trazodone

Summary

Summary: A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used as an antidepressive agent. It has been shown to be effective in patients with major depressive disorders and other subsets of depressive disorders. It is generally more useful in depressive disorders associated with insomnia and anxiety. This drug does not aggravate psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p309)

Top Publications

  1. Papakostas G, Fava M. A meta-analysis of clinical trials comparing the serotonin (5HT)-2 receptor antagonists trazodone and nefazodone with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for the treatment of major depressive disorder. Eur Psychiatry. 2007;22:444-7 pubmed
    ..Medline and PubMed were searched for double-blind, randomized clinical trials comparing either trazodone or nefazodone with an SSRI for the treatment of MDD...
  2. Jayaram G, Rao P. Safety of trazodone as a sleep agent for inpatients. Psychosomatics. 2005;46:367-9 pubmed
    b>Trazodone, an atypical antidepressant with relatively low anticholinergic and cardiac conduction effects, offers useful augmentation to classic antidepressant drugs, notably selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors...
  3. Munizza C, Olivieri L, Di Loreto G, Dionisio P. A comparative, randomized, double-blind study of trazodone prolonged-release and sertraline in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Curr Med Res Opin. 2006;22:1703-13 pubmed
    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of trazodone prolonged-release compared with sertraline in the treatment of patients with major depression...
  4. Dykens J, Jamieson J, Marroquin L, Nadanaciva S, Xu J, Dunn M, et al. In vitro assessment of mitochondrial dysfunction and cytotoxicity of nefazodone, trazodone, and buspirone. Toxicol Sci. 2008;103:335-45 pubmed publisher
    ..S. market in 2004 due to hepatotoxicity. Accordingly, we evaluated nefazodone, another triazolopyridine trazodone, plus the azaspirodecanedione buspirone, for cytotoxicity and effects on mitochondrial function...
  5. Winkler D, Ortner R, Pjrek E, Aschauer H, Kasper S. Trazodone-induced cardiac arrhythmias: a report of two cases. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2006;21:61-2 pubmed
  6. Rosenberg R. Sleep maintenance insomnia: strengths and weaknesses of current pharmacologic therapies. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2006;18:49-56 pubmed
    ..A literature search using the terms "trazodone" and "insomnia" was also performed, as this is the second-most commonly prescribed agent for ..
  7. Tesoro S, Vicchio N, Marchesini L, Aldo Peduto V. Sedation of children with ADHD: trazodone or midazolam?. Paediatr Anaesth. 2007;17:1008-9 pubmed
  8. Blacker R, Shanks N, Chapman N, Davey A. The drug treatment of depression in general practice: a comparison of nocte administration of trazodone with mianserin, dothiepin and amitriptyline. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1988;95 Suppl:S18-24 pubmed
    ..multicentre study was performed to assess the efficacy and tolerability of evening administration of 150 mg trazodone as an initial and maintenance therapy and to compare this regimen with recommended dosages of mianserin, ..
  9. Stein M, Kurth M, Sharkey K, Anderson B, Corso R, Millman R. Trazodone for sleep disturbance during methadone maintenance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012;120:65-73 pubmed publisher
    To test whether trazodone, one of the most commonly prescribed medications for treatment of insomnia, improves subjective and/or objective sleep among methadone-maintained persons with sleep complaints, we performed a randomized, double-..

More Information

Publications62

  1. de Meester A, Carbutti G, Gabriel L, Jacques J. Fatal overdose with trazodone: case report and literature review. Acta Clin Belg. 2001;56:258-61 pubmed
    A fatal case of suicide with trazodone alone in a 40-year-old patient is reported. Life-threatening arrhythmias, such as torsades de pointes and complete AV block, are recorded...
  2. Warner M, Dorn M, Peabody C. Survey on the usefulness of trazodone in patients with PTSD with insomnia or nightmares. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2001;34:128-31 pubmed
    b>Trazodone is commonly used in the treatment of insonmia and nightmares in patients with PTSD. There is little evidence in the literature for this practice...
  3. Stahl S. Mechanism of action of trazodone: a multifunctional drug. CNS Spectr. 2009;14:536-46 pubmed
  4. Kumar A, Garg R, Kumar P. Nitric oxide modulation mediates the protective effect of trazodone in a mouse model of chronic fatigue syndrome. Pharmacol Rep. 2008;60:664-72 pubmed
    ..conducted with the aim of elucidating the possible role of nitric oxide (NO) in the neuroprotective effects of trazodone used to treat chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in mice...
  5. Ayad M, Shalaby A, Abdellatef H, Hosny M. New colorimetric methods for the determination of trazodone HCl, famotidine, and diltiazem HCl in their pharmaceutical dosage forms. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2003;376:710-4 pubmed
    Two sensitive and simple spectrophotometric methods are developed for the determination of trazodone HCl, famotidine, and diltiazem HCl in pure and pharmaceutical preparations...
  6. Saccomani L, Rizzo P, Nobili L. Combined treatment with haloperidol and trazodone in patients with tic disorders. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2000;10:307-10 pubmed
    The combination of haloperidol and trazodone was evaluated in an open-label trial in 10 patients with chronic tic and Tourette's syndrome. We found a mean reduction of symptoms of 58...
  7. Morillas Arques P, Rodriguez Lopez C, Molina Barea R, Rico Villademoros F, Calandre E. Trazodone for the treatment of fibromyalgia: an open-label, 12-week study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2010;11:204 pubmed publisher
    Despite its frequent use as a hypnotic, trazodone has not been systematically assessed in fibromyalgia patients...
  8. Stryjer R, Strous R, Bar F, Poyurovsky M, Weizman A, Kotler M. Treatment of neuroleptic-induced akathisia with the 5-HT2A antagonist trazodone. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2003;26:137-41 pubmed
    ..b>Trazodone is an antidepressant agent demonstrating prominent serotonergic antagonistic properties...
  9. Saletu Zyhlarz G, Abu Bakr M, Anderer P, Gruber G, Mandl M, Strobl R, et al. Insomnia in depression: differences in objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality to normal controls and acute effects of trazodone. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2002;26:249-60 pubmed
    ..In a subsequent acute, placebo-controlled cross-over design study, the acute effects of 100 mg of trazodone, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor with a sedative action due to 5-HT2 and alpha1 receptor blockade, were ..
  10. Mihara K, Kondo T, Suzuki A, Yasui Furukori N, Ono S, Otani K, et al. Effects of genetic polymorphism of CYP1A2 inducibility on the steady-state plasma concentrations of trazodone and its active metabolite m-chlorophenylpiperazine in depressed Japanese patients. Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;88:267-70 pubmed
    ..a genetic polymorphism of inducibility of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 on the steady-state plasma concentrations of trazodone and its active metabolite, m-chlorophenylpiperazine, were studied in order to clarify if these steady-state ..
  11. Kraus R, Li Y, Jovanovska A, Renger J. Trazodone inhibits T-type calcium channels. Neuropharmacology. 2007;53:308-17 pubmed
    b>Trazodone is one of the most commonly prescribed medicines for treating depression and insomnia. However, the pharmacological mechanism of action underlying trazodone's unique effects is unclear...
  12. Betti L, Botta M, Corelli F, Floridi M, Fossa P, Giannaccini G, et al. alpha(1)-Adrenoceptor antagonists. Rational design, synthesis and biological evaluation of new trazodone-like compounds. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2002;12:437-40 pubmed
    ..A 1.1 nM affinity toward alpha(1)-AR was found for compound 3, the most active of this series. ..
  13. Nour El Dien F, Mohamed G, Mohamed N. Spectrophotometric determination of trazodone, amineptine and amitriptyline hydrochlorides through ion-pair formation using methyl orange and bromocresol green reagents. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2006;65:20-6 pubmed
    ..spectrophotometric procedure has been developed for the determination of tricyclic anti-depressant drugs such as trazodone (TZH), amineptine (APH) and amitriptyline (ATPH) hydrochlorides in pure form and in different dosage forms...
  14. Kasper S, Olivieri L, Di Loreto G, Dionisio P. A comparative, randomised, double-blind study of trazodone prolonged-release and paroxetine in the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder. Curr Med Res Opin. 2005;21:1139-46 pubmed
    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of trazodone prolonged release compared with paroxetine in the treatment of patients with major depression...
  15. Morin A, Jarvis C, Lynch A. Therapeutic options for sleep-maintenance and sleep-onset insomnia. Pharmacotherapy. 2007;27:89-110 pubmed
    ..include benzodiazepine and nonbenzodiazepine sedative-hypnotic agents; ramelteon, a melatonin receptor agonist; trazodone; and sedating antihistamines. Herbal and alternative preparations include melatonin and valerian...
  16. Sudhir Kumar R, Manjunatha D, Shaikh S, Seetharamappa J, Harikrishna K. Sensitive extractive spectrophotometric methods for the determination of trazodone hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2006;54:968-71 pubmed
    Two simple, rapid and sensitive extractive spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the assay of trazodone hydrochloride (TRH) in pure and pharmaceutical formulations...
  17. Detry O, Delwaide J, De Roover A, Hans M, Delbouille M, Monard J, et al. Fulminant hepatic failure induced by venlafaxine and trazodone therapy: a case report. Transplant Proc. 2009;41:3435-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Venlafaxine and trazodone are 2 popular antidepressant agents...
  18. Wichniak A, Wierzbicka A. [The effects of antidepressants on sleep in depressed patients with particular reference to trazodone in comparison to agomelatine, amitriptyline, doxepin, mianserine and mirtazapine]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2011;31:65-70 pubmed
    ..The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of trazodone on sleep in depressed patients in comparison to other sleep promoting antidepressants: agomelatine, ..
  19. Kaynak H, Kaynak D, Gözükirmizi E, Guilleminault C. The effects of trazodone on sleep in patients treated with stimulant antidepressants. Sleep Med. 2004;5:15-20 pubmed
    To evaluate the effects of trazodone on subjective and objective measures of sleep in depressed insomnia patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)...
  20. Bertschy G, Ragama Pardos E, Muscionico M, Aït Ameur A, Roth L, Osiek C, et al. Trazodone addition for insomnia in venlafaxine-treated, depressed inpatients: a semi-naturalistic study. Pharmacol Res. 2005;51:79-84 pubmed
    In this paper, we present the results of a prospective semi-naturalistic study of the addition of trazodone for insomnia to a 4 week, 300mg/day venlafaxine treatment in 50 depressed inpatients...
  21. Zavesicka L, Brunovsky M, Horacek J, Matousek M, Sos P, Krajca V, et al. Trazodone improves the results of cognitive behaviour therapy of primary insomnia in non-depressed patients. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2008;29:895-901 pubmed
    ..The present study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical efficacy of CBT, singly and combined with trazodone pharmacotherapy, for primary insomnia...
  22. Saletu B, Prause W, Anderer P, Mandl M, Aigner M, Mikova O, et al. Insomnia in somatoform pain disorder: sleep laboratory studies on differences to controls and acute effects of trazodone, evaluated by the Somnolyzer 24 x 7 and the Siesta database. Neuropsychobiology. 2005;51:148-63 pubmed
    ..Subsequent evaluation of the acute effects of 100 mg of a controlled-release formulation of trazodone (Trittico retard) in the patients demonstrated an increase in the target variable SWS, accompanied by a ..
  23. Benca R. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic insomnia: a review. Psychiatr Serv. 2005;56:332-43 pubmed
    ..used to treat insomnia (the Food and Drug Administration-approved benzodiazepines and nonbenzodiazepines, trazodone, and over-the-counter agents)...
  24. Tarantino P, Appleton N, Lansdell K. Effect of trazodone on hERG channel current and QT-interval. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005;510:75-85 pubmed
    b>Trazodone has been associated with prolonged QT-interval and increased risk of polymorphous ventricular tachycardias clinically and has demonstrated in vitro inhibition of hERG (human ether-á-go-go-related gene) channel current...
  25. Fava M. Daytime sleepiness and insomnia as correlates of depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65 Suppl 16:27-32 pubmed
    ..Finally, several different treatment options, including antidepressant monotherapy and augmentation of antidepressants with other medications, are explored. ..
  26. Sheehan D, Rozova A, Gossen E, Gibertini M. The efficacy and tolerability of once-daily controlled-release trazodone for depressed mood, anxiety, insomnia, and suicidality in major depressive disorder. Psychopharmacol Bull. 2009;42:5-22 pubmed
    b>Trazodone Contramid(R) once-a-day (TzCOAD) is a reformulation of trazodone hydrochloride that controls the release of trazodone over 24 hours...
  27. Rush C, Baker R, Wright K. Acute behavioral effects and abuse potential of trazodone, zolpidem and triazolam in humans. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1999;144:220-33 pubmed
    ..examined the acute behavioral effects and abuse potential of three drugs commonly used to treat sleep disorders, trazodone, zolpidem and triazolam, and placebo in ten male volunteers with histories of alcohol and drug abuse...
  28. Ware J, Pittard J. Increased deep sleep after trazodone use: a double-blind placebo-controlled study in healthy young adults. J Clin Psychiatry. 1990;51 Suppl:18-22 pubmed
    The effects of trazodone on sleep were compared with those of placebo and the sedating tricyclic antidepressant trimipramine in a double-blind crossover study in six healthy young men...
  29. Mendelson W. A review of the evidence for the efficacy and safety of trazodone in insomnia. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005;66:469-76 pubmed
    b>Trazodone, a triazolopyridine antidepressant, is currently the second most commonly prescribed agent for the treatment of insomnia due to its sedating qualities...
  30. Odagaki Y, Toyoshima R, Yamauchi T. Trazodone and its active metabolite m-chlorophenylpiperazine as partial agonists at 5-HT1A receptors assessed by [35S]GTPgammaS binding. J Psychopharmacol. 2005;19:235-41 pubmed
    b>Trazodone is an effective antidepressant drug with a broad therapeutic spectrum, including anxiolytic efficacy...
  31. Mohamed G, El Dien F, Mohamed N. Utility of 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane charge transfer reagent for the spectrophotometric determination of trazodone, amineptine and amitriptyline hydrochlorides. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2007;68:1244-9 pubmed
    ..spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of tricyclic anti-depressant drugs such as trazodone (TZH), amineptine (APH) and amitriptyline (ATPH) hydrochlorides in pure form and in different pharmaceutical ..
  32. Garrone B, Magnani M, Pinza M, Polenzani L. Effects of trazodone on neurotransmitter release from rat mossy fibre cerebellar synaptosomes. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000;400:35-41 pubmed
    The effects of trazodone and putative sigma (sigma) receptor ligands were investigated on KCl-stimulated release of glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from cerebellar mossy fibre synaptosomes...
  33. Kobayashi H, Endo T, Ogawa N, Nagase H, Iwata M, Ueda H. Evaluation of the interaction between ?-cyclodextrin and psychotropic drugs by surface plasmon resonance assay with a Biacore ® system. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2011;54:258-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Results showed that the analytical method using Biacore(®) was suitable to evaluate CD-drug interactions. ..
  34. Dharnidharka V, Nadeau K, Cannon C, Harris H, Rosen S. Ciprofloxacin overdose: acute renal failure with prominent apoptotic changes. Am J Kidney Dis. 1998;31:710-2 pubmed
    ..This report shows that the distal nephron can be singularly involved in acute renal failure and that electron microscopy or plastic-embedded sections may be necessary to define its involvement. ..
  35. Macri J, Iaboni A, Kirkham J, Maxwell C, Gill S, Vasudev A, et al. Association between Antidepressants and Fall-Related Injuries among Long-Term Care Residents. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2017;25:1326-1336 pubmed publisher
    ..was evident among selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, trazodone, and across multiple patient subgroups...
  36. Kem D, Posey D, McDougle C. Priapism associated with trazodone in an adolescent with autism. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2002;41:758 pubmed
  37. Karhu D, Gossen E, Mostert A, Cronje T, Fradette C. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of once-daily trazodone extended-release caplets in healthy subjects. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011;49:730-43 pubmed
    To characterize the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of an extended-release formulation of trazodone hydrochloride (HCl), Trazodone Contramid® Once-a-Day (TzCOAD) developed as scored 150-mg and 300-mg caplets for oncedaily ..
  38. Small N, Giamonna K. Interaction between warfarin and trazodone. Ann Pharmacother. 2000;34:734-6 pubmed
    ..However, few data have been supplied to guide clinicians concerning the interaction between trazodone and warfarin...
  39. Uslu B, Ozkan S. Electroanalytical characteristics of piribedil and its differential pulse and square wave voltammetric determination in pharmaceuticals and human serum. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2003;31:481-9 pubmed
    ..Excipients did not interfere in the determination. The necessary statistical validation reveals that the proposed methods are free from significant systematic errors. ..
  40. Jarema M, Dudek D, Landowski J, Heitzman J, Rabe Jabłońska J, Rybakowski J. [Trazodon--the antidepressant: mechanism of action and its position in the treatment of depression]. Psychiatr Pol. 2011;45:611-25 pubmed
    ..In the recommended dose spectrum, trazodon is well tolerated. Unwanted adverse effects of the drug appear rarely and they are: somnolence, dizziness, gastrointestinal dysfunctions, and dry mouth. ..
  41. Kalgutkar A, Henne K, Lame M, Vaz A, Collin C, Soglia J, et al. Metabolic activation of the nontricyclic antidepressant trazodone to electrophilic quinone-imine and epoxide intermediates in human liver microsomes and recombinant P4503A4. Chem Biol Interact. 2005;155:10-20 pubmed
    Therapy with the antidepressant trazodone has been associated with several cases of idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity...
  42. Hirao R, Fujita T, Sakai A, Kumamoto E. Compound action potential inhibition produced by various antidepressants in the frog sciatic nerve. Eur J Pharmacol. 2018;819:122-128 pubmed publisher
    ..23, 1.5, 0.26, 1.6 and 0.95mM, respectively. Trazodone (non-SNRI, -SSRI, -tricyclic and -tetracyclic antidepressant) at 1.0mM reduced CAP amplitude by about 50%...
  43. Saenz de Tejada I, Ware J, Blanco R, Pittard J, Nadig P, Azadzoi K, et al. Pathophysiology of prolonged penile erection associated with trazodone use. J Urol. 1991;145:60-4 pubmed
    Treatment with the antidepressant trazodone has been associated with the occurrence of prolonged penile erection and priapism...
  44. Gałecki P, Florkowski A, Talarowska M. [Efficacy of trazodone in the treatment of insomnia]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2010;28:509-12 pubmed
    ..b>Trazodone is an sedative antidepressant, acting quickly, efficiently, safely, with a small number of adverse reactions and ..
  45. Glassman A, Preud Homme X. Review of the cardiovascular effects of heterocyclic antidepressants. J Clin Psychiatry. 1993;54 Suppl:16-22 pubmed
    ..They share this property with Type 1A antiarrhythmic compounds, and a variety of Type 1 antiarrhythmics have recently been shown to increase mortality in postmyocardial infarction patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  46. Rosin R, Raskind M. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist treatment of aggression in Alzheimer's disease: a case report. Int Psychogeriatr. 2005;17:313-8 pubmed
    ..Here we describe the apparently sustained elimination of previously treatment-resistant agitation and aggression with goserelin treatment in a 78-year-old male nursing-home resident with Alzheimer's disease. ..
  47. Wen B, Ma L, Rodrigues A, Zhu M. Detection of novel reactive metabolites of trazodone: evidence for CYP2D6-mediated bioactivation of m-chlorophenylpiperazine. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008;36:841-50 pubmed publisher
    Several new glutathione adducts (M3-M7) of trazodone were tentatively identified in human liver microsomal incubations using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS)...
  48. Rojas Fernandez C, Eng M, Allie N. Pharmacologic management by clinical pharmacists of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in nursing home residents: results from a pilot study. Pharmacotherapy. 2003;23:217-21 pubmed
    ..The most commonly administered drug was trazodone at a mean dosage of 70 mg/day (range 50-100 mg/day)...
  49. Sultzer D, Gray K, Gunay I, Wheatley M, Mahler M. Does behavioral improvement with haloperidol or trazodone treatment depend on psychosis or mood symptoms in patients with dementia?. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001;49:1294-300 pubmed
    ..and mood symptoms in patients with dementia who were treated with haloperidol, an antipsychotic medication, or trazodone, a serotonergic antidepressant. Randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, 9-week treatment trial...
  50. Mitchell P. Therapeutic drug monitoring of non-tricyclic antidepressant drugs. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2004;42:1212-8 pubmed
    ..serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and other non-tricyclic antidepressants such as venlafaxine, nefazodone, trazodone, mianserin and bupropion...
  51. Coss Adame E, Erdogan A, Rao S. Treatment of esophageal (noncardiac) chest pain: an expert review. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;12:1224-45 pubmed publisher
    ..to support the use of omeprazole and fair evidence for lansoprazole, rabeprazole, theophylline, sertraline, trazodone, venlafaxine, imipramine, and cognitive behavioral therapy...
  52. Enginar N, Yamantürk Çelik P, Nurten A, Güney D. Learning and memory in the forced swimming test: effects of antidepressants having varying degrees of anticholinergic activity. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2016;389:739-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The pretest administrations of imipramine (15 and 30 mg/kg), amitriptyline (7.5 and 15 mg/kg), trazodone (10 mg/kg), fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg), and moclobemide (10 and 20 mg/kg) were ineffective, whereas ..
  53. Atkin T, Comai S, Gobbi G. Drugs for Insomnia beyond Benzodiazepines: Pharmacology, Clinical Applications, and Discovery. Pharmacol Rev. 2018;70:197-245 pubmed publisher
    ..antagonist, low-dose doxepin; and the histamine and serotonin receptor antagonists, amitriptyline, mirtazapine, trazodone, olanzapine, and quetiapine...