Summary: An HIV protease inhibitor used in a fixed-dose combination with RITONAVIR. It is also an inhibitor of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.

Top Publications

  1. Chughlay M, Njuguna C, Cohen K, Maartens G. Acute interstitial nephritis caused by lopinavir/ritonavir in a surgeon receiving antiretroviral postexposure prophylaxis. AIDS. 2015;29:503-4 pubmed publisher
  2. Dahourou D, Amorissani Folquet M, Malateste K, Amani Bosse C, Coulibaly M, Seguin Devaux C, et al. Efavirenz-based simplification after successful early lopinavir-boosted-ritonavir-based therapy in HIV-infected children in Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire: the MONOD ANRS 12206 non-inferiority randomised trial. BMC Med. 2017;15:85 pubmed publisher
    ..But lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) syrup has many challenges in low-income countries, including limited availability, requires ..
  3. Gondrie I, Bastiaans D, Fraaij P, Driessen G, van der Knaap L, Visser E, et al. Sustained Viral Suppression in HIV-infected Children on Once-daily Lopinavir/Ritonavir in Clinical Practice. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2017;36:976-980 pubmed publisher
    The use of lopinavir/ritonavir once-daily (LPV/r QD) has not been approved for children. Good short-term clinical, virologic and immunologic outcomes have been observed in children on LPV/r QD...
  4. Bierman W, van Agtmael M, Nijhuis M, Danner S, Boucher C. HIV monotherapy with ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors: a systematic review. AIDS. 2009;23:279-91 pubmed publisher
    ..9%) patients had undetectable HIV-RNA at the end of follow-up. In the six randomized controlled trials (all lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy), the risk of therapy failure was greater on monotherapy: 121 out of 364 (33...
  5. Abgrall S, Ingle S, May M, Costagliola D, Mercie P, Cavassini M, et al. Durability of first ART regimen and risk factors for modification, interruption or death in HIV-positive patients starting ART in Europe and North America 2002-2009. AIDS. 2013;27:803-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared to efavirenz, patients on lopinavir and other protease inhibitors had higher rates of modification and interruption, on atazanavir had lower rates ..
  6. Boyd M, Kumarasamy N, Moore C, Nwizu C, Losso M, Mohapi L, et al. Ritonavir-boosted lopinavir plus nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors versus ritonavir-boosted lopinavir plus raltegravir for treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults with virological failure of a standard first-line ART regimen (S. Lancet. 2013;381:2091-9 pubmed publisher
    ..per mL) after 24 weeks or more of first-line treatment were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive ritonavir-boosted lopinavir plus two or three NtRTIs (control group) or ritonavir-boosted lopinavir plus raltegravir (raltegravir group)...
  7. Abiodun O, Akinbo J, Ojurongbe O. The effect of lopinavir/ritonavir on the antimalarial activity of artemether or artemether/lumefantrine in a mouse model of Plasmodium berghei. J Chemother. 2015;27:25-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reports the effect of lopinavir/ritonavir (LR) an antiretroviral drug on the antimalarial activity of standard dose of artemether/lumefantrine (..
  8. Svensson E, Acharya C, Clauson B, Dooley K, Karlsson M. Pharmacokinetic Interactions for Drugs with a Long Half-Life—Evidence for the Need of Model-Based Analysis. AAPS J. 2016;18:171-9 pubmed
    ..The discrepancy between the methods was also apparent for conducted trials, e.g., lopinavir/ritonavir was predicted to increased BDQ exposure 22% by NCA and 188% by model-based methods...
  9. Amani Bosse C, Dahourou D, Malateste K, Amorissani Folquet M, Coulibaly M, Dattez S, et al. Virological response and resistances over 12 months among HIV-infected children less than two years receiving first-line lopinavir/ritonavir-based antiretroviral therapy in Cote d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso: the MONOD ANRS 12206 cohort. J Int AIDS Soc. 2017;20:21362 pubmed publisher
    b>Lopinavir/ritonavir-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all HIV-infected children less than three years. However, little is known about its field implementation and effectiveness in West Africa...

More Information


  1. Du X, Kou H, Fu Q, Li Y, Zhu Z, Li T. Steady-state pharmacokinetics of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Chinese patients. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2017;10:783-788 pubmed publisher
    ..whom eight patients were treated with 300 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, 300 mg lamivudine and 400/100 mg lopinavir/ritonavir, and seven with 300 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, 300 mg lamivudine and 400 mg nevirapine...
  2. Weber V, Radeloff D, Reimers B, Salzmann Manrique E, Bader P, Schwabe D, et al. Neurocognitive development in HIV-positive children is correlated with plasma viral loads in early childhood. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e6867 pubmed publisher
    ..In total, 14 perinatally infected HIV-positive children (median age 8.24 years [range: 6.0-16.74]) receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-based ART underwent neurocognitive testing using the Wechsler Intelligence Score for Children, ..
  3. Cassim H, Otwombe K, Lazarus E, Liberty A, Gray G, Greeff O, et al. A retrospective case-cohort study comparing treatment outcomes in abacavir versus stavudine containing first line antiretroviral treatment regimens in children <3yrs old, at a paediatric programme based in Soweto, South Africa. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180645 pubmed publisher
    ..Children on abacavir/stavudine who had initiated ART at age <3 years with a regimen including lamivudine and lopinavir/ritonavir and had at least one 6 or 12 month viral load result were eligible...
  4. Prendergast A. Complications of long-term antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children. Arch Dis Child. 2013;98:245-6 pubmed publisher
  5. Xiang N, James M, Walters S, Bamford A, Foster C. Improved serum cholesterol in paediatric patients switched from suppressive lopinavir-based therapy to boosted darunavir or atazanavir: an 18-month retrospective study. HIV Med. 2014;15:635-6 pubmed publisher
  6. Svärd J, Mugusi S, Mloka D, Neogi U, Meini G, Mugusi F, et al. Drug resistance testing through remote genotyping and predicted treatment options in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infected Tanzanian subjects failing first or second line antiretroviral therapy. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178942 pubmed publisher
    ..on first-line ART occurs, a combination of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and boosted lopinavir or atazanavir is recommended...
  7. Paredes R, Tzou P, van Zyl G, Barrow G, Camacho R, Carmona S, et al. Collaborative update of a rule-based expert system for HIV-1 genotypic resistance test interpretation. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181357 pubmed publisher
    ..fumarate; the NNRTIs efavirenz, etravirine, nevirapine, and rilpivirine; the PIs atazanavir/r, darunavir/r, and lopinavir/r (with "/r" indicating pharmacological boosting with ritonavir or cobicistat); and the INSTIs dolutegravir, ..