idazoxan

Summary

Summary: A benzodioxane-linked imidazole that has alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist activity.

Top Publications

  1. Bayer L, Kakumanu S, MacTutus C, Booze R, Strupp B. Prenatal cocaine exposure alters sensitivity to the effects of idazoxan in a distraction task. Behav Brain Res. 2002;133:185-96 pubmed
    ..was designed to test whether prenatal cocaine (COC) exposure alters sensitivity to the attentional effects of idazoxan (IDZ), an alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist that increases coeruleocortical NE activity...
  2. Mourtada M, Elliott J, Smith S, Morgan N. Effects of imidazoline binding site ligands on the growth and viability of clonal pancreatic beta-cells. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2000;361:146-54 pubmed
    ..Three imidazoline compounds (idazoxan, phentolamine and antazoline) were found to cause marked inhibition of beta-cell growth in a time and ..
  3. Knight J, Harley C. Idazoxan increases perforant path-evoked EPSP slope paired pulse inhibition and reduces perforant path-evoked population spike paired pulse facilitation in rat dentate gyrus. Brain Res. 2006;1072:36-45 pubmed
    ..Using systemic idazoxan to increase norepinephrine, and paired perforant path pulses to probe early inhibition, previous investigators ..
  4. Mallard N, Hudson A, Nutt D. Characterization and autoradiographical localization of non-adrenoceptor idazoxan binding sites in the rat brain. Br J Pharmacol. 1992;106:1019-27 pubmed
    1. In rat whole brain homogenates, saturation analysis revealed that both [3H]-idazoxan and [3H]-RX821002, a selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor ligand, bound with high affinity to an apparent single population of sites...
  5. Larrauri J, Levin E. The ??-adrenergic antagonist idazoxan counteracts prepulse inhibition deficits caused by amphetamine or dizocilpine in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012;219:99-108 pubmed publisher
    ..Animal models used to investigate sensorimotor gating deficits include both the stimulation of dopamine receptors (e.g., amphetamine or apomorphine) and the blockade of NMDA-glutamate receptors (e.g., dizocilpine or phencyclidine)...
  6. Semenova S, Markou A. The alpha2 adrenergic receptor antagonist idazoxan, but not the serotonin-2A receptor antagonist M100907, partially attenuated reward deficits associated with nicotine, but not amphetamine, withdrawal in rats. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010;20:731-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated here whether blockade of alpha(2) or 5-HT(2A) receptors by idazoxan and M100907, respectively, would reverse anhedonic aspects of psychostimulant withdrawal...
  7. Rascol O, Arnulf I, Peyro Saint Paul H, Brefel Courbon C, Vidailhet M, Thalamas C, et al. Idazoxan, an alpha-2 antagonist, and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in patients with Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2001;16:708-13 pubmed
    ..in a pilot randomised placebo-controlled study, the effects of single oral doses (10 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg) of idazoxan, an alpha-2 antagonist, on motor parkinsonian disability and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia following an acute oral ..
  8. Buck K, Voehringer P, Ferger B. The alpha(2) adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan alleviates L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia by reduction of striatal dopamine levels: an in vivo microdialysis study in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. J Neurochem. 2010;112:444-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigate effects of the a2 adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan on L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia as well as on alterations of extracellular L-DOPA and dopamine (DA) levels in the ..
  9. Happe H, Coulter C, Gerety M, Sanders J, O Rourke M, Bylund D, et al. Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor development in rat CNS: an autoradiographic study. Neuroscience. 2004;123:167-78 pubmed
    ..It demonstrates there is region-specific regulation of alpha-2 receptor development and identifies brain regions where these receptors may play a specific and critical role in the regulation normal development. ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Olmos G, DeGregorio Rocasolano N, Paz Regalado M, Gasull T, Assumpció Boronat M, Trullas R, et al. Protection by imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine of glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured cerebellar granule cells through blockade of NMDA receptor. Br J Pharmacol. 1999;127:1317-26 pubmed
    ..44)>LSL 61122 [2-styryl-2-imidazoline] (54)>LSL 60101 [2-(2-benzofuranyl) imidazole] (75)>idazoxan (90)>LSL 60129 [2-(1,4-benzodioxan-6-yl)-4,5-dihydroimidazole](101)>RX82 1002 (2-methoxy idazoxan) (106)>..
  2. Saulnier Blache J, Atgie C, Carpene C, Quideau N, Lafontan M. Hamster adipocyte alpha 2-adrenoceptor changes during fat mass modifications are not directly dependent on adipose tissue norepinephrine content. Endocrinology. 1990;126:2425-34 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, the sympathetic-dependent mobilization of the fat stores, after induction of caloric restriction, can indirectly modulate the alpha 2-adrenoceptor density in the adipocyte by promoting changes in white fat cell size. ..
  3. Hsu W, Smith B, Hollingworth R. The bradycardic and mydriatic effects of chlordimeform and its demethylated analogs in the rat: antagonism by idazoxan but not by prazosin. Life Sci. 1988;43:1897-904 pubmed
    ..In contrast, DDCDM did not induce a mydriasis or bradycardia. The alpha 2-adrenoreceptor antagonist, idazoxan (0.2 mg/kg, i.v...
  4. Fox S, Henry B, Hill M, Peggs D, Crossman A, Brotchie J. Neural mechanisms underlying peak-dose dyskinesia induced by levodopa and apomorphine are distinct: evidence from the effects of the alpha(2) adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan. Mov Disord. 2001;16:642-50 pubmed
    ..Alpha(2) adrenoceptor antagonists, such as idazoxan, can significantly reduce levodopa-induced dyskinesia in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-..
  5. Uhlen S, Lindblom J, Kindlundh A, Mugisha P, Nyberg F. Nandrolone treatment decreases the level of rat kidney alpha(1B)-adrenoceptors. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2003;368:91-8 pubmed
    ..These results raise the possibility that a decreased level of kidney alpha(1B)-adrenoceptors may cause some of the effects observed on blood pressure and fluid balance in heavy abuse of AAS. ..
  6. Gentili F, Bousquet P, Brasili L, Caretto M, Carrieri A, Dontenwill M, et al. Alpha2-adrenoreceptors profile modulation and high antinociceptive activity of (S)-(-)-2-[1-(biphenyl-2-yloxy)ethyl]-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole. J Med Chem. 2002;45:32-40 pubmed
  7. Raasch W, Jungbluth B, Schäfer U, Häuser W, Dominiak P. Modification of noradrenaline release in pithed spontaneously hypertensive rats by I1-binding sites in addition to alpha2-adrenoceptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;304:1063-71 pubmed
    ..The exact location of the I(1)-binding sites on the pre- or postsynaptic sympathetic neurons is unknown, but the location in the pre- or postsynaptic membrane of the sympathetic ganglion is the most plausible explanation. ..
  8. Ribas C, Miralles A, García Sevilla J. Acceleration by chronic treatment with clorgyline of the turnover of brain alpha 2-adrenoceptors in normotensive but not in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Br J Pharmacol. 1993;110:99-106 pubmed
  9. Lim E, Dawe G, Jay T. Activation of beta- and alpha-2-adrenoceptors in the basolateral amygdala has opposing effects on hippocampal-prefrontal long-term potentiation. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2017;137:163-170 pubmed publisher
    ..alpha-2-adrenoceptors in the BLA with clonidine enhanced LTP while blocking alpha-2 adrenoceptors with idazoxan impaired it...
  10. Aubel B, Kayser V, Mauborgne A, Farré A, Hamon M, Bourgoin S. Antihyperalgesic effects of cizolirtine in diabetic rats: behavioral and biochemical studies. Pain. 2004;110:22-32 pubmed
    ..as well as the antihyperalgesic effect of cizolirtine were prevented by the alpha(2)-adrenoreceptor antagonist idazoxan (2 mg/kg, i.p.)...
  11. Ren J, Galligan J. Dynamics of fast synaptic excitation during trains of stimulation in myenteric neurons of guinea-pig ileum. Auton Neurosci. 2005;117:67-78 pubmed
    ..Synaptic rundown is likely due to depletion of a readily releasable pool (RRP) of neurotransmitter. ..
  12. Callado L, Meana J. Low-affinity conditions for agonists increase the binding of the antagonist [3H]RX821002 to the alpha(2B/C)-adrenoceptor subtypes in human brain and rat kidney. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997;332:109-12 pubmed
  13. Wang X, Chen Y, Shang X, Zhu Z, Chen G, Han Z, et al. Idazoxan attenuates spinal cord injury by enhanced astrocytic activation and reduced microglial activation in rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Brain Res. 2009;1253:198-209 pubmed publisher
    b>Idazoxan, an imidazoline 2 receptor (I(2)R) ligand, has been shown to protect against brain injury in several animal models of neurological disorders...
  14. Zhang H, Facemire C, Banes A, Faber J. Different alpha-adrenoceptors mediate migration of vascular smooth muscle cells and adventitial fibroblasts in vitro. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2002;282:H2364-70 pubmed
    ..Thus norepinephrine induces migration of SMCs and AFBs via different alpha-ARs. This action may participate in wall remodeling and norepinephrine potentiation of injury-induced intimal lesion growth. ..
  15. Li J, Li X, Pei G, Qin B. Influence of agmatine in adaptation of cAMP signal transduction system of opiate receptors. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1999;20:592-6 pubmed
    ..These effects of agmatine were antagonized by idazoxan in a concentration-dependent manner...
  16. Sanders J, Szot P, Weinshenker D, Happe H, Bylund D, Murrin L. Analysis of brain adrenergic receptors in dopamine-beta-hydroxylase knockout mice. Brain Res. 2006;1109:45-53 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that regulation of noradrenergic receptors by endogenous norepinephrine depends on receptor type and neuroanatomical region. ..
  17. Näsman J, Kukkonen J, Holmqvist T, Akerman K. Different roles for Gi and Go proteins in modulation of adenylyl cyclase type-2 activity. J Neurochem. 2002;83:1252-61 pubmed
    ..The data presented supports the view of AC2 as a molecular switch and implicates this isoform as a target for Go protein-linked signalling. ..
  18. Lim E, Tan C, Jay T, Dawe G. Locus coeruleus stimulation and noradrenergic modulation of hippocampo-prefrontal cortex long-term potentiation. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010;13:1219-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Administration of the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, nisoxetine or the alpha2 adrenoceptor antagonist, idazoxan prior to high-frequency stimulation of the HPC enhanced hippo-LTP...
  19. Zhang H, Yan X, Wang D, Leng Y, Wan Z, Liu Y, et al. Dexmedetomidine relieves formaldehyde-induced pain in rats through both α2 adrenoceptor and imidazoline receptor. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017;90:914-920 pubmed publisher
    ..with Sham group, whereas these effects of DEX on nNOS, PKCγ and PAR2 were blocked by both yohimbine and idazoxan, indicating that the analgesic effect of DEX is mediated by both α2 adrenergic receptor and imidazoline ..
  20. Qin X, He R. Agmatine inhibits carotid sinus baroreflex in anesthetized rats. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2001;22:264-8 pubmed
    ..2) The inhibitory effect of Agm (5 mmol/L) on baroreflex was eliminated by pretreatment with idazoxan (Ida, 0...
  21. Siviy S, Baliko C. A further characterization of alpha-2 adrenoceptor involvement in the rough-and-tumble play of juvenile rats. Dev Psychobiol. 2000;37:25-34 pubmed
    ..is consistent with a presynaptic site of action for alpha-2 involvement in modulating overall activity during a play bout, the same cannot be concluded about any putative explanatory mechanism for alpha-2 involvement in play behavior ..
  22. Heal D, Cheetham S, Butler S, Gosden J, Prow M, Buckett W. Receptor binding and functional evidence suggest that postsynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptors in rat brain are of the alpha 2D subtype. Eur J Pharmacol. 1995;277:215-21 pubmed
    ..670) or alpha 2C-adrenoceptors (r = 0.253; P = 0.584). These data are, therefore, consistent and argue strongly that postsynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptors in the rat cortex and Edinger-Westphal nucleus are of the alpha 2D subtype. ..
  23. Ferry B, McGaugh J. Involvement of basolateral amygdala alpha2-adrenoceptors in modulating consolidation of inhibitory avoidance memory. Learn Mem. 2008;15:238-43 pubmed publisher
    ..with bilateral cannulae in the BLA received microinfusions of a selective alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan 20 min either before or immediately after training. Retention was tested 48 h later...
  24. Vega Rivera N, López Rubalcava C, Estrada Camarena E. The antidepressant-like effect of ethynyl estradiol is mediated by both serotonergic and noradrenergic systems in the forced swimming test. Neuroscience. 2013;250:102-11 pubmed publisher
    ..receptors in the antidepressant-like action of EE2 was explored using the selective ?2-receptor antagonist idazoxan (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0mg/kg, i.p.)...
  25. Navarra P, Eechaute W, Preziosi P, Lacroix E. Idazoxan inhibits hyperprolactinaemia in ovariectomized estrogen-treated rats. Horm Metab Res. 1991;23:22-4 pubmed
    The alpha 2-antagonist idazoxan (IDZ) has previously been shown to inhibit hyperprolactinaemia triggered by various stimuli such as lactation, stress, serotonergic agents and morphine (Preziosi, Martire, Navarra, Pistritto and Vacca 1989; ..
  26. Schmidt M, Oshinsky R, Kim H, Schouten J, Folley B, Potter W. Cerebral glucose metabolic and plasma catecholamine responses to the alpha(2) adrenoceptor antagonist ethoxyidazoxan given to healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1999;146:119-27 pubmed
    ..Recently we evaluated the effects of idazoxan (IDX), an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist with high affinity for imidazoline sites, on a variety of measures ..
  27. Bylund D, Chacko D. Characterization of alpha2 adrenergic receptor subtypes in human ocular tissue homogenates. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999;40:2299-306 pubmed
  28. Green G, Lyons L, Dickenson A. Alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists enhance responses of dorsal horn neurones to formalin induced inflammation. Eur J Pharmacol. 1998;347:201-4 pubmed
    Intrathecally applied alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists atipamezole, idazoxan and yohimbine had no significant effect on any neuronal response in normal animals...
  29. Hayashida K, DeGoes S, Curry R, Eisenach J. Gabapentin activates spinal noradrenergic activity in rats and humans and reduces hypersensitivity after surgery. Anesthesiology. 2007;106:557-62 pubmed
    ..This effect of gabapentin was blocked by intrathecal administration of the alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonist idazoxan and the G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channel antagonist tertiapin-Q, but not by atropine...
  30. Sastre M, García Sevilla J. Alpha 2-adrenoceptor subtypes identified by [3H]RX821002 binding in the human brain: the agonist guanoxabenz does not discriminate different forms of the predominant alpha 2A subtype. J Neurochem. 1994;63:1077-85 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that in the human brain the predominant alpha 2-adrenoceptor is of the alpha 2A subtype and that this functionally relevant receptor subtypes is not heterogeneous in nature. ..
  31. Artigues Varin C, Richard V, Varin R, Mulder P, Thuillez C. Alpha2-adrenoceptor ligands inhibit alpha1-adrenoceptor-mediated contraction of isolated rat arteries. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2002;16:281-7 pubmed
    ..mesenteric arteries, the agonists clonidine, BHT920, UK 14304, and rilmenidine, as well as the antagonists idazoxan, yohimbine and rauwolscine, all induced marked relaxations...
  32. Delaville C, Zapata J, Cardoit L, Benazzouz A. Activation of subthalamic alpha 2 noradrenergic receptors induces motor deficits as a consequence of neuronal burst firing. Neurobiol Dis. 2012;47:322-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This change in the pattern was prevented by the local infusion of idazoxan, an ?2-AR antagonist...
  33. Mihara S, Nishi S, North R, Surprenant A. A non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic slow inhibitory post-synaptic potential in neurones of the guinea-pig submucous plexus. J Physiol. 1987;390:357-65 pubmed
    ..6. The slow i.p.s.p. could still be recorded from submucous plexus neurones in segments of ileum which had been extrinsically denervated 6-11 days previously.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  34. Kokaia M, Bengzon J, Kalén P, Lindvall O. Noradrenergic mechanisms in hippocampal kindling with rapidly recurring seizures. Brain Res. 1989;491:398-402 pubmed
    ..noradrenaline (NA) with intraventricular 6-hydroxydopamine or blockade of alpha 2 adrenergic receptors with idazoxan markedly reduced the number of stimulations needed to induce the first severe limbic seizure and increased the ..
  35. M Harzi M, Willig F, Bardelay C, Palou A, Oberlander C. Effects of RU 52583, an alpha 2-antagonist, on memory in rats with excitotoxic damage to the septal area. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1997;56:649-55 pubmed
    ..2 mg/kg (tested doses: 1-5 mg/kg) prior to performance of the task markedly reduced memory impairments, whereas idazoxan, another alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, had no effect at tested doses (2-5 mg/kg)...
  36. Rank M, Murray K, Stephens M, D Amico J, Gorassini M, Bennett D. Adrenergic receptors modulate motoneuron excitability, sensory synaptic transmission and muscle spasms after chronic spinal cord injury. J Neurophysiol. 2011;105:410-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, peripherally derived NA (or similar ligand) activates both ?(1) and ?(2) adrenergic receptors, controlling PICs and EPSPs, respectively. ..
  37. Allen A, Guyenet P. Alpha 2-adrenoceptor-mediated inhibition of bulbospinal barosensitive cells of rat rostral medulla. Am J Physiol. 1993;265:R1065-75 pubmed
    ..produced by iontophoresis of alpha-MNE or Clo were reduced to the same degree (86-98%) by iontophoresis of idazoxan (an alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist with imidazoline structure) and by iontophoresis of piperoxan (65-77%, a ..
  38. Szabo S, Blier P. Functional and pharmacological characterization of the modulatory role of serotonin on the firing activity of locus coeruleus norepinephrine neurons. Brain Res. 2001;922:9-20 pubmed
    ..Although the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan also enhanced the firing activity of NE neurons in paroxetine-treated rats, this increase was similar to that ..
  39. Trevisan G, Rossato M, Walker C, Oliveira S, Rosa F, Tonello R, et al. A novel, potent, oral active and safe antinociceptive pyrazole targeting kappa opioid receptors. Neuropharmacology. 2013;73:261-73 pubmed publisher
    ..68 (0.32-1.4) ?M), but not the TRPV1 ([(3)H]-resiniferatoxin) or the ??-adrenoreceptor ([(3)H]-idazoxan) binding...
  40. Jackson H, Nutt D. Are 5-HT receptors or beta-adrenoceptors involved in idazoxan-induced food and water intake?. Neuropharmacology. 1992;31:1081-7 pubmed
    b>Idazoxan (10 mg/kg, i.p.) produces an unexpected increase in food intake in freely-feeding rats which has been linked to its high affinity for non-adrenoceptor idazoxan binding sites...
  41. Yamanaka A, Muraki Y, Ichiki K, Tsujino N, Kilduff T, Goto K, et al. Orexin neurons are directly and indirectly regulated by catecholamines in a complex manner. J Neurophysiol. 2006;96:284-98 pubmed
    ..This response was inhibited by the alpha2 adrenergic receptor (alpha2-AR) antagonist, idazoxan or BRL44408, and was mimicked by the alpha2-AR-selective agonist, UK14304...
  42. Murrin L, Gerety M, Happe H, Bylund D. Inverse agonism at alpha(2)-adrenoceptors in native tissue. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000;398:185-91 pubmed
  43. Pauwels P, Rauly I, Wurch T. Dissimilar pharmacological responses by a new series of imidazoline derivatives at precoupled and ligand-activated alpha 2A-adrenoceptor states: evidence for effector pathway-dependent differential antagonism. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;305:1015-23 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these data demonstrate that certain alpha2 AR ligands that are assumed to be antagonists, may yield dissimilar pharmacological responses, dependent on the investigated agonist-stimulated effector pathway...
  44. Dontenwill M, Vonthron C, Greney H, Magnier C, Heemskerk F, Bousquet P. Identification of human I1 receptors and their relationship to alpha 2-adrenoceptors. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999;881:123-34 pubmed
    ..By contrast, the I2R subtype is more sensitive to [3H]idazoxan. [3H]clonidine and [3H]idazoxan imidazoline specific binding sites (IBS) have been detected in crude human ..
  45. Bhalla S, Andurkar S, Gulati A. Involvement of ??-adrenoceptors, imidazoline, and endothelin-A receptors in the effect of agmatine on morphine and oxycodone-induced hypothermia in mice. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2013;27:498-509 pubmed publisher
    ..Yohimbine, idazoxan, and BMS182874 were used to determine involvement of ??-adrenoceptors, imidazoline, and ET(A) receptors, ..
  46. Kogo M, Mori A, Koizumi H, Ishihama K, Iida S, Tanaka S, et al. Effect of norepinephrine receptors on trigeminal rhythm generation in newborn rats. Brain Res Bull. 2000;53:171-4 pubmed
    ..in brainstem preparations (inferior colliculus to obex) only following blockade of alpha(2)-adrenoceptors with idazoxan. This observation, combined with the inhibition of rhythm by alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists suggests endogenous ..
  47. Keller B, García Sevilla J. Immunodetection and subcellular distribution of imidazoline receptor proteins with three antibodies in mouse and human brains: Effects of treatments with I1- and I2-imidazoline drugs. J Psychopharmacol. 2015;29:996-1012 pubmed publisher
    ..brain cortex were modulated by treatment with I2-drugs (decreases after BU-224 and LSL 61122, and increases after idazoxan) but not with I1-drugs (with the exception of moxonidine)...
  48. Li J. Imidazoline I2 receptors: An update. Pharmacol Ther. 2017;178:48-56 pubmed publisher
    ..or I2 binding sites refer to several (at least four) different proteins that bind to [3H]-idazoxan and [3H]-2-BFI with high affinity. The molecular identities of the proteins remain elusive...
  49. Finn D, Hudson A, Kinoshita H, Coventry T, Jessop D, Nutt D, et al. Imidazoline2 (I2) receptor- and alpha2-adrenoceptor-mediated modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in control and acute restraint stressed rats. J Psychopharmacol. 2004;18:47-53 pubmed
    ..p. injection of either saline vehicle, the combined alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist and I2 receptor ligand idazoxan (10 mg/kg), the selective I2 receptor ligand BU224 (2...
  50. Mammoli V, Bonifazi A, Del Bello F, Diamanti E, Giannella M, Hudson A, et al. Favourable involvement of ?2A-adrenoreceptor antagonism in the I?-imidazoline binding sites-mediated morphine analgesia enhancement. Bioorg Med Chem. 2012;20:2259-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, inspired by the non subtype-selective ?(2)-AR antagonist idazoxan, we designed 1,4-dioxane derivatives bearing an aromatic area in position 5 or 6 and the imidazoline nucleus in ..
  51. El Mas M, Abdel Rahman A. Evidence for the involvement of central I1 imidazoline receptor in ethanol counteraction of clonidine hypotension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2001;38:417-26 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the findings suggest the dependence of a fully expressed ethanol counteraction of the hypotensive action of clonidine on functional I1 receptor within the central nervous system. ..
  52. Choi S, Choi D, Lee J, Park M, Chun B. Imidazoline drugs stabilize lysosomes and inhibit oxidative cytotoxicity in astrocytes. Free Radic Biol Med. 2002;32:394-405 pubmed
    ..Imidazoline drugs, such as idazoxan, guanabenz, guanfacine, BU224, and RS-45041-190, showed protective effects against naphthazarin-induced oxidative ..
  53. Decamp E, Clark K, Schneider J. Effects of the alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist guanfacine on attention and working memory in aged non-human primates. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;34:1018-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Guanfacine may have a preferential effect on some aspects of attention in normal aged monkeys and in doing so may also improve performance on other tasks, including some working memory tasks that have relatively high attention demands. ..