flecainide

Summary

Summary: A potent anti-arrhythmia agent, effective in a wide range of ventricular and atrial ARRHYTHMIAS and TACHYCARDIAS.

Top Publications

  1. Morsali D, Bechtold D, Lee W, Chauhdry S, Palchaudhuri U, Hassoon P, et al. Safinamide and flecainide protect axons and reduce microglial activation in models of multiple sclerosis. Brain. 2013;136:1067-82 pubmed publisher
    ..of safinamide on microglia/macrophages was compared with that of the classical sodium channel blocking agent, flecainide, which has no recognized monoamine oxidase B activity, and which has previously been shown to protect the white ..
  2. Shimizu W, Antzelevitch C, Suyama K, Kurita T, Taguchi A, Aihara N, et al. Effect of sodium channel blockers on ST segment, QRS duration, and corrected QT interval in patients with Brugada syndrome. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2000;11:1320-9 pubmed
    ..We examined the effects of three different Na+ channel blockers (flecainide, disopyramide, and mexiletine) on the amplitude of the ST segment 20 msec after the end of QRS (ST20), QRS ..
  3. Grant A, Chandra R, Keller C, Carboni M, Starmer C. Block of wild-type and inactivation-deficient cardiac sodium channels IFM/QQQ stably expressed in mammalian cells. Biophys J. 2000;79:3019-35 pubmed
    ..We studied the open-channel blockers disopyramide and flecainide, and the lidocaine derivative RAD-243...
  4. Caballero R, Pourrier M, Schram G, Delpón E, Tamargo J, Nattel S. Effects of flecainide and quinidine on Kv4.2 currents: voltage dependence and role of S6 valines. Br J Pharmacol. 2003;138:1475-84 pubmed
    1. The effects of flecainide and quinidine were studied on wild-type Kv4.2 channels (Kv4...
  5. Viswanathan P, Bezzina C, George A, Roden D, Wilde A, Balser J. Gating-dependent mechanisms for flecainide action in SCN5A-linked arrhythmia syndromes. Circulation. 2001;104:1200-5 pubmed
    ..Although Na channel blockade has been proposed as a treatment for LQT3, flecainide also evokes "Brugada-like" ST-segment elevation in LQT3 patients...
  6. Belhassen B, Glick A, Viskin S. Efficacy of quinidine in high-risk patients with Brugada syndrome. Circulation. 2004;110:1731-7 pubmed
    ..Randomized studies comparing these two therapies seem warranted. ..
  7. Sikkel M, Collins T, Rowlands C, Shah M, O Gara P, Williams A, et al. Flecainide reduces Ca(2+) spark and wave frequency via inhibition of the sarcolemmal sodium current. Cardiovasc Res. 2013;98:286-96 pubmed publisher
    ..There have been conflicting results regarding whether flecainide reduces Ca(2+) waves in isolated cardiomyocytes...
  8. van der Werf C, Kannankeril P, Sacher F, Krahn A, Viskin S, Leenhardt A, et al. Flecainide therapy reduces exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias in patients with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;57:2244-54 pubmed publisher
    This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of flecainide in addition to conventional drug therapy in patients with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT)...
  9. Liu N, Denegri M, Ruan Y, Avelino Cruz J, Perissi A, Negri S, et al. Short communication: flecainide exerts an antiarrhythmic effect in a mouse model of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia by increasing the threshold for triggered activity. Circ Res. 2011;109:291-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Flecainide prevents arrhythmias in catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, but the antiarrhythmic mechanism remains unresolved...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Caballero R, Dolz Gaiton P, Gomez R, Amorós I, Barana A, González de la Fuente M, et al. Flecainide increases Kir2.1 currents by interacting with cysteine 311, decreasing the polyamine-induced rectification. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:15631-6 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Flecainide, a widely used antiarrhythmic drug, exhibits ventricular proarrhythmic effects while effectively controlling ..
  2. Stokoe K, Thomas G, Goddard C, Colledge W, Grace A, Huang C. Effects of flecainide and quinidine on arrhythmogenic properties of Scn5a+/Delta murine hearts modelling long QT syndrome 3. J Physiol. 2007;578:69-84 pubmed
    ..Electrophysiological effects of flecainide and quinidine were compared in Langendorff-perfused wild-type (WT), and genetically modified (Scn5a+/Delta) ..
  3. Eckardt L, Haverkamp W, Göttker U, Madeja M, Johna R, Borggrefe M, et al. Divergent effect of acute ventricular dilatation on the electrophysiologic characteristics of d,l-sotalol and flecainide in the isolated rabbit heart. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1998;9:366-83 pubmed
    ..We therefore investigated the effects of AVD on the electrophysiologic properties of d,l-sotalol and flecainide.
  4. Anderson J, Pratt C, Waldo A, Karagounis L. Impact of the Food and Drug Administration approval of flecainide and encainide on coronary artery disease mortality: putting "Deadly Medicine" to the test. Am J Cardiol. 1997;79:43-7 pubmed
    ..b>Flecainide came to market in 1986 and encainide in 1987...
  5. Desaphy J, De Luca A, Didonna M, George A, Camerino Conte D, Luca A. Different flecainide sensitivity of hNav1.4 channels and myotonic mutants explained by state-dependent block. J Physiol. 2004;554:321-34 pubmed
    b>Flecainide, a class IC antiarrhythmic, was shown to improve myotonia caused by sodium channel mutations in situations where the class IB antiarrhythmic drug mexiletine was less efficient...
  6. Boriani G, Biffi M, Capucci A, Botto G, Broffoni T, Ongari M, et al. Conversion of recent-onset atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm: effects of different drug protocols. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1998;21:2470-4 pubmed
    ..0078 mg/kg/min in 57 patients; p.o. propafenone, 600 mg p.o. in a single dose in 119 patients; and p.o. flecainide, 300 mg p.o. in a single dose in 69 patients...
  7. Alboni P, Botto G, Baldi N, Luzi M, Russo V, Gianfranchi L, et al. Outpatient treatment of recent-onset atrial fibrillation with the "pill-in-the-pocket" approach. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:2384-91 pubmed
    In-hospital administration of flecainide and propafenone in a single oral loading dose has been shown to be effective and superior to placebo in terminating atrial fibrillation...
  8. Ting S, Lee D, Maclean D, Sheerin N. Paranoid psychosis and myoclonus: flecainide toxicity in renal failure. Cardiology. 2008;111:83-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Flecainide is a sodium channel blocker used mainly in the treatment of supraventricular arrhythmias...
  9. Liu H, Atkins J, Kass R. Common molecular determinants of flecainide and lidocaine block of heart Na+ channels: evidence from experiments with neutral and quaternary flecainide analogues. J Gen Physiol. 2003;121:199-214 pubmed
    b>Flecainide (pKa 9.3, 99% charged at pH 7.4) and lidocaine (pKa 7.6-8.0, approximately 50% neutral at pH 7.4) have similar structures but markedly different effects on Na(+) channel activity...
  10. Priori S, Napolitano C, Schwartz P, Bloise R, Crotti L, Ronchetti E. The elusive link between LQT3 and Brugada syndrome: the role of flecainide challenge. Circulation. 2000;102:945-7 pubmed
    ..Intravenous flecainide is the standard provocative test used to unmask BS in individuals with concealed forms of the disease, and oral ..
  11. Hwang H, Hasdemir C, Laver D, Mehra D, Turhan K, Faggioni M, et al. Inhibition of cardiac Ca2+ release channels (RyR2) determines efficacy of class I antiarrhythmic drugs in catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2011;4:128-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The class Ic antiarrhythmic drug flecainide blocks RyR2 channels and prevents CPVT in mice and humans...
  12. Veeraraghavan R, Poelzing S. Mechanisms underlying increased right ventricular conduction sensitivity to flecainide challenge. Cardiovasc Res. 2008;77:749-56 pubmed
    ..Right precordial electrophysiological manifestations during flecainide challenge suggest a decreased right ventricular depolarization reserve...
  13. Ramos E, O Leary M. State-dependent trapping of flecainide in the cardiac sodium channel. J Physiol. 2004;560:37-49 pubmed
    b>Flecainide is a Class I antiarrhythmic drug and a potent inhibitor of the cardiac (Nav1.5) sodium channel. Although the flecainide inhibition of Nav1...
  14. Hilliard F, Steele D, Laver D, Yang Z, Le Marchand S, Chopra N, et al. Flecainide inhibits arrhythmogenic Ca2+ waves by open state block of ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release channels and reduction of Ca2+ spark mass. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010;48:293-301 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently found that the drug flecainide inhibits RyR2 channels and prevents CPVT in mice and humans...
  15. Auzinger G, Scheinkestel C. Successful extracorporeal life support in a case of severe flecainide intoxication. Crit Care Med. 2001;29:887-90 pubmed
    ..the effectiveness of emergency extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in treating severe, life-threatening flecainide intoxication. Case report. Intensive care unit in a quaternary care center...
  16. Malfatto G, Zaza A, Facchini M. Different effects of antiarrhythmic drugs on the rate-dependency of QT interval: a study with amiodarone and flecainide. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2007;50:535-40 pubmed
    ..The analysis is now extended to the effects on the QT/RR relationship of amiodarone and flecainide, 2 widely used antiarrhythmic drugs affecting repolarization...
  17. Fornieles Pérez H, Montoya García M, Levine P, Sanz O. Documentation of acute rise in ventricular capture thresholds associated with flecainide acetate. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2002;25:871-2 pubmed
    Treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation with flecainide acetate resulted in a 4-fold increase in ventricular capture thresholds...
  18. Pellizzón O, Kalaizich L, Ptacek L, Tristani Firouzi M, Gonzalez M. Flecainide suppresses bidirectional ventricular tachycardia and reverses tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy in Andersen-Tawil syndrome. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2008;19:95-7 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we documented the favorable antiarrhythmic action of flecainide in a young woman with sustained BVT and Andersen-Tawil syndrome...
  19. Martin C, Grace A, Huang C. Spatial and temporal heterogeneities are localized to the right ventricular outflow tract in a heterozygotic Scn5a mouse model. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;300:H605-16 pubmed publisher
    ..This was accentuated by flecainide, but reduced by quinidine, in parallel with their respective pro- and anti-arrhythmic effects...
  20. Jaeggi E, Carvalho J, De Groot E, Api O, Clur S, Rammeloo L, et al. Comparison of transplacental treatment of fetal supraventricular tachyarrhythmias with digoxin, flecainide, and sotalol: results of a nonrandomized multicenter study. Circulation. 2011;124:1747-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, antiarrhythmic treatment is offered in most affected pregnancies. We compared 3 drugs commonly used to control supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) and atrial flutter (AF)...
  21. Freemantle N, Lafuente Lafuente C, Mitchell S, Eckert L, Reynolds M. Mixed treatment comparison of dronedarone, amiodarone, sotalol, flecainide, and propafenone, for the management of atrial fibrillation. Europace. 2011;13:329-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Mixed treatment comparisons (MTC) were performed to assess the relative efficacy and tolerability of the main anti-arrhythmic drugs used for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF)/flutter...
  22. Epstein A, Hallstrom A, Rogers W, Liebson P, Seals A, Anderson J, et al. Mortality following ventricular arrhythmia suppression by encainide, flecainide, and moricizine after myocardial infarction. The original design concept of the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial (CAST). JAMA. 1993;270:2451-5 pubmed
    ..To test the hypothesis that in survivors of myocardial infarction, the suppression of ventricular premature depolarizations improves survival free of cardiac arrest and arrhythmic death...
  23. Haas N, Fox S, Skinner J. Successful use of an intravenous infusion of flecainide and amiodarone for a refractory combination of postoperative junctional and ectopic tachycardias. Cardiol Young. 2005;15:427-30 pubmed
    ..Following the addition of flecainide to the infusion, we were able to control the rhythm, and when combined with atrial pacing, this led to an ..
  24. Pitzalis M, Anaclerio M, Iacoviello M, Forleo C, Guida P, Troccoli R, et al. QT-interval prolongation in right precordial leads: an additional electrocardiographic hallmark of Brugada syndrome. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;42:1632-7 pubmed
    ..or who were relatives of Brugada syndrome patients, underwent 12-lead ECG before and after the administration of flecainide. The flecainide test was negative in 14 and positive in 18 subjects...
  25. Krapp M, Baschat A, Gembruch U, Geipel A, Germer U. Flecainide in the intrauterine treatment of fetal supraventricular tachycardia. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2002;19:158-64 pubmed
    To assess the efficacy of flecainide in the intrauterine treatment of fetal supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) with 1 : 1 atrioventricular conduction...
  26. Quesada A, Sanchis J, Chorro F, Burguera M, Alberola A, Such L, et al. Changes in canine ventricular fibrillation threshold induced by verapamil, flecainide and bretylium. Eur Heart J. 1993;14:712-6 pubmed
    The changes produced by verapamil, bretylium and flecainide in both ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT) and ventricular repetitive response threshold (VRRT) were studied in 20 closed-chest dogs anaesthetized with pentobarbital...
  27. Ranger S, Sheldon R, Fermini B, Nattel S. Modulation of flecainide's cardiac sodium channel blocking actions by extracellular sodium: a possible cellular mechanism for the action of sodium salts in flecainide cardiotoxicity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993;264:1160-7 pubmed
    ..We studied the modulation of flecainide's action by changes in extracellular sodium concentration ([Na+]e) produced by isotonic substitution of choline ..
  28. Hakim P, Thresher R, Grace A, Huang C. Effects of flecainide and quinidine on action potential and ventricular arrhythmogenic properties in Scn3b knockout mice. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2010;37:782-9 pubmed publisher
    1. Flecainide and quinidine exert contrasting pro-arrhythmic and anti-arrhythmic effects in mouse hearts containing the loss-of-function, Scn5a(+/-), and the gain-of-function, Scn5a(+/DeltaKPQ), mutations in their sodium channel alpha-..
  29. . Effects of encainide, flecainide, imipramine and moricizine on ventricular arrhythmias during the year after acute myocardial infarction: the CAPS. Am J Cardiol. 1988;61:501-9 pubmed
    ..acute myocardial infarction and randomized to 1 of 5 treatment tracks with 2 drugs that included encainide, flecainide, imipramine, moricizine or placebo...
  30. Tukkie R, Sogaard P, Vleugels J, de Groot I, Wilde A, Tan H. Delay in right ventricular activation contributes to Brugada syndrome. Circulation. 2004;109:1272-7 pubmed
    ..these contractile variables change on induction of the characteristic ST-segment changes of Brugada syndrome by flecainide challenge...
  31. Reisinger J, Gatterer E, Lang W, Vanicek T, Eisserer G, Bachleitner T, et al. Flecainide versus ibutilide for immediate cardioversion of atrial fibrillation of recent onset. Eur Heart J. 2004;25:1318-24 pubmed
    This study compared the efficacy and safety of intravenous flecainide and ibutilide for immediate cardioversion of atrial fibrillation (AF)...
  32. Wang D, Kiyosue T, Sato T, Arita M. Comparison of the effects of class I anti-arrhythmic drugs, cibenzoline, mexiletine and flecainide, on the delayed rectifier K+ current of guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1996;28:893-903 pubmed
    The effect of class I anti-arrhythmic drugs, cibenzoline, mexiletine and flecainide, on the delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes was studied using whole cell voltage clamp techniques and under ..
  33. Madeja M, Steffen W, Mesic I, Garic B, Zhorov B. Overlapping binding sites of structurally different antiarrhythmics flecainide and propafenone in the subunit interface of potassium channel Kv2.1. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:33898-905 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Flecainide and propafenone are known to block Kv2.1 channels more potently than other Kv channels...
  34. Wehling M. Meta-analysis of flecainide safety in patients with supraventricular arrhythmias. Arzneimittelforschung. 2002;52:507-14 pubmed
    b>Flecainide (CAS 54143-55-4) has been associated with increased mortality in patients with ventricular dysfunction and arrhythmias...
  35. Kanemoto M, Shimizu A, Yamagata T, Esato M, Ueyama T, Yoshiga Y, et al. Differentiation of the electrophysiological effects on the atrial myocardium between the pure Na channel blocker, pilsicainide, and flecainide. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2004;18:295-303 pubmed
    ..was to identify the difference between the pure Na channel blocker, pilsicainide and Ic-antiarrhythmic drug, flecainide, on the atrial electrophysiological characteristics...
  36. Liu H, Tateyama M, Clancy C, Abriel H, Kass R. Channel openings are necessary but not sufficient for use-dependent block of cardiac Na(+) channels by flecainide: evidence from the analysis of disease-linked mutations. J Gen Physiol. 2002;120:39-51 pubmed
    Na(+) channel blockers such as flecainide have found renewed usefulness in the diagnosis and treatment of two clinical syndromes arising from inherited mutations in SCN5A, the gene encoding the alpha subunit of the cardiac voltage-gated ..
  37. Stokoe K, Balasubramaniam R, Goddard C, Colledge W, Grace A, Huang C. Effects of flecainide and quinidine on arrhythmogenic properties of Scn5a+/- murine hearts modelling the Brugada syndrome. J Physiol. 2007;581:255-75 pubmed
    ..WT) and genetically modified (Scn5a+/-) 'loss-of-function' murine hearts in the presence and absence of flecainide and quinidine, and the extent to which Scn5a+/- hearts model the human BrS...
  38. Lynch J, Regan C, Beatch G, Gleim G, Morabito C. Comparison of the intrinsic vasorelaxant and inotropic effects of the antiarrhythmic agents vernakalant and flecainide in human isolated vascular and cardiac tissues. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2013;61:226-32 pubmed publisher
    ..potassium and sodium channel blocker atrial antiarrhythmic vernakalant and the class IC antiarrhythmic agent flecainide in human isolated subcutaneous resistance artery and in ventricular trabecular muscle preparations...
  39. Benhorin J, Taub R, Goldmit M, Kerem B, Kass R, Windman I, et al. Effects of flecainide in patients with new SCN5A mutation: mutation-specific therapy for long-QT syndrome?. Circulation. 2000;101:1698-706 pubmed
    ..Hence, the ECG effects of flecainide-acetate, a type Ic sodium blocker, were evaluated in carriers of this mutation...
  40. Martin C, Guzadhur L, Grace A, Lei M, Huang C. Mapping of reentrant spontaneous polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in a Scn5a+/- mouse model. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;300:H1853-62 pubmed publisher
    ..arriving at the epicardial surface consistent with slowed conduction, which was exacerbated in the presence of flecainide. Lines of conduction block across the RV resulting from premature ventricular beats led to the formation of ..
  41. Anderer G, Hellmeyer L, Tekesin I, Schmidt S. [Combination therapy for fetal supraventricular tachycardia with flecainide and digoxin]. Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol. 2005;209:34-7 pubmed
    ..on a case with SVT and congestive heart failure that converted into sinus rhythm within 19 days of therapy with flecainide and beta-acetyldigoxin...
  42. . Preliminary report: effect of encainide and flecainide on mortality in a randomized trial of arrhythmia suppression after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 1989;321:406-12 pubmed
    ..The Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial (CAST) is evaluating the effect of antiarrhythmic therapy (encainide, flecainide, or moricizine) in patients with asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic ventricular arrhythmia (six or more ..
  43. Mary Rabine L, Telerman M. Long term evaluation of flecainide acetate in supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. Acta Cardiol. 1988;43:37-48 pubmed
    ..Complete suppression of the arrhythmia was achieved in 44 patients (by flecainide alone in 38 patients and by a combination of flecainide and amiodarone in 6 patients)...
  44. Apostolakis S, Oeff M, Tebbe U, Fabritz L, Breithardt G, Kirchhof P. Flecainide acetate for the treatment of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2013;14:347-57 pubmed publisher
    b>Flecainide is a class Ic antiarrhythmic agent available in Europe since 1982...
  45. Farkas A, Curtis M. Limited antifibrillatory effectiveness of clinically relevant concentrations of class I antiarrhythmics in isolated perfused rat hearts. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2002;39:412-24 pubmed
    ..79 and 7.90 microM), lidocaine (3.88 and 12.93 microM), and flecainide (0.74 and 1...
  46. Wang G, Russell C, Wang S. State-dependent block of wild-type and inactivation-deficient Na+ channels by flecainide. J Gen Physiol. 2003;122:365-74 pubmed
    The antiarrhythmic agent flecainide appears beneficial for painful congenital myotonia and LQT-3/DeltaKPQ syndrome. Both diseases manifest small but persistent late Na+ currents in skeletal or cardiac myocytes...
  47. Aliot E, De Roy L, Capucci A, Hernandez J, Denjoy I, Lupoglazoff J, et al. Safety of a controlled-release flecainide acetate formulation in the prevention of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in outpatients. Ann Cardiol Angeiol (Paris). 2003;52:34-40 pubmed
    The cardiac safety of a once-a-day 200 mg controlled-release formulation of flecainide acetate in the prevention of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) was assessed in outpatients...
  48. Boriani G, Biffi M, Capucci A, Bronzetti G, Ayers G, Zannoli R, et al. Favorable effects of flecainide in transvenous internal cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999;33:333-41 pubmed
    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of intravenous (IV) flecainide on defibrillation energy requirements in patients treated with low-energy internal atrial cardioversion...
  49. Kirchhof P, Engelen M, Franz M, Ribbing M, Wasmer K, Breithardt G, et al. Electrophysiological effects of flecainide and sotalol in the human atrium during persistent atrial fibrillation. Basic Res Cardiol. 2005;100:112-21 pubmed
    ..We studied whether two antiarrhythmic drugs (sotalol, flecainide) prolong APD or induce PRR in the fibrillating human atrium.
  50. Milberg P, Tegelkamp R, Osada N, Schimpf R, Wolpert C, Breithardt G, et al. Reduction of dispersion of repolarization and prolongation of postrepolarization refractoriness explain the antiarrhythmic effects of quinidine in a model of short QT syndrome. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2007;18:658-64 pubmed
    ..0001). Additional treatment with the I(Kr) blocker sotalol (100 microM) and the class I antiarrhythmic drugs flecainide (2 microM) and quinidine (0...
  51. van der Velde N, Ziere G, van der Cammen T. Falls in three patients due to timolol eye drops, tolterodine, and flecainide. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2004;59:1343-4 pubmed
  52. Fish J, Antzelevitch C. Role of sodium and calcium channel block in unmasking the Brugada syndrome. Heart Rhythm. 2004;1:210-7 pubmed
    ..canine right ventricular (RV) wedge preparations, we previously developed an experimental model of BS using flecainide to depress the AP dome in RV epicardium...
  53. Climent V, Marin F, Mainar L, Gomez Aldaravi R, Martinez J, Chorro F, et al. Effects of pretreatment with intravenous flecainide on efficacy of external cardioversion of persistent atrial fibrillation. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2004;27:368-72 pubmed
    ..evaluate, in a prospective, randomized and double-blind study, the efficacy of a pretreatment with intravenous flecainide in patients who underwent electrical cardioversion...