monensin

Summary

Summary: An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.

Top Publications

  1. Inabayashi M, Miyauchi S, Kamo N, Jin T. Conductance change in phospholipid bilayer membrane by an electroneutral ionophore, monensin. Biochemistry. 1995;34:3455-60 pubmed
    b>Monensin is a polyether antibiotic ionophore and is considered an electroneutral Na/H antiporter...
  2. Dorkov P, Pantcheva I, Sheldrick W, Mayer Figge H, Petrova R, Mitewa M. Synthesis, structure and antimicrobial activity of manganese(II) and cobalt(II) complexes of the polyether ionophore antibiotic Sodium Monensin A. J Inorg Biochem. 2008;102:26-32 pubmed
    Mononuclear neutral manganese(II) and cobalt(II) complexes with the antibiotic Sodium Monensin A (Mon-Na, 1b) were synthesized and characterized. The crystal structures of M(Mon-Na)2Cl2...
  3. Chapman H, Jeffers T, Williams R. Forty years of monensin for the control of coccidiosis in poultry. Poult Sci. 2010;89:1788-801 pubmed publisher
    In July 1971, the polyether ionophorous antibiotic monensin was introduced in the United States for the control of coccidiosis in poultry. At that time, prospects for new anticoccidial agents were not good...
  4. Huczyński A, Przybylski P, Brzezinski B, Bartl F. Spectroscopic, mass spectrometry, and semiempirical investigation of a new ester of Monensin A with ethylene glycol and its complexes with monovalent metal cations. Biopolymers. 2006;82:491-503 pubmed
    A new ester of Monensin A with ethylene glycol (MON2) has been synthesized by a new method and its ability to form complexes with Li+, Na+, and K+ cations has been studied by ESI MS, 1H and 13C NMR, FT-IR, and PM5 semiempirical methods...
  5. Huczyński A, Stefanska J, Przybylski P, Brzezinski B, Bartl F. Synthesis and antimicrobial properties of monensin A esters. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008;18:2585-9 pubmed publisher
    The esters (2-10) of the ionophore antibiotic Monensin (1) were synthesized by four different methods, which are discussed in detail...
  6. Tyagi N, Rathore S, Ghosh P. Enhanced killing of human epidermoid carcinoma (KB) cells by treatment with ricin encapsulated into sterically stabilized liposomes in combination with monensin. Drug Deliv. 2011;18:394-404 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Monensin enhances the cytotoxicity of ricin entrapped in various charged liposomes depending on the surface charge...
  7. Rozza D, Vervuert I, Kamphues J, da Cruz C, Driemeier D. Monensin toxicosis in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). J Vet Diagn Invest. 2006;18:494-6 pubmed
    The consumption of monensin-containing feed resulted in deaths of water buffaloes from a feedlot in which cattle and buffaloes were kept together. The monensin formulation was recommended only for use in cattle...
  8. Park W, Jung C, Park J, Kim K, Kim W, Im Y, et al. Monensin inhibits the growth of renal cell carcinoma cells via cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Int J Oncol. 2003;22:855-60 pubmed
    Previously, we showed that monensin, Na+ ionophore, potently inhibited the growth of acute myelogenous leukemia and lymphoma cells...
  9. Souza A, Machado F, Celes M, Faria G, Rocha L, Silva J, et al. Mitochondrial damage as an early event of monensin-induced cell injury in cultured fibroblasts L929. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2005;52:230-7 pubmed
    The present study was designed to identify, submicroscopically, the primary organelle or target structure for monensin in cultured murine fibroblasts L929...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Fairfield A, Plaizier J, Duffield T, Lindinger M, Bagg R, Dick P, et al. Effects of prepartum administration of a monensin controlled release capsule on rumen pH, feed intake, and milk production of transition dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2007;90:937-45 pubmed
    Effects of prepartum administration of a monensin controlled release capsule (CRC) on rumen pH, dry matter intake, and milk production during the transition period and early lactation were determined in 16 multiparous Holstein cows...
  2. Gonzales E, van der Zee M, Dictus W, van den Biggelaar J. Brefeldin A or monensin inhibits the 3D organizer in gastropod, polyplacophoran, and scaphopod molluscs. Dev Genes Evol. 2007;217:105-18 pubmed
    ..To elucidate 3D function in a standardized fashion, we used monensin and brefeldin A (BFA) to rapidly and reversibly interfere with protein processing and secretion, thereby ..
  3. Lavine M, Arrizabalaga G. The antibiotic monensin causes cell cycle disruption of Toxoplasma gondii mediated through the DNA repair enzyme TgMSH-1. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:745-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Monensin is a polyether ionophore antibiotic that is widely used in the control of coccidia in animals...
  4. Watanabe N, Harter T, Bergamaschi B. Environmental occurrence and shallow ground water detection of the antibiotic monensin from dairy farms. J Environ Qual. 2008;37:S78-85 pubmed publisher
    ..use in milking cows is relatively limited compared with other livestock operations, except for the ionophore monensin, which is given to lactating cows as a feed...
  5. Bell J, Griinari J, Kennelly J. Effect of safflower oil, flaxseed oil, monensin, and vitamin E on concentration of conjugated linoleic acid in bovine milk fat. J Dairy Sci. 2006;89:733-48 pubmed
    ..The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 24 ppm of monensin (MON), 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), or 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M)...
  6. Brumbaugh G, Simpson R, Edwards J, Anders D, Thomson T. Susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium sbsp paratuberculosis to monensin sodium or tilmicosin phosphate in vitro and resulting infectivity in a murine model. Can J Vet Res. 2004;68:175-81 pubmed
    ..in vitro and infectivity of 1 field isolate of Mycobacterium avium sbsp paratuberculosis after exposure to monensin sodium and tilmicosin phosphate. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (0.39 microg monensin sodium/mL; 1...
  7. Jacob M, Fox J, Narayanan S, Drouillard J, Renter D, Nagaraja T. Effects of feeding wet corn distillers grains with solubles with or without monensin and tylosin on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of fecal foodborne pathogenic and commensal bacteria in feedlot cattle. J Anim Sci. 2008;86:1182-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to assess the effect of feeding wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) and monensin and tylosin on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of fecal foodborne and commensal bacteria in ..
  8. Singh M, Kalla N, Sanyal S. Effect of monensin, a Na+-specific carboxylic ionophore on the oxidative defense system in rat testis. Pharmacol Rep. 2007;59:456-61 pubmed
    The effect of monensin, a Na+-specific ionophore on the oxidative defense system in rat testis was studied. Monensin mixed in the animal diet was administered at the dose levels of 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg b.w...
  9. Vicetti Miguel R, Maryak S, Cherpes T. Brefeldin A, but not monensin, enables flow cytometric detection of interleukin-4 within peripheral T cells responding to ex vivo stimulation with Chlamydia trachomatis. J Immunol Methods. 2012;384:191-5 pubmed publisher
    ..trachomatis genital tract infection were used to compare the ability of brefeldin A (BFA) and monensin (MN) to concurrently trap interferon-? (IFN-?), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-17 within ..
  10. Ketola K, Vainio P, Fey V, Kallioniemi O, Iljin K. Monensin is a potent inducer of oxidative stress and inhibitor of androgen signaling leading to apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther. 2010;9:3175-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Our recent results indicated that sodium ionophore monensin is one of the most potent and cancer-specific inhibitors in a systematic sensitivity testing of most known drugs ..
  11. Hamidinia S, Tan B, Erdahl W, Chapman C, Taylor R, Pfeiffer D. The ionophore nigericin transports Pb2+ with high activity and selectivity: a comparison to monensin and ionomycin. Biochemistry. 2004;43:15956-65 pubmed
    ..The selectivity of nigericin for Pb(2+) exceeds that of ionomycin or monensin and arises, at least in part, from a high stability of nigericin-Pb(2+) complexes...
  12. Pantcheva I, Dorkov P, Atanasov V, Mitewa M, Shivachev B, Nikolova R, et al. Crystal structure and properties of the copper(II) complex of sodium monensin A. J Inorg Biochem. 2009;103:1419-24 pubmed publisher
    ..and structural characterization of a new copper(II) complex of the polyether ionophorous antibiotic sodium monensin A (MonNa) are described...
  13. Juchem S, Santos F, Imaizumi H, Pires A, Barnabé E. Production and blood parameters of Holstein cows treated prepartum with sodium monensin or propylene glycol. J Dairy Sci. 2004;87:680-9 pubmed
    ..The objective was to evaluate the effects of sodium monensin (M) and propylene glycol (PPG) during the prepartum period on performance and metabolic parameters during the ..
  14. Karnati S, Yu Z, Firkins J. Investigating unsaturated fat, monensin, or bromoethanesulfonate in continuous cultures retaining ruminal protozoa. II. Interaction of treatment and presence of protozoa on prokaryotic communities. J Dairy Sci. 2009;92:3861-73 pubmed publisher
    ..unsaturated fat (potentially inhibitory to ciliate protozoa, methanogens, and gram-positive bacteria), monensin (assumed to inhibit gram-positive bacteria), and bromoethanesulfonate (BES; a potent inhibitor of methanogens) ..
  15. Huczyński A, Ratajczak Sitarz M, Stefanska J, Katrusiak A, Brzezinski B, Bartl F. Reinvestigation of the structure of monensin A phenylurethane sodium salt based on X-ray crystallographic and spectroscopic studies, and its activity against hospital strains of methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis and S. aureus. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2011;64:249-56 pubmed publisher
    b>Monensin A phenylurethane sodium salt (MON-UR1-Na) crystals were studied by the X-ray, NMR, FT-IR and PM5 semi-empirical methods...
  16. Martineau R, Benchaar C, Petit H, Lapierre H, Ouellet D, Pellerin D, et al. Effects of lasalocid or monensin supplementation on digestion, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production of lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2007;90:5714-25 pubmed
    ..cows were used in a double 3 x 3 Latin square design (35-d periods) to study the effects of lasalocid (LAS) and monensin (MON) supplemented at 24 mg/ kg of dry matter on digestion, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk ..
  17. McGarvey J, Hamilton S, DePeters E, Mitloehner F. Effect of dietary monensin on the bacterial population structure of dairy cattle colonic contents. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;85:1947-52 pubmed publisher
    To determine the effect of monensin, a carboxylic polyether ionophore antibiotic, on the bacterial population structure of dairy cattle colonic contents, we fed six lactating Holstein cows a diet containing monensin (600 mg day(-1)) or an ..
  18. Dalla Pellegrina C, Matucci A, Zoccatelli G, Rizzi C, Vincenzi S, Veneri G, et al. Studies on the joint cytotoxicity of Wheat Germ Agglutinin and monensin. Toxicol In Vitro. 2004;18:821-7 pubmed
    ..In Molt3 but not in K562 cells, WGA cytotoxicity could be potentiated 66-200 fold by 50 nM monensin, a carboxylic ionophore that perturbs the intracellular trafficking of endocytosed molecules...
  19. Weimer P, Stevenson D, Mertens D, Thomas E. Effect of monensin feeding and withdrawal on populations of individual bacterial species in the rumen of lactating dairy cows fed high-starch rations. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;80:135-45 pubmed publisher
    ..taxa in the rumina of two lactating dairy cows following supply and subsequent withdrawal of the feed additive monensin (13.9 mg/kg of diet dry matter) in a high-starch, silage-based ration...
  20. Garrison E, Arrizabalaga G. Disruption of a mitochondrial MutS DNA repair enzyme homologue confers drug resistance in the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Mol Microbiol. 2009;72:425-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Through a genetic selection for T. gondii mutants resistant to the antiparasitic drug monensin, we have isolated a strain that is resistant not only to monensin but also to salinomycin and the alkylating ..
  21. Łowicki D, Huczyński A, Stefanska J, Brzezinski B. Structural characterization and antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus of N-phenylamide of monensin A and its 1:1 complexes with monovalent cations. Eur J Med Chem. 2010;45:4050-7 pubmed publisher
    The ability of N-phenylamide of monensin A (M-AM1) to form complexes with Li(+), Na(+) and K(+) cations is studied by ESI MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy and PM5 semi-empirical methods...
  22. Paddock Z, Walker C, Drouillard J, Nagaraja T. Dietary monensin level, supplemental urea, and ractopamine on fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle. J Anim Sci. 2011;89:2829-35 pubmed publisher
    ..coli O157:H7. The objectives of the study were to evaluate effects of monensin (33 or 44 mg/kg of DM), supplemental urea (0, 0.35, or 0...
  23. Gutierrez Banuelos H, Anderson R, Carstens G, Tedeschi L, Pinchak W, Cabrera Diaz E, et al. Effects of nitroethane and monensin on ruminal fluid fermentation characteristics and nitrocompound-metabolizing bacterial populations. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:4650-8 pubmed publisher
    ..5 and 9 mM nitroethane, and 0.09 mM monensin, with or without 9 mM nitroethane...
  24. Bharadwaj S, Rathore S, Ghosh P. Enhancement of the cytotoxicity of liposomal ricin by the carboxylic ionophore monensin and the lysosomotropic amine NH4Cl in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Int J Toxicol. 2006;25:349-59 pubmed
    ..Both monensin (a carboxylic ionophore) and NH4Cl (a lysosomotropic amine) markedly enhances the cytotoxicity of liposomal ricin,..
  25. Mullins C, Mamedova L, Brouk M, Moore C, Green H, Perfield K, et al. Effects of monensin on metabolic parameters, feeding behavior, and productivity of transition dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2012;95:1323-36 pubmed publisher
    The effects of monensin on transition cow metabolism may be dependent on modulation of feeding behavior, rumen pH, and expression of key metabolic genes...
  26. Gallimore A, Stark C, Bhatt A, Harvey B, Demydchuk Y, Bolanos Garcia V, et al. Evidence for the role of the monB genes in polyether ring formation during monensin biosynthesis. Chem Biol. 2006;13:453-60 pubmed
    ..We report here that deletion of either or both of the monBI and monBII genes from the monensin biosynthetic gene cluster gave strains that produced, in place of monensins A and B, a mixture of C-3-..
  27. Winkler B, Sauer M, Starnes C. Effects of L-glutamate/D-aspartate and monensin on lactic acid production in retina and cultured retinal Müller cells. J Neurochem. 2004;89:514-25 pubmed
    ..of L-glutamate (D-aspartate) to stimulate coupled uptake of Na(+) and the amino acid; and (ii) the addition of monensin to enhance Na(+) exchange. Müller cells produced lactate aerobically and anaerobically at high rates...
  28. Ravva S, Sarreal C, Mandrell R. Altered protozoan and bacterial communities and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in monensin-treated wastewater from a dairy lagoon. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54782 pubmed publisher
    ..the fate of an outbreak strain of EcO157, protozoan and bacterial communities in wastewater treated with monensin. Although total protozoa and native bacteria were unaffected by monensin, the time for 90% decrease in EcO157 ..
  29. Guban J, Korver D, Allison G, Tannock G. Relationship of dietary antimicrobial drug administration with broiler performance, decreased population levels of Lactobacillus salivarius, and reduced bile salt deconjugation in the ileum of broiler chickens. Poult Sci. 2006;85:2186-94 pubmed
    ..Supplementation of the feed with monensin increased fat digestibility in the ileum of the birds...
  30. Grainger C, Auldist M, Clarke T, Beauchemin K, McGinn S, Hannah M, et al. Use of monensin controlled-release capsules to reduce methane emissions and improve milk production of dairy cows offered pasture supplemented with grain. J Dairy Sci. 2008;91:1159-65 pubmed publisher
    We examined the effects of monensin, provided by controlled-release capsules, on the enteric methane emissions and milk production of dairy cows receiving ryegrass pasture and grain...
  31. Sassman S, Lee L. Sorption and degradation in soils of veterinary ionophore antibiotics: monensin and lasalocid. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2007;26:1614-21 pubmed
    b>Monensin and lasalocid are polyether ionophores commonly used in the beef and poultry industries for the prevention of coccidial infections and promotion of growth...
  32. Vanleeuwen J, Greenwood S, Clark F, Acorn A, Markham F, McCarron J, et al. Monensin use against Neospora caninum challenge in dairy cattle. Vet Parasitol. 2011;175:372-6 pubmed publisher
    ..a randomly allocated intervention group of 15 cows received a slow-release bolus that delivered 100 days of monensin. The negative control group of 15 cows received a placebo bolus that was identical to the monensin bolus, except ..
  33. Makvandi Nejad S, Sheedy C, Veldhuis L, Richard G, Hall J. Selection of single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies from a hyperimmunized phage display library for the detection of the antibiotic monensin. J Immunol Methods. 2010;360:103-18 pubmed publisher
    Concerns over the occurrence of the veterinary antibiotic monensin (MW 671Da) in animal food products and water have given rise to the need for a sensitive and rapid detection method...
  34. Dai S, Herrman T. Evaluation of two liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry platforms for quantification of monensin in animal feed and milk. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2010;24:1431-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Monensin is an anticoccidial drug that has been used as an additive in medicated feed. The United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) has included monensin in the national surveillance schemes for residues in foodstuff...
  35. Kisidayova S, Laukova A, Jalc D. Comparison of nisin and monensin effects on ciliate and selected bacterial populations in artificial rumen. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2009;54:527-32 pubmed publisher
    The effect of daily supplementation of nisin (2 mg/L), monensin (5.88 mg/L) and nisin and monensin (2 + 5.88 mg/L) on ovine ruminal ciliates and bacteria was investigated using the artificial rumen RUSITEC...
  36. Packer E, Clayton E, Cusack P. Rumen fermentation and liveweight gain in beef cattle treated with monensin and grazing lush forage. Aust Vet J. 2011;89:338-45 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the prevalence of subacute rumen acidosis (SARA) in beef cattle grazing lush pasture and the effect of monensin on reducing SARA and improving animal performance...
  37. Hendrick S, Duffield T, Leslie K, Lissemore K, Archambault M, Bagg R, et al. Monensin might protect Ontario, Canada dairy cows from paratuberculosis milk-ELISA positivity. Prev Vet Med. 2006;76:237-48 pubmed
    Our objective was to define the role of monensin sodium in protecting cows from being milk-ELISA positive for paratuberculosis in Ontario, Canada dairy herds...
  38. Mortier L, Daeseleire E, Van Peteghem C. Determination of the ionophoric coccidiostats narasin, monensin, lasalocid and salinomycin in eggs by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2005;19:533-9 pubmed
    ..mass spectrometric method (LC/MS/MS) for the simultaneous detection of the ionophoric coccidiostats narasin, monensin, lasalocid and salinomycin in whole eggs has been developed...
  39. Smith D, DiLorenzo N, Leibovich J, May M, Quinn M, Homm J, et al. Effects of sulfur and monensin concentrations on in vitro dry matter disappearance, hydrogen sulfide production, and volatile fatty acid concentrations in batch culture ruminal fermentations. J Anim Sci. 2010;88:1503-12 pubmed publisher
    Effects of monensin (MON) and S on in vitro fermentation and H(2)S production were evaluated in 2 experiments. In Exp...
  40. Hilton G, Montgomery J, Krehbiel C, Yates D, Hutcheson J, Nichols W, et al. Effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride with and without monensin and tylosin on carcass cutability and meat palatability of beef steers. J Anim Sci. 2009;87:1394-406 pubmed publisher
    ..conducted using 200 beef carcasses to evaluate the effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride with or without monensin and tylosin on carcass cutability and meat sensory variables...
  41. Pantcheva I, Mitewa M, Sheldrick W, Oppel I, Zhorova R, Dorkov P. First divalent metal complexes of the polyether ionophore Monensin A: X-Ray structures of [Co(Mon)2(H2O)2] and [Mn(Mon)2(H2O)2] and their bactericidal properties. Curr Drug Discov Technol. 2008;5:154-61 pubmed
    The complexation of carboxylic acid Monensin A (MonH, 1a) with CoCl2.6H2O and MnCl2.4H2O leads to the formation of mononuclear complexes [Co(Mon)2(H2O)2], 2a and [Mn(Mon)2(H2O)2], 2b, respectively...
  42. Peltier S, Burelle Y, Novel Chate V, Demaison L, Verdys M, Saks V, et al. Effect of exogenous adenosine and monensin on glycolytic flux in isolated perfused normoxic rat hearts: role of pyruvate kinase. Mol Cell Biochem. 2005;277:55-61 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we tested whether an increase of membrane ionic flux with monensin is linked to a stimulation of glycolytic flux through PK...
  43. Carlson J, Mabury S. Dissipation kinetics and mobility of chlortetracycline, tylosin, and monensin in an agricultural soil in Northumberland County, Ontario, Canada. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2006;25:1-10 pubmed
    ..method was refined to extract three growth-promoting antibiotics, tylosin (TYL), chlortetracycline (CTC), and monensin (MON), from soil. Analysis was performed by electrospray liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry...
  44. Magnoli A, Monge M, Miazzo R, Cavaglieri L, Magnoli C, Merkis C, et al. Effect of low levels of aflatoxin B? on performance, biochemical parameters, and aflatoxin B? in broiler liver tissues in the presence of monensin and sodium bentonite. Poult Sci. 2011;90:48-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The influence of Na-B (0.3%) and monensin (MON, 100 mg/kg), alone or in combination, was investigated in depth...
  45. Borsig L, Imbach T, Höchli M, Berger E. alpha1,3Fucosyltransferase VI is expressed in HepG2 cells and codistributed with beta1,4galactosyltransferase I in the golgi apparatus and monensin-induced swollen vesicles. Glycobiology. 1999;9:1273-80 pubmed
    ..Release occurred by proteolytical cleavage which produced a soluble form of 43 kDa. Monensin treatment segregated alpha3-FucT VI from the Golgi apparatus to swollen peripheral vesicles where it was ..
  46. Hamidinia S, Shimelis O, Tan B, Erdahl W, Chapman C, Renkes G, et al. Monensin mediates a rapid and selective transport of Pb(2+). Possible application of monensin for the treatment of Pb(2+) intoxication. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:38111-20 pubmed
    The carboxylic acid ionophore monensin, known as an electroneutral Na(+) ionophore, an anticoccidial agent, and a growth-promoting feed additive in agriculture, is shown to be highly efficient as an ionophore for Pb(2+) and to be highly ..
  47. Bach S, McAllister T, Veira D, Gannon V, Holley R. Effect of monensin on survival and growth of Escherichia coli O 157:H7 in vitro. Can Vet J. 2002;43:718-9 pubmed
  48. Kohler B, Karch H, Schmidt H. Antibacterials that are used as growth promoters in animal husbandry can affect the release of Shiga-toxin-2-converting bacteriophages and Shiga toxin 2 from Escherichia coli strains. Microbiology. 2000;146 ( Pt 5):1085-90 pubmed
    ..Subinhibitory concentrations of the antibacterial growth promoters olaquindox, carbadox, tylosin and monensin were used for induction experiments...
  49. Dusi G, Gamba V. Liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection of lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin and narasin in poultry feeds using pre-column derivatization. J Chromatogr A. 1999;835:243-6 pubmed
    ..effective analytical procedure for the simultaneous determination of four polyether antibiotics (PEs) lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin and narasin in poultry feeds was tested...
  50. Phipps R, Wilkinson J, Jonker L, Tarrant M, Jones A, Hodge A. Effect of monensin on milk production of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2000;83:2789-94 pubmed
    We examined the effects of monensin on feed intake and milk production in Holstein-Friesian cows receiving a total mixed rations in two experiments...
  51. Duffield T, Bagg R, DesCoteaux L, Bouchard E, Brodeur M, DuTremblay D, et al. Prepartum monensin for the reduction of energy associated disease in postpartum dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2002;85:397-405 pubmed
    ..PEI) and Ontario were enrolled in a randomized trial during 1998 and 1999 to further confirm the efficacy of a monensin controlled release capsule in preventing periparturient disease in lactating dairy cows...
  52. Nebbia C, Ceppa L, Dacasto M, Carletti M, Nachtmann C. Oxidative metabolism of monensin in rat liver microsomes and interactions with tiamulin and other chemotherapeutic agents: evidence for the involvement of cytochrome P-450 3A subfamily. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999;27:1039-44 pubmed
    b>Monensin (MON) is an ionophore antibiotic widely used in veterinary practice as a coccidiostatic or a growth promoter...
  53. Mollenhauer H, Morre D, Rowe L. Alteration of intracellular traffic by monensin; mechanism, specificity and relationship to toxicity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990;1031:225-46 pubmed
    b>Monensin, a monovalent ion-selective ionophore, facilitates the transmembrane exchange of principally sodium ions for protons...