saccharin

Summary

Summary: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.

Top Publications

  1. Buerge I, Keller M, Buser H, Müller M, Poiger T. Saccharin and other artificial sweeteners in soils: estimated inputs from agriculture and households, degradation, and leaching to groundwater. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:615-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The sweetener saccharin is also registered as additive in piglet feed...
  2. Dess N, Chapman C, Monroe D. Consumption of SC45647 and sucralose by rats selectively bred for high and low saccharin intake. Chem Senses. 2009;34:211-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The present paper focused on consumption by Occidental High- (HiS) and Low-Saccharin (LoS)-consuming rats in 23-h 2-bottle tests of 2 sweeteners for which few data from rats are available: SC45647 ..
  3. Gonzales M, Garrett C, Chapman C, Dess N. Stress-induced attenuation of acoustic startle in low-saccharin-consuming rats. Biol Psychol. 2008;79:193-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The Occidental low (LoS) and high (HiS) saccharin-consuming rats, which differ in emotional reactivity, are useful in this effort...
  4. Basavoju S, Boström D, Velaga S. Indomethacin-saccharin cocrystal: design, synthesis and preliminary pharmaceutical characterization. Pharm Res. 2008;25:530-41 pubmed
    ..Various cocrystal formers, including saccharin, were used in endeavours to obtain indomethacin cocrystals by slow evaporation from a series of solvents...
  5. Beeler J, McCutcheon J, Cao Z, Murakami M, Alexander E, Roitman M, et al. Taste uncoupled from nutrition fails to sustain the reinforcing properties of food. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;36:2533-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In agreement with behavioral data, saccharin-evoked (but not sucrose-evoked) dopamine release is greatly attenuated following pre-exposure, suggesting that ..
  6. McCutcheon J, Beeler J, Roitman M. Sucrose-predictive cues evoke greater phasic dopamine release than saccharin-predictive cues. Synapse. 2012;66:346-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We were interested in whether cues paired with a non-nutritive sweetener (saccharin) would evoke similar dopamine release as cues paired with a nutritive sweetener (sucrose)...
  7. Lenoir M, Serre F, Cantin L, Ahmed S. Intense sweetness surpasses cocaine reward. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e698 pubmed
    ..Here we report that when rats were allowed to choose mutually-exclusively between water sweetened with saccharin-an intense calorie-free sweetener-and intravenous cocaine-a highly addictive and harmful substance-the large ..
  8. Galindo Cuspinera V, Winnig M, Bufe B, Meyerhof W, Breslin P. A TAS1R receptor-based explanation of sweet 'water-taste'. Nature. 2006;441:354-7 pubmed
    ..This 'rebound' activity occurs when equilibrium forces on the two-state allosteric sweet receptors result in their coordinated shift to the activated state upon being released from inhibition by rinsing. ..
  9. Holtz N, Anker J, Regier P, Claxton A, Carroll M. Cocaine self-administration punished by i.v. histamine in rat models of high and low drug abuse vulnerability: effects of saccharin preference, impulsivity, and sex. Physiol Behav. 2013;122:32-8 pubmed publisher
    ..animal models of high and low vulnerability to drug abuse: rats selectively bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) saccharin consumption, rats selected for high (HiI) and low (LoI) impulsivity, and sex differences...

More Information

Publications66

  1. Puhl M, Blum J, Acosta Torres S, Grigson P. Environmental enrichment protects against the acquisition of cocaine self-administration in adult male rats, but does not eliminate avoidance of a drug-associated saccharin cue. Behav Pharmacol. 2012;23:43-53 pubmed publisher
    ..rats from acquiring cocaine self-administration and from the resultant drug-induced devaluation of a natural saccharin reward cue. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with intravenous jugular catheters...
  2. Hamilton D, Candelaria Cook F, Akers K, Rice J, Maes L, Rosenberg M, et al. Patterns of social-experience-related c-fos and Arc expression in the frontal cortices of rats exposed to saccharin or moderate levels of ethanol during prenatal brain development. Behav Brain Res. 2010;214:66-74 pubmed publisher
    ..correlated with patterns of activity-related IEG expression in the regions under investigation for saccharin- and ethanol-exposed rats...
  3. Ohkuri T, Yasumatsu K, Horio N, Jyotaki M, Margolskee R, Ninomiya Y. Multiple sweet receptors and transduction pathways revealed in knockout mice by temperature dependence and gurmarin sensitivity. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;296:R960-71 pubmed publisher
    ..All three KO mice exhibited no detectable responses to SC45647, and their responses to saccharin displayed neither GS nor a TDI...
  4. Carroll M, Morgan A, Anker J, Perry J, Dess N. Selective breeding for differential saccharin intake as an animal model of drug abuse. Behav Pharmacol. 2008;19:435-60 pubmed publisher
    A positive relationship between the consumption of sweetened dietary substances (e.g. saccharin and sucrose) and drug abuse has been reported in both the human and other animal literature...
  5. Inui T, Yamamoto T, Shimura T. GABAergic transmission in the rat ventral pallidum mediates a saccharin palatability shift in conditioned taste aversion. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;30:110-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Initially, rats received a paired presentation of 5 mm saccharin or 0.3 mm quinine solution with an intraperitoneal injection of 0...
  6. Jung M, Kim J, Kim M, Alhalaweh A, Cho W, Hwang S, et al. Bioavailability of indomethacin-saccharin cocrystals. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2010;62:1560-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The cocrystal of indomethacin (IND), a Biopharmaceutical Classification System class II drug, with saccharin (SAC) has been shown to have higher solubility than IND at all pH...
  7. Carroll M, Anderson M, Morgan A. Regulation of intravenous cocaine self-administration in rats selectively bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) saccharin intake. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007;190:331-41 pubmed
    Rats selectively bred for high saccharin (HiS) intake consume more alcohol and acquire intravenous (i.v.) cocaine self-administration more rapidly than their low saccharin (LoS)-consuming counterparts...
  8. Freeman K, Green L, Myerson J, Woolverton W. Delay discounting of saccharin in rhesus monkeys. Behav Processes. 2009;82:214-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, rhesus monkeys were allowed to choose in discrete trials between 0.05% saccharin delivered in different amounts and with different delays...
  9. Gosnell B, Mitra A, Avant R, Anker J, Carroll M, Levine A. Operant responding for sucrose by rats bred for high or low saccharin consumption. Physiol Behav. 2010;99:529-33 pubmed publisher
    ..For example, rats selectively bred to consume high (HiS) or low (LoS) amounts of a 0.1% saccharin solution (when compared to water consumption), show corresponding differences across several measures of cocaine ..
  10. Holtz N, Zlebnik N, Carroll M. Differential orexin/hypocretin expression in addiction-prone and -resistant rats selectively bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) saccharin intake. Neurosci Lett. 2012;522:12-5 pubmed publisher
    Rats that have been selectively bred for high (HiS) saccharin intake demonstrate elevated drug-seeking behavior in several phases of addiction compared to those bred for low (LoS) saccharin intake...
  11. Regier P, Carroll M, Meisel R. Cocaine-induced c-Fos expression in rats selectively bred for high or low saccharin intake and in rats selected for high or low impulsivity. Behav Brain Res. 2012;233:271-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we used rats that had been selectively bred for high vs. low saccharin intake and rats selected for high vs. low impulsivity for food...
  12. Tripathi M, Khanna S, Das M. Usage of saccharin in food products and its intake by the population of Lucknow, India. Food Addit Contam. 2006;23:1265-75 pubmed
    A survey of the usage patterns of the artificial sweetener, saccharin, in edible products and a study of its intake pattern in different population groups has been carried out...
  13. Kim J, Seo J, Cho K. Aspartame-fed zebrafish exhibit acute deaths with swimming defects and saccharin-fed zebrafish have elevation of cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity in hypercholesterolemia. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49:2899-905 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the physiologic effect of AS in the presence of hyperlipidemia, zebrafish were fed aspartame or saccharin with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD)...
  14. Pronin A, Xu H, Tang H, Zhang L, Li Q, Li X. Specific alleles of bitter receptor genes influence human sensitivity to the bitterness of aloin and saccharin. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1403-8 pubmed
    ..The same hT2R43 gene allele makes people more sensitive to the bitterness of an artificial sweetener, saccharin. In addition, a closely related gene's (hT2R44's) allele also makes people more sensitive to the bitterness of ..
  15. Chen K, Yan J, Suo Y, Li J, Wang Q, Lv B. Nutritional status alters saccharin intake and sweet receptor mRNA expression in rat taste buds. Brain Res. 2010;1325:53-62 pubmed publisher
    ..the preference for palatable solutions and alters sweet taste receptor gene expression in rats, we measured saccharin intake and preference using a two-bottle preference test, and changes in body weight, plasma leptin levels, and ..
  16. Swithers S, Laboy A, Clark K, Cooper S, Davidson T. Experience with the high-intensity sweetener saccharin impairs glucose homeostasis and GLP-1 release in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2012;233:1-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The present experiments determined whether experience with the high-intensity sweetener saccharin versus the caloric sweetener glucose affected blood glucose homeostasis...
  17. Kozlov A, Varlinskaya E, Spear N. Ethanol, saccharin, and quinine: early ontogeny of taste responsiveness and intake. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2008;32:294-305 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the present study compared responsiveness to ethanol and solutions with bitter (quinine) and sweet (saccharin) taste in terms of intake and palatability across the first 2 weeks of postnatal life...
  18. Anker J, Gliddon L, Carroll M. Impulsivity on a Go/No-go task for intravenous cocaine or food in male and female rats selectively bred for high and low saccharin intake. Behav Pharmacol. 2008;19:615-29 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibition) using cocaine or food reward in addiction-prone and addiction-resistant rats that were bred for high saccharin (HiS) or low saccharin (LoS) intake, respectively...
  19. Cason A, Aston Jones G. Attenuation of saccharin-seeking in rats by orexin/hypocretin receptor 1 antagonist. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013;228:499-507 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study examined the involvement of the Orx system in operant responding for saccharin, a noncaloric, hedonic (sweet) reward, and in cue-induced reinstatement of extinguished saccharin-seeking in ad ..
  20. Bandyopadhyay A, Ghoshal S, Mukherjee A. Genotoxicity testing of low-calorie sweeteners: aspartame, acesulfame-K, and saccharin. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2008;31:447-57 pubmed
    ..ASP; 7, 14, 28, and 35 mg/kg body weight), acesulfame-K (ASK; 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg body weight), and saccharin (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight) individually...
  21. Nizhnikov M, Pautassi R, Varlinskaya E, Rahmani P, Spear N. Ontogenetic differences in ethanol's motivational properties during infancy. Alcohol. 2012;46:225-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Rat pups were intraorally infused with 2.5% of their body weight of saccharin solution (0.1%) and immediately after injected intraperitoneolly (i.p.) with one of six doses of ethanol (0.0-2...
  22. Disse E, Bussier A, Veyrat Durebex C, Deblon N, Pfluger P, Tschop M, et al. Peripheral ghrelin enhances sweet taste food consumption and preference, regardless of its caloric content. Physiol Behav. 2010;101:277-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the effect of intraperitoneally injected ghrelin on the acceptance and preference for a 0.3% saccharin solution using single bottle tests and free-choice preference test procedures in C57BL6/J mice, as well as in ..
  23. Yakovenko V, Speidel E, Chapman C, Dess N. Food dependence in rats selectively bred for low versus high saccharin intake. Implications for "food addiction". Appetite. 2011;57:397-400 pubmed publisher
    ..The latter was studied in low- (LoS) and high- (HiS) saccharin-consuming rats, who differ in drug self-administration (HiS>LoS) and withdrawal (LoS>HiS)...
  24. Rahman Z, Samy R, Sayeed V, Khan M. Physicochemical and mechanical properties of carbamazepine cocrystals with saccharin. Pharm Dev Technol. 2012;17:457-65 pubmed publisher
    ..physicochemical, mechanical properties, and stability characteristics of cocrystal of carbamazepine (CBZ) using saccharin (SAC) as a coformer...
  25. Ilbäck N, Alzin M, Jahrl S, Enghardt Barbieri H, Busk L. Estimated intake of the artificial sweeteners acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin in a group of Swedish diabetics. Food Addit Contam. 2003;20:99-114 pubmed
    ..a Swedish study on the estimated intake of the artificial sweeteners acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin by children (0-15 years) and adult male and female diabetics (types I and II) of various ages (16-90 years)...
  26. Reed D, Li S, Li X, Huang L, Tordoff M, Starling Roney R, et al. Polymorphisms in the taste receptor gene (Tas1r3) region are associated with saccharin preference in 30 mouse strains. J Neurosci. 2004;24:938-46 pubmed
    The results of recent studies suggest that the mouse Sac (saccharin preference) locus is identical to the Tas1r3 (taste receptor) gene...
  27. Nelson G, Hoon M, Chandrashekar J, Zhang Y, Ryba N, Zuker C. Mammalian sweet taste receptors. Cell. 2001;106:381-90 pubmed
    ..and T1R3 combine to function as a sweet receptor, recognizing sweet-tasting molecules as diverse as sucrose, saccharin, dulcin, and acesulfame-K...
  28. Bachmanov A, Li X, Reed D, Ohmen J, Li S, Chen Z, et al. Positional cloning of the mouse saccharin preference (Sac) locus. Chem Senses. 2001;26:925-33 pubmed
    Differences in sweetener intake among inbred strains of mice are partially determined by allelic variation of the saccharin preference (Sac) locus...
  29. Romih R, Jezernik K, Masera A. Uroplakins and cytokeratins in the regenerating rat urothelium after sodium saccharin treatment. Histochem Cell Biol. 1998;109:263-9 pubmed
    A sodium saccharin (NaSac) diet was used to induce cell damage and regeneration in the urothelium of the male rat urinary bladder...
  30. Smith J, Sclafani A. Saccharin as a sugar surrogate revisited. Appetite. 2002;38:155-60 pubmed
    ..The second paper by Collier and Novell (1967) reported that saccharin was similar to sucrose in that intake increased and then decreased as concentration increased, although in ..
  31. Grigson P, Twining R. Cocaine-induced suppression of saccharin intake: a model of drug-induced devaluation of natural rewards. Behav Neurosci. 2002;116:321-33 pubmed
    In Experiment 1, water-deprived Sprague-Dawley rats were given 5 min access to saccharin. This tube retracted, an empty tube advanced, and the rats were given 1 hr to lick the empty tube on a fixed-ratio 10 lick contingency to self-..
  32. Petrov E, Varlinskaya E, Spear N. Self-administration of ethanol and saccharin in newborn rats: effects on suckling plasticity. Behav Neurosci. 2001;115:1318-31 pubmed
    Responsiveness to a surrogate nipple providing water, saccharin, 5% ethanol, or 10% ethanol was tested in newborn rats naive to suckling (3-5 hr old) on Postnatal Day (P) 0 and in older neonates with regular suckling experience on P1 or ..
  33. Fuller J. Single-locus control of saccharin preference in mice. J Hered. 1974;65:33-6 pubmed
  34. Li X, Inoue M, Reed D, Huque T, Puchalski R, Tordoff M, et al. High-resolution genetic mapping of the saccharin preference locus (Sac) and the putative sweet taste receptor (T1R1) gene (Gpr70) to mouse distal Chromosome 4. Mamm Genome. 2001;12:13-6 pubmed
    The Sac (saccharin preference) locus affecting mouse behavioral and neural responsiveness to sweeteners has been mapped to distal Chr 4...
  35. Ackroff K, Sclafani A. Flavor preferences conditioned by intragastric infusion of ethanol in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2001;68:327-38 pubmed
    ..In Phase 1, chow and water were available ad libitum, and both CS flavors were initially sweetened with saccharin that was then faded out...
  36. Weiss F, Lorang M, Bloom F, Koob G. Oral alcohol self-administration stimulates dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens: genetic and motivational determinants. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993;267:250-8 pubmed
    ..effects of operant responding, additional groups of P and Wistar rats were tested during self-administration of saccharin (0.05% w/v). By contrast with ethanol, saccharin did not substantially elevate extracellular DA levels...
  37. Nakashima K, Ninomiya Y. Transduction for sweet taste of saccharin may involve both inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and cAMP pathways in the fungiform taste buds in C57BL mice. Cell Physiol Biochem. 1999;9:90-8 pubmed
    ..Recordings of taste responses were also made in the chorda tympani nerve. Stimulation of the tongue with saccharin elicited a significant increase in IP3 levels in the fungiform papilla only at 20 mM but in cAMP levels at 3 and ..
  38. Stephens D, Brown G. Disruption of operant oral self-administration of ethanol, sucrose, and saccharin by the AMPA/kainate antagonist, NBQX, but not the AMPA antagonist, GYKI 52466. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1999;23:1914-20 pubmed
    ..be nzodiazepine), were administered to animals previously trained to self-administer ethanol, sucrose, or saccharin, on a progressive ratio schedule...
  39. Dess N. Responses to basic taste qualities in rats selectively bred for high versus low saccharin intake. Physiol Behav. 2000;69:247-57 pubmed
    Rats selectively bred for relatively high (HiS) and relatively low (LoS) saccharin intake were offered sweet (sucrose), bitter (quinine, sucrose octaacetate), salty (sodium chloride), starchy (Polycose((R))), and sour (citric acid) ..
  40. Lu K, McDaniel A, Tordoff M, Li X, Beauchamp G, Bachmanov A, et al. No relationship between sequence variation in protein coding regions of the Tas1r3 gene and saccharin preference in rats. Chem Senses. 2005;30:231-40 pubmed
    ..whether mice and rats share the same Tas1r3 alleles, and whether this gene might explain the large difference in saccharin preference among rats. We conducted three experiments to test this...
  41. Harkin A, Houlihan D, Kelly J. Reduction in preference for saccharin by repeated unpredictable stress in mice and its prevention by imipramine. J Psychopharmacol. 2002;16:115-23 pubmed
    ..Intermittently, CMS was discontinued and the mice were presented with both water and a palatable saccharin solution (0.1% w/v) in a two-bottle choice test overnight (15 h)...
  42. Horne J, Lawless H, Speirs W, Sposato D. Bitter taste of saccharin and acesulfame-K. Chem Senses. 2002;27:31-8 pubmed
    The relationships among suprathreshold taste responses to acesulfame-K, Na-saccharin and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) were examined in two studies...
  43. Dess N, Badia Elder N, Thiele T, Kiefer S, Blizard D. Ethanol consumption in rats selectively bred for differential saccharin intake. Alcohol. 1998;16:275-8 pubmed
    Rat lines selectively bred for high ethanol consumption consume more saccharin solution than do their low-ethanol-consuming counterparts...
  44. Abdollahi M, Nikfar S, Habibi L. Saccharin effects on morphine-induced antinociception in the mouse formalin test. Pharmacol Res. 2000;42:255-9 pubmed
    This study was performed to investigate the role of sweetness and taste sensations of the non-caloric sweetener saccharin on pain and morphine antinociception by the formalin test in mice...
  45. Grønli J, Murison R, Fiske E, Bjorvatn B, Sørensen E, Portas C, et al. Effects of chronic mild stress on sexual behavior, locomotor activity and consumption of sucrose and saccharine solutions. Physiol Behav. 2005;84:571-7 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that CMS induces comparable alterations to some depression-like symptoms in humans. Saccharine consumption is not a reliable indicator of the hedonic responsiveness to CMS. ..
  46. Kuhn C, Bufe B, Winnig M, Hofmann T, Frank O, Behrens M, et al. Bitter taste receptors for saccharin and acesulfame K. J Neurosci. 2004;24:10260-5 pubmed
    Weight-conscious subjects and diabetics use the sulfonyl amide sweeteners saccharin and acesulfame K to reduce their calorie and sugar intake...
  47. VanderWeele D, Dess N, Castonguay T. Ingestional responses to metabolic challenges in rats selectively bred for high and low saccharin intake. Physiol Behav. 2002;75:97-104 pubmed
    Rats selectively bred on the basis of saccharin intake also differ on some measures of emotional reactivity. The present studies were designed to contribute to our understanding of this association...
  48. Carroll M, Morgan A, Lynch W, Campbell U, Dess N. Intravenous cocaine and heroin self-administration in rats selectively bred for differential saccharin intake: phenotype and sex differences. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2002;161:304-13 pubmed
    Rats selectively bred for high intake of a sweet saccharin solution (HiS) consume more ethanol than their low-saccharin intake (LoS) counterparts...
  49. Cosgrove K, Carroll M. Effects of bremazocine on self-administration of smoked cocaine base and orally delivered ethanol, phencyclidine, saccharin, and food in rhesus monkeys: a behavioral economic analysis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002;301:993-1002 pubmed
    ..of bremazocine, the effects of bremazocine pretreatment on the oral self-administration of phencyclidine (PCP), saccharin, and food were also examined...
  50. Belknap J, Crabbe J, Plomin R, McClearn G, Sampson K, O Toole L, et al. Single-locus control of saccharin intake in BXD/Ty recombinant inbred (RI) mice: some methodological implications for RI strain analysis. Behav Genet. 1992;22:81-100 pubmed
    The sac locus, with a major effect on saccharin preference, was discovered by Fuller (1974) in C57BL/6J (B6), DBA/2J (D2), and derived crosses, and is now supported in the BXD/Ty recombinant inbred (RI) series by a marked bimodal ..
  51. Bachmanov A, Tordoff M, Beauchamp G. Sweetener preference of C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J mice. Chem Senses. 2001;26:905-13 pubmed
    ..Three main patterns of strain differences were evident. First, sucrose, maltose, saccharin, acesulfame-K, sucralose and SC-45647 were preferred by both strains, but the B6 mice had lower preference ..
  52. Sinnott R, Phillips T, Finn D. Alteration of voluntary ethanol and saccharin consumption by the neurosteroid allopregnanolone in mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2002;162:438-47 pubmed
    ..whether ALLOP pretreatment altered voluntary EtOH consumption in male and female C57BL/6J mice, and voluntary saccharin and quinine consumption in male C57BL/6J mice...
  53. Harris R, Zhou J, Youngblood B, Smagin G, Ryan D. Failure to change exploration or saccharin preference in rats exposed to chronic mild stress. Physiol Behav. 1997;63:91-100 pubmed
    Chronic mild stress (CMS) exposes animals to unpredictable stressors. Reduced consumption of sucrose or saccharin solutions by CMS rats has been used as a putative measure of anhedonia, typical of depression...
  54. Cardello H, da Silva M, Damasio M. Measurement of the relative sweetness of stevia extract, aspartame and cyclamate/saccharin blend as compared to sucrose at different concentrations. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1999;54:119-30 pubmed
    ..Bertoni] leaf extract (SrB) and the mixture cyclamate/saccharin--two parts of cyclamate and one part of saccharin--(C/S) with the increase in their concentrations, and in ..
  55. Leclercq C, Berardi D, Sorbillo M, Lambe J. Intake of saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame K and cyclamate in Italian teenagers: present levels and projections. Food Addit Contam. 1999;16:99-109 pubmed
    The intake of saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame K and cyclamate was assessed in 212 Italian teenagers aged 13-19 in 1996. Total daily intake of intense sweeteners was assessed on the basis of dietary records (14 consecutive days)...
  56. Blizard D, Kotlus B, Frank M. Quantitative trait loci associated with short-term intake of sucrose, saccharin and quinine solutions in laboratory mice. Chem Senses. 1999;24:373-85 pubmed
    ..study was simultaneously to map two genetic loci which, collectively, have a large effect on intake of sucrose, saccharin and quinine solutions in mice...
  57. Navarro M, Cubero I. Lateral parabrachial lesions impair lithium chloride-induced aversive responses but not saccharin-induced flavor preference. Brain Res. 2003;990:195-202 pubmed
    ..Finally, all the animals were tested in a free discriminative flavor-preference task induced by saccharin, a non-caloric reinforcer, which precludes visceral feedback as essential in acquiring the learned response...