Summary: Conjugates of betalamic acid with cyclo-dopa, both of which derive from TYROSINE. They appear similar to INDOLES but are biosynthesized by a different path and contain N+. Members are red or violet COLORING AGENTS found in the Caryophyllales order of PLANTS and some BASIDIOMYCETES.

Top Publications

  1. Wybraniec S, Platzner I, Geresh S, Gottlieb H, Haimberg M, Mogilnitzki M, et al. Betacyanins from vine cactus Hylocereus polyrhizus. Phytochemistry. 2001;58:1209-12 pubmed
  2. Cai Y, Xing J, Sun M, Corke H. Rapid identification of betacyanins from Amaranthus tricolor, Gomphrena globosa, and Hylocereus polyrhizus by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-QIT-TOF MS). J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:6520-6 pubmed
    Natural betacyanins have attracted great attention as food colorants and potential antioxidants...
  3. Cao S, Liu T, Jiang Y, He S, Harrison D, Joyce D. The effects of host defence elicitors on betacyanin accumulation in Amaranthus mangostanus seedlings. Food Chem. 2012;134:1715-8 pubmed publisher
    ..mangostanus seedlings can be upregulated by MeJA and ethylene. Both additive and antagonistic effects in regulating betacyanin synthesis in A. mangostanus seedlings were observed between MeJA and other elicitors. ..
  4. Sasaki N, Wada K, Koda T, Kasahara K, Adachi T, Ozeki Y. Isolation and characterization of cDNAs encoding an enzyme with glucosyltransferase activity for cyclo-DOPA from four o'clocks and feather cockscombs. Plant Cell Physiol. 2005;46:666-70 pubmed
    ..The cDNAs isolated here were candidates for the gene of the enzyme involved in another pathway of betacyanin biosynthesis via glucosylation at the cyclo-DOPA step rather than at the betanidin step...
  5. Gandia Herrero F, Garcia Carmona F, Escribano J. Development of a protocol for the semi-synthesis and purification of betaxanthins. Phytochem Anal. 2006;17:262-9 pubmed
    ..Betaxanthins can be obtained pure, and in sufficient amounts for further studies, which opens up new perspectives in the research and applications of these pigments. ..
  6. Fernández López J, Angosto J, Giménez P, León G. Thermal stability of selected natural red extracts used as food colorants. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2013;68:11-7 pubmed publisher
    ..02 and 53.37 kJ?mol(-1). The higher activation energy values indicated greater temperature sensitivity. Changes in visual color attributes corroborated the high thermal stability of the red cochineal extract. ..
  7. Zhang Q, Pan J, Wang Y, Lubet R, You M. Beetroot red (betanin) inhibits vinyl carbamate- and benzo(a)pyrene-induced lung tumorigenesis through apoptosis. Mol Carcinog. 2013;52:686-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that betanin significantly inhibits lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice and merits investigation as a chemopreventive agent for human lung cancer. ..
  8. Kim S, Jeon B, Kim D, Kim T, Lee H, Han D, et al. Prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) protects against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. J Med Food. 2012;15:968-73 pubmed publisher
  9. Butera D, Tesoriere L, Di Gaudio F, Bongiorno A, Allegra M, Pintaudi A, et al. Antioxidant activities of sicilian prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruit extracts and reducing properties of its betalains: betanin and indicaxanthin. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:6895-901 pubmed
    ..Betanin underwent complex formation through chelation with Cu(2+), whereas indicaxanthin was not modified. These findings suggest that the above betalains contribute to the antioxidant activity of prickly pear fruits...

More Information


  1. Stintzing F, Schieber A, Carle R. Identification of betalains from yellow beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and cactus pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:2302-7 pubmed
    ..With this technique, betacyanins could be separated from the betaxanthins using the pH-dependent retention characteristics of red and yellow ..
  2. Liu X, Gao Y, Xu H, Wang Q, Yang B. Impact of high-pressure carbon dioxide combined with thermal treatment on degradation of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) pigments. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:6480-7 pubmed publisher
    ..HP-CO 2 induced more degradation products from betanin and isobetanin than thermal treatment with an identical temperature and exposure time. ..
  3. Ninfali P, Antonini E, Frati A, Scarpa E. C-Glycosyl Flavonoids from Beta vulgaris Cicla and Betalains from Beta vulgaris rubra: Antioxidant, Anticancer and Antiinflammatory Activities-A Review. Phytother Res. 2017;31:871-884 pubmed publisher
    ..vitexin-2-O-xyloside and vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside, while the red beetroot is a source of betaxanthins and betacyanins. These phytochemicals show considerable antioxidant activity, as well as antiinflammatory and antiproliferative ..
  4. Nestora S, Merlier F, Prost E, Haupt K, Rossi C, Tse Sum Bui B. Solid-phase extraction of betanin and isobetanin from beetroot extracts using a dipicolinic acid molecularly imprinted polymer. J Chromatogr A. 2016;1465:47-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our MISPE method is very promising for the future development of well-formulated beetroot extract with specified betanin/isobetanin content, ready for food or medicinal use. ..
  5. Fernández López J, Castellar R, Obón J, Almela L. Monitoring by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry the impact of pH and temperature on the pigment pattern of cactus pear fruit extracts. J Chromatogr Sci. 2007;45:120-5 pubmed
    ..At pH 5, seven peaks are detected after 8 h, the most prominent being betanin, cyclo-dopa-5-O-beta-glucoside, and betalamic. In the assay conducted at pH 7, rapid color loss affects all the pigments, except for betanin. ..
  6. Tsai P, Chen Y, Sheu C, Chen C. Effect of nanogrinding on the pigment and bioactivity of Djulis ( Chenopodium formosanum Koidz.). J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:1814-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Statistical analysis revealed a close relationship between betanin and antioxidant capacity...
  7. Gins M, Gins V, Kononkov P. [Change in biochemical composition of amaranth leaves as a result of selection for increased level of amaranthine pigment]. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 2002;38:556-62 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that amaranth biosynthesis is related to nitrogen metabolism and amaranthine is an intermediate involved in conversion of nitrogen compounds in the cell. ..
  8. Pradhan S, Holopainen J, Weisell J, Heinonen Tanski H. Human urine and wood ash as plant nutrients for red beet (Beta vulgaris) cultivation: impacts on yield quality. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:2034-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this study revealed that urine with or without ash can increase the yield of red beet and furthermore the microbial quality and chemical quality were similar to the situation in mineral-fertilized products. ..
  9. Krajka Kuzniak V, Paluszczak J, Szaefer H, Baer Dubowska W. Betanin, a beetroot component, induces nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2-mediated expression of detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes in human liver cell lines. Br J Nutr. 2013;110:2138-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases may be responsible for the activation of Nrf2 in the THLE-2 cells. ..
  10. Herbach K, Stintzing F, Carle R. Stability and color changes of thermally treated betanin, phyllocactin, and hylocerenin solutions. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:390-8 pubmed
    ..Individual structure-related stability characteristics can exclusively be assessed by HPLC-DAD analyses and may not be noticed by mere spectrophotometric assessment of color and tinctorial strength. ..
  11. Gandia Herrero F, Escribano J, Garcia Carmona F. Betaxanthins as pigments responsible for visible fluorescence in flowers. Planta. 2005;222:586-93 pubmed
    ..Studies were also performed in Lampranthus productus flowers, which contain dopaxanthin as a single pigment. The visible fluorescence of betaxanthins inside the petal cells was detected in a confocal microscope after laser excitation...
  12. Allegra M, Furtmüller P, Jantschko W, Zederbauer M, Tesoriere L, Livrea M, et al. Mechanism of interaction of betanin and indicaxanthin with human myeloperoxidase and hypochlorous acid. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;332:837-44 pubmed
    ..0 only inhibitory effects were observed even at micromolar concentrations. These findings are discussed with respect to our knowledge of the enzymatic mechanisms of MPO. ..
  13. Mikołajczyk Bator K, Pawlak S. The effect of thermal treatment on antioxidant capacity and pigment contents in separated betalain fractions. Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment. 2016;15:257-265 pubmed publisher
    ..thermal treatment on the antioxidant capacity and pigment contents in separated fractions of violet pigments (betacyanins) and yellow pigments (betaxanthins and betacyanins)...
  14. Kapadia G, Azuine M, Sridhar R, Okuda Y, Tsuruta A, Ichiishi E, et al. Chemoprevention of DMBA-induced UV-B promoted, NOR-1-induced TPA promoted skin carcinogenesis, and DEN-induced phenobarbital promoted liver tumors in mice by extract of beetroot. Pharmacol Res. 2003;47:141-8 pubmed
  15. Yeddes N, Chérif J, Trabelsi Ayadi M. Comparative study of antioxidant power, polyphenols, flavonoids and betacyanins of peel and pulp of three Tunisian Opuntia forms. Pak J Biol Sci. 2014;17:650-8 pubmed
    ..Isorhamnetin derivatives are the dominant flavonol glycoside identified in O. ficus indica (spiny: 65.25 ?g g(-1); thornless: 77.03 ?g g(-1)) and O. stricta peels (19.22 ?g g(-1)). ..
  16. Polturak G, Breitel D, Grossman N, Sarrión Perdigones A, Weithorn E, Pliner M, et al. Elucidation of the first committed step in betalain biosynthesis enables the heterologous engineering of betalain pigments in plants. New Phytol. 2016;210:269-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The new findings enabled us to metabolically engineer entirely red-pigmented tobacco plants through heterologous expression of three genes taking part in the fully decoded betalain biosynthetic pathway. ..
  17. Gandia Herrero F, Garcia Carmona F, Escribano J. A novel method using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection for the determination of betaxanthins. J Chromatogr A. 2005;1078:83-9 pubmed
    ..The present work opens up new possibilities for the analysis of betaxanthins by improving existing protocols through fluorescence detection. ..
  18. Tesoriere L, Gentile C, Angileri F, Attanzio A, Tutone M, Allegra M, et al. Trans-epithelial transport of the betalain pigments indicaxanthin and betanin across Caco-2 cell monolayers and influence of food matrix. Eur J Nutr. 2013;52:1077-87 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated the absorption mechanism of the phytochemicals indicaxanthin and betanin and the influence of their food matrix (cactus pear and red beet) on the intestinal transport...
  19. Tesoriere L, Butera D, Allegra M, Fazzari M, Livrea M. Distribution of betalain pigments in red blood cells after consumption of cactus pear fruits and increased resistance of the cells to ex vivo induced oxidative hemolysis in humans. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:1266-70 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings provide evidence that human RBCs incorporate dietary betalains and support the concept that these phytochemicals may offer antioxidative protection to the cells. ..
  20. Zielińska Przyjemska M, Olejnik A, Kostrzewa A, Łuczak M, Jagodziński P, Baer Dubowska W. The beetroot component betanin modulates ROS production, DNA damage and apoptosis in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Phytother Res. 2012;26:845-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The dose and time dependent effects on these processes require further studies. ..
  21. Wybraniec S, Mizrahi Y. Fruit flesh betacyanin pigments in hylocereus cacti. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:6086-9 pubmed
    Determination of profiles and total contents of betacyanins in cactus fruits of Hylocereus species using chromatographic and spectrophotometric method is described. The investigated species were H. polyrhizus, H. purpusii, H...
  22. Fathordoobady F, Mirhosseini H, Selamat J, Manap M. Effect of solvent type and ratio on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of extracts from Hylocereus polyrhizus flesh and peel by supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction. Food Chem. 2016;202:70-80 pubmed publisher
    ..e. supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and conventional solvent extraction) on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of the peel and fresh extract from the red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus)...
  23. Mata A, Ferreira J, Semedo C, Serra T, Duarte C, Bronze M. Contribution to the characterization of Opuntia spp. juices by LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. Food Chem. 2016;210:558-65 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, it is the first time derivative compounds from piscidic acid, phenolic compounds and betalains are characterized in cactus pear juice using a single LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS method. ..
  24. Tesoriere L, Fazzari M, Angileri F, Gentile C, Livrea M. In vitro digestion of betalainic foods. Stability and bioaccessibility of betaxanthins and betacyanins and antioxidative potential of food digesta. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:10487-92 pubmed publisher
    Betalains are considered to be bioactive dietary phytochemicals. The stability of betacyanins and betaxanthins from either fresh foods or manufactured products of cactus pear fruit ( Opuntia ficus indica L. Mill. cv...
  25. Sasaki N, Abe Y, Wada K, Koda T, Goda Y, Adachi T, et al. Amaranthin in feather cockscombs is synthesized via glucuronylation at the cyclo-DOPA glucoside step in the betacyanin biosynthetic pathway. J Plant Res. 2005;118:439-42 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the glucuronic acid moiety of amaranthin and its derivatives may be introduced at the cyclo-DOPA glucoside step, but not at the betanidin glucoside step. ..
  26. Wybraniec S. Effect of tetraalkylammonium salts on retention of betacyanins and decarboxylated betacyanins in ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1127:70-5 pubmed
    The ability of tetraalkylammonium salts to act as ion-pairing agents for betacyanins and mono- as well as bidecarboxylated betacyanins in HPLC on reversed phase is reported...
  27. Wybraniec S, Nowak Wydra B. Mammillarinin: a new malonylated betacyanin from fruits of Mammillaria. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:8138-43 pubmed
    ..Except for its epimer, two other isomers of mammillarinin were tentatively identified as betanidin/isobetanidin 5-O-(4'-O-malonyl)-beta-sophoroside present in the fruits as acyl migration products. ..
  28. Gliszczyńska Swigło A, Szymusiak H, Malinowska P. Betanin, the main pigment of red beet: molecular origin of its exceptionally high free radical-scavenging activity. Food Addit Contam. 2006;23:1079-87 pubmed
  29. Nistor O, Seremet Ceclu L, Andronoiu D, Rudi L, Botez E. Influence of different drying methods on the physicochemical properties of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. var. Cylindra). Food Chem. 2017;236:59-67 pubmed publisher
    ..795±0.0019mg/g betaxanthin) when compared to convection at 50, 60 and 70°C. The results showed that combined drying methods led to a significant preservation of the phytochemical content as compared to the traditional methods. ..
  30. Paluszczak J, Krajka Kuzniak V, Baer Dubowska W. The effect of dietary polyphenols on the epigenetic regulation of gene expression in MCF7 breast cancer cells. Toxicol Lett. 2010;192:119-25 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a long-term exposure to these chemicals in diet might potentially lead to an effect, which can be sufficient for cancer chemoprevention. ..
  31. Zvitov R, Schwartz A, Zamski E, Nussinovitch A. Direct current electrical field effects on intact plant organs. Biotechnol Prog. 2003;19:965-71 pubmed
    ..g., fruits and vegetables that are less damaged by browning. An understanding of the mechanism involved in this nonthermal application can help in controlling the process and predicting its outcome...
  32. Tran T, Athanassiou A, Basit A, Bayer I. Starch-based bio-elastomers functionalized with red beetroot natural antioxidant. Food Chem. 2017;216:324-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, as a simple but intelligent biomaterial consisting of mainly edible starch and RB powder the present bio-elastomers can be used in active packaging for a variety of pharmaceutical, medical, and food applications. ..
  33. Frank T, Stintzing F, Carle R, Bitsch I, Quaas D, Strass G, et al. Urinary pharmacokinetics of betalains following consumption of red beet juice in healthy humans. Pharmacol Res. 2005;52:290-7 pubmed
  34. Gandia Herrero F, Garcia Carmona F, Escribano J. Botany: floral fluorescence effect. Nature. 2005;437:334 pubmed
    ..This finding opens up new possibilities for pollinator perception as fluorescence has not previously been considered as a potential signal in flowers...
  35. Jerz G, Gebers N, Szot D, Szaleniec M, Winterhalter P, Wybraniec S. Separation of amaranthine-type betacyanins by ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2014;1344:42-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Betacyanins, red-violet plant pigments, were fractionated by ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography (IP-HSCCC) from leaves extract of Iresine lindenii Van Houtte, an ornamental plant of the family Amaranthaceae...
  36. Das S, Gauri S, Misra B, Biswas M, Dey S. Purification and characterization of a betanidin glucosyltransferase from Amaranthus tricolor L catalyzing non-specific biotransformation of flavonoids. Plant Sci. 2013;211:61-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Betacyanins are the major pigments present in Amaranthus tricolor, a leafy vegetable consumed globally. The terminal glycosylation of the aglycone betanidin is an important step in the biosynthesis of this natural red antioxidant pigment...
  37. Wybraniec S, Starzak K, Skopińska A, Nemzer B, Pietrzkowski Z, Michałowski T. Studies on nonenzymatic oxidation mechanisms in neobetanin, betanin, and decarboxylated betanins. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:6465-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The elucidated reaction scheme will be useful in interpretation of redox activities of betalains in biological tissues and food preparations. ..
  38. Gandia Herrero F, Escribano J, Garcia Carmona F. Characterization of the activity of tyrosinase on betanidin. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:1546-51 pubmed
    ..The structural unit of the violet betacyanins, betanidin is reported as a substrate for the enzyme tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18...
  39. Wybraniec S. Chromatographic investigation on acyl migration in betacyanins and their decarboxylated derivatives. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2008;861:40-7 pubmed
    ..Chromatographic characterisation of a group of new isomers of various 6'-O-acylated betacyanins and decarboxylated betacyanins which were generated at low concentration by intramolecular pH-dependent acyl ..
  40. Castellar M, Obón J, Alacid M, Fernandez Lopez J. Fermentation of Opuntia stricta (Haw.) fruits for betalains concentration. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:4253-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Characteristics of the final product obtained were pH 3.41, 5.2 degrees Brix, 9.65 g/L betanin, color strength of 10.8, and viscosity of 52.5 cP. These values are better than obtained by other procedures. ..
  41. Wybraniec S, Michałowski T. New pathways of betanidin and betanin enzymatic oxidation. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:9612-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The products of enzymatic oxidation of betacyanins thus formed are derivatives of 5,6-dihydroxyindole and related structures known as the key intermediates in ..
  42. Trejo Tapia G, Cuevas Celis J, Salcedo Morales G, Trejo Espino J, Arenas Ocampo M, Jiménez Aparicio A. Beta vulgaris L. suspension cultures permeabilized with triton X-100 retain cell viability and betacyanines production ability: a digital image analysis study. Biotechnol Prog. 2007;23:359-63 pubmed
    ..Also, maximum betacyanines concentration was only 25% lower than that of non-permeabilized cultures. ..
  43. Wybraniec S. A method for identification of diastereomers of 2-decarboxy-betacyanins and 2,17-bidecarboxy-betacyanins in reversed-phase HPLC. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2007;389:1611-21 pubmed
    A method was developed for identification of diastereomers of 2-decarboxy-betacyanins and 2,17-bidecarboxy-betacyanins chromatographed in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as pairs of unknown elution order...
  44. Hobbs D, Kaffa N, George T, Methven L, Lovegrove J. Blood pressure-lowering effects of beetroot juice and novel beetroot-enriched bread products in normotensive male subjects. Br J Nutr. 2012;108:2066-74 pubmed publisher
    ..hypotensive effects of a low dose (100 g) of beetroot which was unaffected by processing or the presence of betacyanins. These data strengthen the evidence for cardioprotective BP-lowering effects of dietary nitrate-rich vegetables. ..
  45. Harris N, Javellana J, Davies K, Lewis D, Jameson P, Deroles S, et al. Betalain production is possible in anthocyanin-producing plant species given the presence of DOPA-dioxygenase and L-DOPA. BMC Plant Biol. 2012;12:34 pubmed publisher
    ..Betalains are divided into two classes, the betaxanthins and betacyanins, which produce yellow to orange or violet colours, respectively...
  46. Tyszka Czochara M, Pasko P, Zagrodzki P, Gajdzik E, Wietecha Posluszny R, Gorinstein S. Selenium Supplementation of Amaranth Sprouts Influences Betacyanin Content and Improves Anti-Inflammatory Properties via NFκB in Murine RAW 264.7 Macrophages. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2016;169:320-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Selenium concentration in sprouts was observed to be significantly correlated with betacyanins content of the tested species. The amounts of Se and betacyanins in sprouts varied for various Amaranth species...
  47. Wybraniec S, Starzak K, Pietrzkowski Z. Chlorination of Betacyanins in Several Hypochlorous Acid Systems. J Agric Food Chem. 2016;64:2865-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In the MPO/H2O2/Cl(-) system, the highest efficiency of monochloro-betanin/-betanidin generation is observed at pH 5. ..
  48. Svenson J, Smallfield B, Joyce N, Sansom C, Perry N. Betalains in red and yellow varieties of the Andean tuber crop ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus). J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:7730-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Twelve betacyanins were found in red tubers, with roughly 50% of this content being betanin/isobetanin...
  49. Wybraniec S, Jerz G, Gebers N, Winterhalter P. Ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography in fractionation of a high-molecular weight variation of acyl-oligosaccharide linked betacyanins from purple bracts of Bougainvillea glabra. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2010;878:538-50 pubmed publisher
    ..composition of purple bracts of Bougainvillea glabra (Nyctaginaceae) consists of a highly complex mixture of betacyanins solely differing by the substitution with a variety of acyl-oligoglycoside units...
  50. Wybraniec S, Stalica P, Jerz G, Klose B, Gebers N, Winterhalter P, et al. Separation of polar betalain pigments from cacti fruits of Hylocereus polyrhizus by ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:6890-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The pigments were detected by means of HPLC-DAD and HPLC-electrospray ionization-MS using also authentic reference materials. ..
  51. Reddy M, Alexander Lindo R, Nair M. Relative inhibition of lipid peroxidation, cyclooxygenase enzymes, and human tumor cell proliferation by natural food colors. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:9268-73 pubmed
    The most abundant water soluble natural food colors are betacyanins and anthocyanins. Similarly, lycopene, bixin, beta-carotene, and chlorophyll are water insoluble colors...
  52. Wybraniec S, Stalica P, Spórna A, Mizrahi Y. Profiles of betacyanins in epidermal layers of grafted and light-stressed cacti studied by LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:5347-54 pubmed publisher
    Profiles of betacyanins present in light-stressed stems of different cactus species and nonstressed but genetically aberrated red pigmented cacti of Gymnocalycium mihanovichii cv...
  53. Tesoriere L, Allegra M, Butera D, Livrea M. Absorption, excretion, and distribution of dietary antioxidant betalains in LDLs: potential health effects of betalains in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:941-5 pubmed
    ..Betalains were recently identified as natural antioxidants. However, little is known about their bioavailability from dietary sources...