Summary: A family of compounds that contain the 1,4-dioxin structure. Many specific dioxin derivatives are listed as CARCINOGENS; TERATOGENS; or MUTAGENS.

Top Publications

  1. Chan J, Xing G, Xu Y, Liang Y, Chen L, Wu S, et al. Body loadings and health risk assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans at an intensive electronic waste recycling site in China. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:7668-74 pubmed
    ..82 +/- 17.74 pg WHO-TEQ1998/g dry wt) showed significantly higher levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/ Fs) than those from the reference site (human milk, 9.35 +/- 7...
  2. White S, Birnbaum L. An overview of the effects of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds on vertebrates, as documented in human and ecological epidemiology. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev. 2009;27:197-211 pubmed publisher
    b>Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds are primary examples of persistent organic pollutants that induce toxicity in both wildlife and humans...
  3. Wu J, Dong S, Liu G, Zhang B, Zheng M. Cooking process: a new source of unintentionally produced dioxins?. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:5444-9 pubmed publisher
    To improve understanding of human background exposure to dioxins, the influence of cooking on dioxin concentrations in food has received much attention...
  4. Su P, Huang P, Lin C, Ying T, Chen J, Wang S. The effect of in utero exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls on reproductive development in eight year-old children. Environ Int. 2012;39:181-7 pubmed publisher
    We have previously reported on the effects of in utero exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on thyroid function and growth hormone concentrations at birth and in ..
  5. Consonni D, Sindaco R, Bertazzi P. Blood levels of dioxins, furans, dioxin-like PCBs, and TEQs in general populations: a review, 1989-2010. Environ Int. 2012;44:151-62 pubmed publisher
    A comprehensive worldwide literature review of blood levels of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in non-exposed adult general populations was performed...
  6. Zhang Q, Yang L, Wang W. Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of dioxins in marine copepods and fish. Environ Pollut. 2011;159:3390-7 pubmed publisher
    Despite the great concerns about dioxins in the marine environments, the biokinetics and bioaccumulation of these compounds in marine organisms remains little known...
  7. Rysavy N, Maaetoft Udsen K, Turner H. Dioxins: diagnostic and prognostic challenges arising from complex mechanisms. J Appl Toxicol. 2013;33:1-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Dioxins are ubiquitous environmental challenges to humans, with a pervasiveness that arises from 200 years of rapid industrialization and mechanization of Western societies and which is now extending into the developing world...
  8. Everett C, Thompson O. Associations of dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs with diabetes and pre-diabetes: is the toxic equivalency approach useful?. Environ Res. 2012;118:107-11 pubmed publisher
    Toxic equivalency factors for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds have been established by the World Health Organization...
  9. Chao H, Wang Y, Wang Y, Lin D, Gou Y, Chen C, et al. An improved AhR reporter gene assay for analyzing dioxins in soil, sediment and fish. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2012;89:739-43 pubmed publisher
    ..significantly related to those of the high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry assay of dioxins. The correlative equation was: log (PCDD/Fs I-TEQs) = 1.19 × log (BEQs) - 1.15 with R(2) = 0.95 (p < 0.001).

More Information


  1. Hu X, Xu Z, Peng X, Ren M, Zhang S, Liu X, et al. Pollution characteristics and potential health risk of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in soil/sediment from Baiyin City, North West, China. Environ Geochem Health. 2013;35:593-604 pubmed publisher
    ..the environmental behaviors of persistent organic pollutants, the characteristics of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were investigated in twenty-three soil/sediment samples from Baiying City, Northwest ..
  2. Humblet O, Sergeyev O, Altshul L, Korrick S, Williams P, Emond C, et al. Temporal trends in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and PCBs among adult women living in Chapaevsk, Russia: a longitudinal study from 2000 to 2009. Environ Health. 2011;10:62 pubmed publisher
    The present study assessed the temporal trend in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls (PCBs) among residents of a Russian town where levels of these chemicals are elevated due to prior ..
  3. van den Berg M, Denison M, Birnbaum L, DeVito M, Fiedler H, Falandysz J, et al. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls: inclusion in the toxicity equivalency factor concept for dioxin-like compounds. Toxicol Sci. 2013;133:197-208 pubmed publisher
    ..The expert panel concluded that polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), and some dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PBBs) may contribute significantly in daily ..
  4. Lee D, Lind P, Jacobs D, Salihovic S, van Bavel B, Lind L. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in plasma predict development of type 2 diabetes in the elderly: the prospective investigation of the vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Diabetes Care. 2011;34:1778-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the small number of incident cases, this study found that environmental exposure to some POPs substantially increased risk of future type 2 diabetes in an elderly population. ..
  5. Rennert A, Wittsiepe J, Kasper Sonnenberg M, Binder G, Fürst P, Cramer C, et al. Prenatal and early life exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls may influence dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels at prepubertal age: results from the Duisburg birth cohort study. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2012;75:1232-40 pubmed
    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are postulated to act as endocrine disrupters...
  6. Yang Y, Shin H, Kim S, Park W, Lee K, Choi J. 6,6'-Bieckol, isolated from marine alga Ecklonia cava, suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide and PGE? production and inflammatory cytokine expression in macrophages: the inhibition of NF?B. Int Immunopharmacol. 2012;12:510-7 pubmed publisher
  7. Stølevik S, Nygaard U, Namork E, Haugen M, Kvalem H, Meltzer H, et al. Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins is associated with increased risk of wheeze and infections in infants. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49:1843-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We here report on the environmental pollutants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins, as well as acrylamide generated in food during heat treatment...
  8. Manuwald U, Velasco Garrido M, Berger J, Manz A, Baur X. Mortality study of chemical workers exposed to dioxins: follow-up 23 years after chemical plant closure. Occup Environ Med. 2012;69:636-42 pubmed publisher
    ..86, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.91). The results of this extended follow-up are consistent with those of previous analyses of the cohort and with those of other cohorts. Our findings support the carcinogenic effect of dioxin compounds. ..
  9. Jarosova B, Blaha L, Vrana B, Randak T, Grabic R, Giesy J, et al. Changes in concentrations of hydrophilic organic contaminants and of endocrine-disrupting potential downstream of small communities located adjacent to headwaters. Environ Int. 2012;45:22-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Chemical analyses along with the results of bioassays documented impacts of small towns with WWTPs on headwaters. ..
  10. Lee M, Shin T, Utsuki T, Choi J, Byun D, Kim H. Isolation and identification of phlorotannins from Ecklonia stolonifera with antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties in tacrine-treated HepG2 cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:5340-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that eckol and 2-phloroeckol are the principal hepatoprotective constituents of the ethyl acetate fraction of E. stolonifera ethanolic extract. ..
  11. Fernandes A, Foxall C, Lovett A, Rose M, Dowding A. The assimilation of dioxins and PCBs in conventionally reared farm animals: occurrence and biotransfer factors. Chemosphere. 2011;83:815-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Congener-specific BTF variations were found to be associated with variables such as dietary composition during rearing, differences between feed and animal species. ..
  12. Korrick S, Lee M, Williams P, Sergeyev O, Burns J, Patterson D, et al. Dioxin exposure and age of pubertal onset among Russian boys. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:1339-44 pubmed publisher
    ..It is unclear whether these associations apply to human populations. We investigated the association of dioxins, furans, PCBs, and corresponding toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations with pubertal onset among boys in a dioxin-..
  13. Lascano Alcoser V, Velthuis A, Hoogenboom L, van der Fels Klerx H. Financial impact of a dioxin incident in the Dutch dairy chain. J Food Prot. 2011;74:967-79 pubmed publisher
    ..0%. These results can be used to establish priorities in the application of control measures to limit the financial and public health impacts of a possible food safety incident. ..
  14. Tai P, Nishijo M, Kido T, Nakagawa H, Maruzeni S, Naganuma R, et al. Dioxin concentrations in breast milk of Vietnamese nursing mothers: a survey four decades after the herbicide spraying. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:6625-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These herbicides contained 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetraCDD), the most toxic congener of dioxins. Several decades after the herbicide spraying ceased, dioxin concentrations in the environment and human remained ..
  15. Kim A, Lee M, Shin T, Hua H, Jang B, Choi J, et al. Phlorofucofuroeckol A inhibits the LPS-stimulated iNOS and COX-2 expressions in macrophages via inhibition of NF-?B, Akt, and p38 MAPK. Toxicol In Vitro. 2011;25:1789-95 pubmed publisher
  16. Hartmann E, Badalamenti J, Krajmalnik Brown R, Halden R. Quantitative PCR for tracking the megaplasmid-borne biodegradation potential of a model sphingomonad. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:4493-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We used this method on complex environmental samples and report on growth of S. wittichii RW1 in landfill leachate, thus furnishing a novel tool for monitoring megaplasmid-borne, dioxygenase-encoding genes...
  17. Humblet O, Williams P, Korrick S, Sergeyev O, Emond C, Birnbaum L, et al. Dioxin and polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in mother's serum and the timing of pubertal onset in sons. Epidemiology. 2011;22:827-35 pubmed publisher
    Animal studies have demonstrated that timing of pubertal onset can be altered by prenatal exposure to dioxins or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but studies of human populations have been quite limited...
  18. Stølevik S, Nygaard U, Namork E, Haugen M, Meltzer H, Alexander J, et al. Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins from the maternal diet may be associated with immunosuppressive effects that persist into early childhood. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;51:165-72 pubmed publisher
    ..whether prenatal exposure from the maternal diet to the toxicants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins is associated with the development of immune-related diseases in childhood...
  19. Bianco G, Zianni R, Anzillotta G, Palma A, Vitacco V, Scrano L, et al. Dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in human breast milk collected in the area of Taranto (Southern Italy): first case study. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013;405:2405-10 pubmed publisher
    We report on the content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in 15 breast milk samples of nursing women living in the city of Taranto (Southern, Italy) or nearby...
  20. Bak S, Iida M, Hirano M, Iwata H, Kim E. Potencies of red seabream AHR1- and AHR2-mediated transactivation by dioxins: implication of both AHRs in dioxin toxicity. Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47:2877-85 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate species- and isoform-specific responses to dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in the red seabream ( Pagrus major ), we constructed a reporter gene assay system...
  21. Miller A, Hedman J, Nyberg E, Haglund P, Cousins I, Wiberg K, et al. Temporal trends in dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus). Mar Pollut Bull. 2013;73:220-30 pubmed publisher
    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (dl-PCBs) concentrations in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) have been relatively stable since the mid to late 1990s...
  22. Papadopoulou E, Caspersen I, Kvalem H, Knutsen H, Duarte Salles T, Alexander J, et al. Maternal dietary intake of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls and birth size in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Environ Int. 2013;60:209-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the association between dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs during pregnancy and birth size...
  23. Virtanen H, Koskenniemi J, Sundqvist E, Main K, Kiviranta H, Tuomisto J, et al. Associations between congenital cryptorchidism in newborn boys and levels of dioxins and PCBs in placenta. Int J Androl. 2012;35:283-93 pubmed publisher
    In animal studies, exposure to dioxins has been associated with disrupted development of the male reproductive system, including testicular maldescent. Some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have also dioxin-like effects...
  24. Wang Z, Ding Q, Wang K, Wu C, Qu Y, Zhao X. [Study on dioxin emission for typical non-wood pulp making in China]. Huan Jing Ke Xue. 2012;33:574-9 pubmed
    ..At the same time, the text calculates emission factors on bamboo, straw, reed and bagasse pulp making process through whole process monitoring, which will provide meaningful reference for increasing relevant factors in UNEP Toolkit. ..
  25. Vafeiadi M, Agramunt S, Papadopoulou E, Besselink H, Mathianaki K, Karakosta P, et al. In utero exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and anogenital distance in newborns and infants. Environ Health Perspect. 2013;121:125-30 pubmed publisher
    Anogenital distance in animals is used as a measure of fetal androgen action. Prenatal exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in rodents causes reproductive changes in male offspring and decreases anogenital distance...
  26. Papadopoulou E, Vafeiadi M, Agramunt S, Basagana X, Mathianaki K, Karakosta P, et al. Anogenital distances in newborns and children from Spain and Greece: predictors, tracking and reliability. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2013;27:89-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Anogenital distances are strongly related to gestational age and birthweight and later, to growth. They track through early life and are highly reliable measures in both sexes. ..
  27. Tsukimori K, Uchi H, Mitoma C, Yasukawa F, Chiba T, Todaka T, et al. Maternal exposure to high levels of dioxins in relation to birth weight in women affected by Yusho disease. Environ Int. 2012;38:79-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In the setting of exposure to high levels of dioxins, maternal blood levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs are associated with lower birth weight in Yusho patients...
  28. Chobtang J, De Boer I, Hoogenboom R, Haasnoot W, Kijlstra A, Meerburg B. The need and potential of biosensors to detect dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls along the milk, eggs and meat food chain. Sensors (Basel). 2011;11:11692-716 pubmed publisher
    b>Dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) are hazardous toxic, ubiquitous and persistent chemical compounds, which can enter the food chain and accumulate up to higher trophic levels...
  29. Farmahin R, Manning G, Crump D, Wu D, Mundy L, Jones S, et al. Amino acid sequence of the ligand-binding domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 predicts sensitivity of wild birds to effects of dioxin-like compounds. Toxicol Sci. 2013;131:139-52 pubmed publisher
    ..93, p < 0.0001) with in ovo toxicity data for those species. These results indicate promise for the use of AHR1 LBD amino acid sequences independently, or combined with the LRG assay, to predict avian species sensitivity to DLCs...
  30. Giovannini A, Rivezzi G, Carideo P, Ceci R, Diletti G, Ippoliti C, et al. Dioxins levels in breast milk of women living in Caserta and Naples: assessment of environmental risk factors. Chemosphere. 2014;94:76-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the study was to detect dioxins levels in breast milk of volunteer primiparae and to assess the possible source of dioxins in the affected areas...
  31. Usydus Z, Szlinder Richert J, Polak Juszczak L, Komar K, Adamczyk M, Malesa Ciećwierz M, et al. Fish products available in Polish market--assessment of the nutritive value and human exposure to dioxins and other contaminants. Chemosphere. 2009;74:1420-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, many authors point at contaminants (methylmercury, PCDD/Fs) occurring in fish and fish products as on potential health problem, and emphasize that the amount of that hazardous substances should be limited in human diet. ..
  32. Consonni D, Pesatori A, Zocchetti C, Sindaco R, D Oro L, Rubagotti M, et al. Mortality in a population exposed to dioxin after the Seveso, Italy, accident in 1976: 25 years of follow-up. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;167:847-58 pubmed publisher
    ..A toxic and carcinogenic risk to humans after high TCDD exposure is supported by the results of this study. ..
  33. Mocarelli P, Gerthoux P, Needham L, Patterson D, Limonta G, Falbo R, et al. Perinatal exposure to low doses of dioxin can permanently impair human semen quality. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:713-8 pubmed publisher
    ..2; breast-fed comparisons, 101.8 pg/mL, p = 0.01; formula-fed exposed, 99.9 pg/mL, p = 0.02). In utero and lactational exposure of children to relatively low dioxin doses can permanently reduce sperm quality. ..
  34. Chuang J, Van Emon J, Schrock M. High-throughput screening of dioxins in sediment and soil using selective pressurized liquid extraction with immunochemical detection. Chemosphere. 2009;77:1217-23 pubmed publisher
    ..using selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for monitoring dioxins in sediment and soil is described...
  35. Reiner E, Clement R, Okey A, Marvin C. Advances in analytical techniques for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like PCBs. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2006;386:791-806 pubmed
    Analytical techniques for the determination of polychorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) and dioxin-like PCBs (DLPCB) are reviewed...
  36. Comhaire F, Mahmoud A, Schoonjans F. Sperm quality, birth rates and the environment in Flanders (Belgium). Reprod Toxicol. 2007;23:133-7 pubmed
    ..Though significantly correlated with sperm morphology, births are primarily associated with demographic factors. ..
  37. Gupta A, Ketchum N, Roehrborn C, Schecter A, Aragaki C, Michalek J. Serum dioxin, testosterone, and subsequent risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a prospective cohort study of Air Force veterans. Environ Health Perspect. 2006;114:1649-54 pubmed
    ..It has been hypothesized that dioxins may be partially responsible for an increase of male reproductive tract disorders such as testicular cancer, ..
  38. Cariou R, McAlister D, Marchand P, Fern M, Antignac J, Le Bizec B. Influence of the solvent quality on the AhR mediated Procept assay measurement of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds. Talanta. 2010;80:2063-7 pubmed publisher
    Polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins, polychorodibenzofurans and "dioxin-like" polychlorinated biphenyls are widespread persistent organic pollutants sharing a similar toxicological pathway mediated by the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)..
  39. Wiberg K, Sporring S, Haglund P, Björklund E. Selective pressurized liquid extraction of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls from food and feed samples. J Chromatogr A. 2007;1138:55-64 pubmed
    Selective pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) from various food and feed samples was performed with a selective PLE method ..
  40. Van Overmeire I, Pussemier L, Waegeneers N, Hanot V, Windal I, Boxus L, et al. Assessment of the chemical contamination in home-produced eggs in Belgium: general overview of the CONTEGG study. Sci Total Environ. 2009;407:4403-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Eggs, soils, faeces and kitchen waste samples were checked for the presence of dioxins, PCBs (including dioxin-like PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, trace elements, PAHs, brominated flame retardants ..
  41. Jursa S, Chovancova J, Petrik J, Loksa J. Dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like PCBs in human serum of Slovak population. Chemosphere. 2006;64:686-91 pubmed
    ..The results of this study represent the overall information about the congener distribution of dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like PCBs in human serum blood of adult Slovaks. ..
  42. Vassiliadou I, Papadopoulos A, Costopoulou D, Vasiliadou S, Christoforou S, Leondiadis L. Dioxin contamination after an accidental fire in the municipal landfill of Tagarades, Thessaloniki, Greece. Chemosphere. 2009;74:879-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the soil and olive samples indicate a reverse correlation between dioxin contamination and distance from the contamination source. It should be noted that PCB levels were normal in all analyzed samples. ..
  43. Van Overmeire I, Pussemier L, Hanot V, De Temmerman L, Hoenig M, Goeyens L. Chemical contamination of free-range eggs from Belgium. Food Addit Contam. 2006;23:1109-22 pubmed
    ..molybdenum, cadmium, antimony, thallium, lead and mercury, and selected persistent organochlorine compounds (dioxins, marker and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltricholroethane (DDT) and metabolites as well ..
  44. Alaluusua S, Lukinmaa P. Developmental dental toxicity of dioxin and related compounds--a review. Int Dent J. 2006;56:323-31 pubmed
    ..polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, or dioxins), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are wide-spread environmental ..
  45. Medehouenou T, Larochelle C, Dumas P, Dewailly E, Ayotte P. Determinants of AhR-mediated transcriptional activity induced by plasma extracts from Nunavik Inuit adults. Chemosphere. 2010;80:75-82 pubmed publisher
    ..is linked to their organochlorine body burden, most likely that of dioxin-like PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorodibenzofurans...
  46. Korkalainen M, Kallio E, Olkku A, Nelo K, Ilvesaro J, Tuukkanen J, et al. Dioxins interfere with differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Bone. 2009;44:1134-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Disrupting effects in osteoblastic cells, in addition to disturbed osteoclastogenesis, may thus play a role in adverse effects on bone quality in TCDD exposed animals. ..
  47. Collins J, Bodner K, Aylward L, Wilken M, Bodnar C. Mortality rates among trichlorophenol workers with exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Am J Epidemiol. 2009;170:501-6 pubmed publisher
    The authors examined 1,615 workers exposed to dioxins in trichlorophenol production in Midland, Michigan, to determine if there were increased mortality rates from exposure...
  48. Bilau M, Matthys C, Baeyens W, Bruckers L, De Backer G, Den Hond E, et al. Dietary exposure to dioxin-like compounds in three age groups: results from the Flemish environment and health study. Chemosphere. 2008;70:584-92 pubmed
    ..data were combined, via a so-called simple distribution approach, with recent data on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, measured via the chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (..
  49. Long M, Deutch B, Bonefeld Jorgensen E. AhR transcriptional activity in serum of Inuits across Greenlandic districts. Environ Health. 2007;6:32 pubmed
    Human exposure to lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticide is ubiquitous...
  50. de Mul A, Bakker M, Zeilmaker M, Traag W, Leeuwen S, Hoogenboom R, et al. Dietary exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in The Netherlands anno 2004. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2008;51:278-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Dairy was the main source (38%) due to its high consumption. Time-trend analysis shows that the exposure to dioxins has further decreased by 35% over the past five years...
  51. Xiong K, Peterson R, Heideman W. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated down-regulation of sox9b causes jaw malformation in zebrafish embryos. Mol Pharmacol. 2008;74:1544-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that reduced sox9b expression in TCDD-exposed zebrafish embryos contributes to jaw malformation. ..
  52. Goodman J, Kerper L, Boyce C, Prueitt R, Rhomberg L. Weight-of-evidence analysis of human exposures to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and associations with thyroid hormone levels during early development. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010;58:79-99 pubmed publisher
    ..studies have been conducted to assess potential associations between pre- and post-natal exposure to dioxins or dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) and the levels of circulating thyroid hormones during early development...
  53. Walisser J, Glover E, Pande K, Liss A, Bradfield C. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent liver development and hepatotoxicity are mediated by different cell types. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:17858-63 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data illustrate the importance of cell-specific receptor signaling for the generation of distinct AHR-dependent physiological outcomes. ..
  54. Chen J, Wang S, Liao P, Chen H, Ko Y, Lee C. Relationship between insulin sensitivity and exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls in pregnant women. Environ Res. 2008;107:245-53 pubmed publisher
    ..189 after adjustment for age and pre-pregnancy BMI. These findings suggest that PCBs may be associated with decreasing insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic pregnant women; however, the mechanism remains to be ascertained. ..
  55. Halldorsson T, Thorsdottir I, Meltzer H, Strøm M, Olsen S. Dioxin-like activity in plasma among Danish pregnant women: dietary predictors, birth weight and infant development. Environ Res. 2009;109:22-8 pubmed publisher
    ..23, p=0.046). Our study indicates that dietary patterns associated with high fat intake may lead to increased plasma dioxin-like activity and in utero exposure might be related to early infant development. ..
  56. Pedersen M, Halldorsson T, Mathiesen L, Mose T, Brouwer A, Hedegaard M, et al. Dioxin-like exposures and effects on estrogenic and androgenic exposures and micronuclei frequency in mother-newborn pairs. Environ Int. 2010;36:344-351 pubmed publisher
    ..4, P<0.003). This study demonstrated interactions in vivo between dioxin-like, estrogenic and androgenic exposures during fetal development of humans. ..
  57. Bock K, Kohle C. Ah receptor: dioxin-mediated toxic responses as hints to deregulated physiologic functions. Biochem Pharmacol. 2006;72:393-404 pubmed
    ..The AhR is also recognized as the culprit for most toxic responses observed after exposure to dioxins and related compounds such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)...
  58. Everett C, Frithsen I, Diaz V, Koopman R, Simpson W, Mainous A. Association of a polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, a polychlorinated biphenyl, and DDT with diabetes in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Environ Res. 2007;103:413-8 pubmed
    ..These findings add to the list of chemicals found to be associated with diabetes in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. ..
  59. Foster W, Holloway A, Hughes C. Dioxin-like activity and maternal thyroid hormone levels in second trimester maternal serum. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;193:1900-7 pubmed
    ..Dioxin-like activity is quantifiable in an overwhelming majority of second-trimester maternal serum samples but there was no relationship between dioxin-like activity and thyroid hormone levels in our study population. ..
  60. Dhooge W, van Larebeke N, Koppen G, Nelen V, Schoeters G, Vlietinck R, et al. Serum dioxin-like activity is associated with reproductive parameters in young men from the general Flemish population. Environ Health Perspect. 2006;114:1670-6 pubmed
  61. Foster W, Maharaj Briceño S, Cyr D. Dioxin-induced changes in epididymal sperm count and spermatogenesis. Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118:458-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanisms underlying decreased epididymal sperm count are unknown; however, we postulate that epididymal function is the key target for the adverse effects of TCDD. ..
  62. Goovaerts P, Trinh H, Demond A, Towey T, Chang S, Gwinn D, et al. Geostatistical modeling of the spatial distribution of soil dioxin in the vicinity of an incinerator. 2. Verification and calibration study. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:3655-61 pubmed
    ..The regression analysis and geostatistical simulation were then conducted using the combined set of 53 original and 51 new soil samples, leading to an updated model for the spatial distribution of TEQ in Midland, MI. ..
  63. Li Y, Qian Z, Ryu B, Lee S, Kim M, Kim S. Chemical components and its antioxidant properties in vitro: an edible marine brown alga, Ecklonia cava. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009;17:1963-73 pubmed publisher
    ..As well as our results makes it clear to understand the reason behind the use of EC as traditional folk herb for a long history. ..
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    The term dioxins usually refers to polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)...