-calcium (Na+-Ca2+) exchanger (NCX) inhibitors, bepridil (10 microM) and KB-R7943 [2-[2-[4-(4-nitrobenzyloxy) phenyl]ethyl]isothiourea methanesulfonate] (10 microM), ..
  37. Nakazato Y, Yasuda M, Sasaki A, Iida Y, Kawano Y, Nakazato K, et al. Conversion and maintenance of sinus rhythm by bepridil in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation. Circ J. 2005;69:44-8 pubmed
    b>Bepridil has multiple ion-channel blocking effects similar to amiodarone and is expected to have anti-arrhythmic effects that are useful for the management of atrial fibrillation (AF)...
  38. Bollmann A, Husser D, Olsson S. Atrial fibrillatory frequency, atrial fibrillatory rate, or atrial cycle length--does it matter?. Am J Cardiol. 2004;94:147 pubmed
  39. Kawamura M, Munetsugu Y, Tanno K, Kobayashi Y. Carvedilol is effective and safe in combination with bepridil for persistent atrial fibrillation and decreases the QT prolongation induced by bepridil therapy. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2013;61:77-82 pubmed publisher
    ..of carvedilol for preventing the recurrence of atrial fibrillation and reducing QT prolongation induced by bepridil. We assigned 144 subjects with persistent atrial fibrillation...
  40. Fukaya H, Niwano S, Niwano H, Masaki Y, Kiryu M, Hirasawa S, et al. Combined effects of up- and downstream therapies on atrial fibrillation in a canine rapid stimulation model. Int J Cardiol. 2012;157:197-206 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the effect of combination therapy with olmesartan (Olm) and bepridil (Bep) in a canine model of AF...
  41. Kim Y, Guo Q, Packer L. Free radical scavenging activity of red ginseng aqueous extracts. Toxicology. 2002;172:149-56 pubmed
    ..1 mg/ml. Two mg/ml ginseng extracts completely scavenged superoxide radical. Ginseng extracts did not scavenge nitric oxide. The ESR data demonstrate that red ginseng aqueous extract is not a strong free radical scavenger. ..
  42. Pareja K, Chu E, Dodyk K, Richter K, Miller A. Role of the activation gate in determining the extracellular potassium dependency of block of HERG by trapped drugs. Channels (Austin). 2013;7:23-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that block of WT HERG by bepridil and terfenadine, two drugs previously shown to be trapped inside the HERG channel after the channel closes, is ..
  43. Shiga T, Hashiguchi M, Naganuma M, Suzuki A, Hagiwara N. Contributing factors to the apparent clearance of bepridil in patients with paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation: analysis using population pharmacokinetics. Ther Drug Monit. 2013;35:367-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Bepridil is used as an antiarrhythmic drug due to its class I, class III, and class IV electrophysiological properties, but it has serious adverse effects such as QT prolongation and torsade de pointes...
  44. Sugao M, Fujiki A, Nishida K, Sakabe M, Tsuneda T, Iwamoto J, et al. Repolarization dynamics in patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation: pharmacological therapy with bepridil and disopyramide. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2005;45:545-9 pubmed
    ..analyzed from 24-hour Holter ECG using an automatic analyzing system before and after pharmacological therapy (bepridil 5 and disopyramide 3). From QT-RR linear regression lines, QT intervals were determined at RR intervals of 0...
  45. Bandoniene D, Murkovic M. On-line HPLC-DPPH screening method for evaluation of radical scavenging phenols extracted from apples (Malus domestica L.). J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:2482-7 pubmed
  46. Yamaji K, Sarker K, Maruyama I, Hizukuri S. Antioxidant effects of 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose, a new natural sugar, in vitro. Planta Med. 2002;68:16-9 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that 1,5-AF might play a role in reducing the risk of atherosclerosis and may help prevent coronary heart disease. ..
  47. Kumar S, Devasagayam T, Bhushan B, Verma N. Scavenging of reactive oxygen species by chlorophyllin: an ESR study. Free Radic Res. 2001;35:563-74 pubmed
    ..The rate constant of the reaction of CHL with H2O2 was found to be 2.7 x 10(6) M-1 s-1. In conclusion, CHL has potent antioxidant ability involving scavenging of various physiologically important ROS. ..
  48. Chung H, Woo W. A quinolone alkaloid with antioxidant activity from the aleurone layer of anthocyanin-pigmented rice. J Nat Prod. 2001;64:1579-80 pubmed
    ..Physical and spectroscopic evidence has determined the structure of the compound. ..
  49. Aquino R, Morelli S, Lauro M, Abdo S, Saija A, Tomaino A. Phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of an extract of Anthuriumversicolor leaves. J Nat Prod. 2001;64:1019-23 pubmed
    ..The structures of 1-4 were determined using spectroscopic methods. ..
  50. Jan C, Tseng C. A novel action of the antianginal drug bepredil: induction of internal Ca(2+) release and external Ca(2+) influx in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2000;59:639-46 pubmed
    The effect of the antianginal drug bepridil on Ca(2+) signaling in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells was investigated by using fura-2 as a Ca(2+) probe...
  51. Pepperell J, Kommineni K, Buradagunta S, Smith P, Keefe D. Transmembrane regulation of intracellular calcium by a plasma membrane sodium/calcium exchanger in mouse ova. Biol Reprod. 1999;60:1137-43 pubmed
    ..The presence of a Na+/Ca2+ exchanger was indicated by experiments employing both bepridil, an inhibitor of Na+/Ca2+ exchange, and sodium-depleted media...
  52. Wahr P, Metzger J. Role of Ca2+ and cross-bridges in skeletal muscle thin filament activation probed with Ca2+ sensitizers. Biophys J. 1999;76:2166-76 pubmed
    ..thin filament activation by comparing the results of kinetic experiments using the Ca2+ sensitizers caffeine and bepridil. In single skinned rat soleus fibers, 30 mM caffeine produced a leftward shift in the tension-pCa relation from 6...
  53. Kim D. Antioxidative components from the aerial parts of Lactuca scariola L. Arch Pharm Res. 2001;24:427-30 pubmed
    ..Quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin, quercetin and kaempferol, together with 1beta,13-dihydrolactucin were isolated from the EtOAc soluble fraction as active ingredients. ..