ritonavir

Summary

Summary: An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.

Top Publications

  1. Barillari G, Iovane A, Bacigalupo I, Palladino C, Bellino S, Leone P, et al. Ritonavir or saquinavir impairs the invasion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia cells via a reduction of MMP expression and activity. AIDS. 2012;26:909-19 pubmed publisher
    ..we assessed the impact of therapeutic concentrations of HIV-PIs including indinavir (IDV), saquinavir (SQV) or ritonavir (RTV) on cells obtained from CIN or cervical carcinoma lesions of HIV-negative women...
  2. Sibiude J, Warszawski J, Tubiana R, Dollfus C, Faye A, Rouzioux C, et al. Premature delivery in HIV-infected women starting protease inhibitor therapy during pregnancy: role of the ritonavir boost?. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54:1348-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We explored this question, focusing on the initiation of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PIs) during pregnancy, which is now standard care...
  3. Nyunt M, Lu Y, El Gasim M, Parsons T, Petty B, Hendrix C. Effects of ritonavir-boosted lopinavir on the pharmacokinetics of quinine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2012;91:889-95 pubmed publisher
    ..A phase I pharmacokinetic study was conducted to assess the impact of long-term use of ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) on quinine pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers...
  4. Ofotokun I, Sheth A, Sanford S, Easley K, Shenvi N, White K, et al. A switch in therapy to a reverse transcriptase inhibitor sparing combination of lopinavir/ritonavir and raltegravir in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients: a pilot randomized trial to assess efficacy and safety profile: the KITE study. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012;28:1196-206 pubmed
    ..60 HIV-infected adults with plasma HIV-1 RNA (<50 copies/ml) on sHAART were randomized (2:1) to lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) 400/100 mg BID+raltegravir (RAL) 400 mg BID switch (LPV-r/RAL arm) or to continue on sHAART...
  5. Bierman W, Scheffer G, Schoonderwoerd A, Jansen G, van Agtmael M, Danner S, et al. Protease inhibitors atazanavir, lopinavir and ritonavir are potent blockers, but poor substrates, of ABC transporters in a broad panel of ABC transporter-overexpressing cell lines. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65:1672-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the interaction between protease inhibitors (PIs) and ABC transporters...
  6. Du Pasquier R, Jilek S, Kalubi M, Yerly S, Fux C, Gutmann C, et al. Marked increase of the astrocytic marker S100B in the cerebrospinal fluid of HIV-infected patients on LPV/r-monotherapy. AIDS. 2013;27:203-10 pubmed publisher
    To determine changes of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of patients on monotherapy with lopinavir/ritonavir. The Monotherapy Switzerland/Thailand study (MOST) trial compared monotherapy with ritonavir-boosted lopinavir with ..
  7. Kraus M, Müller Ide H, Rückrich T, Bader J, Overkleeft H, Driessen C. Ritonavir, nelfinavir, saquinavir and lopinavir induce proteotoxic stress in acute myeloid leukemia cells and sensitize them for proteasome inhibitor treatment at low micromolar drug concentrations. Leuk Res. 2014;38:383-92 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ritonavir induced cytotoxicity and PS at clinically achievable concentrations, and induced synergistic PS-triggered ..
  8. Winston A, Puls R, Kerr S, Duncombe C, Li P, Gill J, et al. Dynamics of cognitive change in HIV-infected individuals commencing three different initial antiretroviral regimens: a randomized, controlled study. HIV Med. 2012;13:245-51 pubmed publisher
    ..eight and 11 were randomly allocated to commence tenofovir/emtricitabine with efavirenz (arm 1), atazanavir/ritonavir (arm 2) and zidovudine/abacavir (arm 3), respectively...
  9. Chiricozzi A, Saraceno R, Cannizzaro M, Nisticò S, Chimenti S, Giunta A. Complete resolution of erythrodermic psoriasis in an HIV and HCV patient unresponsive to antipsoriatic treatments after highly active antiretroviral therapy (Ritonavir, Atazanavir, Emtricitabine, Tenofovir). Dermatology. 2012;225:333-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The HIV test should be considered in high-risk patients affected by severe psoriasis and resistant to conventional and biological treatments. ..

More Information

Publications80

  1. Weakley S, Jiang J, Lu J, Wang X, Lin P, Yao Q, et al. Natural antioxidant dihydroxybenzyl alcohol blocks ritonavir-induced endothelial dysfunction in porcine pulmonary arteries and human endothelial cells. Med Sci Monit. 2011;17:BR235-41 pubmed
    ..the naturally occurring antioxidant dihydroxybenzyl alcohol (DHBA) could counteract the deleterious effects of ritonavir (RTV), an HIV-protease inhibitor known to impair endothelial function and increase oxidative stress...
  2. Morgan R, Campbell S, Suehira K, Sponseller C, Yu C, Medlock M. Effects of steady-state lopinavir/ritonavir on the pharmacokinetics of pitavastatin in healthy adult volunteers. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012;60:158-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The primary objective was to investigate pharmacokinetic (PK) effects of lopinavir/ritonavir 400 mg/100 mg twice daily on pitavastatin 4 mg when coadministered. This was an open-label one-arm study...
  3. Fagard C, Colin C, Charpentier C, Rami A, Jacomet C, Yeni P, et al. Long-term efficacy and safety of raltegravir, etravirine, and darunavir/ritonavir in treatment-experienced patients: week 96 results from the ANRS 139 TRIO trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012;59:489-93 pubmed publisher
    Among 103 patients with multidrug-resistant HIV who initiated raltegravir, etravirine, and darunavir/ritonavir-containing regimen in the ANRS 139 TRIO trial, 100 participated in extended follow-up and continued study treatment until week ..
  4. Hulskotte E, Feng H, Xuan F, van Zutven M, Treitel M, Hughes E, et al. Pharmacokinetic interactions between the hepatitis C virus protease inhibitor boceprevir and ritonavir-boosted HIV-1 protease inhibitors atazanavir, darunavir, and lopinavir. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56:718-26 pubmed publisher
    ..A randomized, open-label study to assess the pharmacokinetic interactions between boceprevir and ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r) was conducted in 39 healthy adults...
  5. Nishijima T, Takano M, Ishisaka M, Komatsu H, Gatanaga H, Kikuchi Y, et al. Abacavir/lamivudine versus tenofovir/emtricitabine with atazanavir/ritonavir for treatment-naive Japanese patients with HIV-1 infection: a randomized multicenter trial. Intern Med. 2013;52:735-44 pubmed
    ..the efficacy and safety of fixed-dose abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) and tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r) in treatment-naïve Japanese patients with HIV-1 infection...
  6. Gandhi M, Mwesigwa J, Aweeka F, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Ruel T, et al. Hair and plasma data show that lopinavir, ritonavir, and efavirenz all transfer from mother to infant in utero, but only efavirenz transfers via breastfeeding. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;63:578-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We measured plasma and hair antiretroviral levels in HIV-infected Ugandan mothers and their infants at delivery and during breastfeeding to assess transfer...
  7. Mencarelli A, Francisci D, Renga B, D Amore C, Cipriani S, Basile F, et al. Ritonavir-induced lipoatrophy and dyslipidaemia is reversed by the anti-inflammatory drug leflunomide in a PPAR-?-dependent manner. Antivir Ther. 2012;17:669-78 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we have investigated the effects of leflunomide on dyslipidaemia and lipodistrophy induced by ritonavir in rodents...
  8. Violari A, Lindsey J, Hughes M, Mujuru H, Barlow Mosha L, Kamthunzi P, et al. Nevirapine versus ritonavir-boosted lopinavir for HIV-infected children. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:2380-9 pubmed publisher
    ..human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission is common, a problem that has led to the recommendation of ritonavir-boosted lopinavir in such settings...
  9. Santiago F, Oguma J, Brown A, Laurence J. Noncanonical Wnt signaling promotes osteoclast differentiation and is facilitated by the human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor ritonavir. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;417:223-30 pubmed publisher
    ..in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and its treatment with the protease inhibitor ritonavir (RTV), we observed that RTV decreased nuclear localization of ?-catenin, critical to canonical Wnt signaling, in ..
  10. Lockman S, Hughes M, Sawe F, Zheng Y, Mcintyre J, Chipato T, et al. Nevirapine- versus lopinavir/ritonavir-based initial therapy for HIV-1 infection among women in Africa: a randomized trial. PLoS Med. 2012;9:e1001236 pubmed publisher
    ..The primary objective of the AA5208/OCTANE trial was to compare the efficacy of NVP-based versus lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-based initial ART...
  11. Young J, Schäfer J, Fux C, Furrer H, Bernasconi E, Vernazza P, et al. Renal function in patients with HIV starting therapy with tenofovir and either efavirenz, lopinavir or atazanavir. AIDS. 2012;26:567-75 pubmed publisher
    ..either the NNRTI efavirenz or the protease inhibitors lopinavir (LPV/r) or atazanavir (ATV/r), both boosted with ritonavir. Patients on a first therapy of tenofovir co-administered with efavirenz (n ?= 484), LPV/r (n = 269) and ATV/r (..
  12. Patterson K, Dumond J, Prince H, Jenkins A, Scarsi K, Wang R, et al. Protein binding of lopinavir and ritonavir during 4 phases of pregnancy: implications for treatment guidelines. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;63:51-8 pubmed publisher
    ..the intraindividual pharmacokinetics (PKs) of total (protein bound plus unbound) and unbound lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/RTV) and to assess whether the pediatric formulation (100 mg/25 mg) can overcome any pregnancy-associated ..
  13. Valantin M, Kolta S, Flandre P, Algarte Genin M, Meynard J, Ponscarme D, et al. Body fat distribution in HIV-infected patients treated for 96 weeks with darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy versus darunavir/ritonavir plus nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: the MONOI-ANRS136 substudy. HIV Med. 2012;13:505-15 pubmed publisher
    ..was to evaluate fat tissue distribution in HIV-infected patients with suppressed viraemia treated with darunavir/ritonavir (darunavir/r) monotherapy versus darunavir/r triple therapy...
  14. Santos J, Llibre J, Imaz A, Domingo P, Iribarren J, Mariño A, et al. Mutations in the protease gene associated with virological failure to lopinavir/ritonavir-containing regimens. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012;67:1462-9 pubmed publisher
    To assess the most frequent resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) to lopinavir/ritonavir in a cohort of patients attended in daily practice. We retrospectively identified 195 multitreated subjects with virological failure...
  15. Okoli C, Siccardi M, Thomas William S, Dufty N, Khonyongwa K, Ainsworth J, et al. Once daily maraviroc 300 mg or 150 mg in combination with ritonavir-boosted darunavir 800/100 mg. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012;67:671-4 pubmed publisher
    To describe the pharmacokinetics of maraviroc when dosed at 150 or 300 mg once daily with 800/100 mg of darunavir/ritonavir. A retrospective case-note review of HIV-infected adults taking maraviroc was conducted...
  16. Taylor S, Jayasuriya A, Fisher M, Allan S, Wilkins E, Gilleran G, et al. Lopinavir/ritonavir single agent therapy as a universal combination antiretroviral therapy stopping strategy: results from the STOP 1 and STOP 2 studies. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012;67:675-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In STOP 2, 20 patients stopped their cART and replaced it with two tablets of lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra) (100/50 mg) twice daily for 4 weeks...
  17. Valantin M, Lambert Niclot S, Flandre P, Morand Joubert L, Cabie A, Meynard J, et al. Long-term efficacy of darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy in patients with HIV-1 viral suppression: week 96 results from the MONOI ANRS 136 study. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012;67:691-5 pubmed publisher
    Long-term results at week 96 are needed to evaluate the capacity of the darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy strategy to maintain a sustained control of the HIV-1 viral load...
  18. Calza L, Trapani F, Bartoletti M, Manfredi R, Colangeli V, Borderi M, et al. Statin therapy decreases serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-? in HIV-infected patients treated with ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors. HIV Clin Trials. 2012;13:153-61 pubmed publisher
    ..adult patients with hypercholesterolemia who were receiving a stable antiretroviral regimen including a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor and who started a lipid-lowering therapy with rosuvastatin (10 mg daily), ..
  19. Zhang C, Denti P, Decloedt E, Maartens G, Karlsson M, Simonsson U, et al. Model-based approach to dose optimization of lopinavir/ritonavir when co-administered with rifampicin. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2012;73:758-67 pubmed publisher
    ..an integrated population pharmacokinetic model accounting for the drug-drug interactions between lopinavir, ritonavir and rifampicin, and to evaluate optimal doses of lopinavir/ritonavir when co-administered with rifampicin...
  20. Kozal M, Lupo S, DeJesus E, Molina J, McDonald C, Raffi F, et al. A nucleoside- and ritonavir-sparing regimen containing atazanavir plus raltegravir in antiretroviral treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients: SPARTAN study results. HIV Clin Trials. 2012;13:119-30 pubmed publisher
    Nucleoside and ritonavir (RTV) toxicities have led to increased interest in nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and RTV-sparing antiretroviral regimens...
  21. Neukam K, Mira J, Ruiz Morales J, Rivero A, Collado A, Torres Cornejo A, et al. Liver toxicity associated with antiretroviral therapy including efavirenz or ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors in a cohort of HIV/hepatitis C virus co-infected patients. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011;66:2605-14 pubmed publisher
    ..C virus (HCV) co-infected patients who started a three-antiretroviral drug regimen including efavirenz or a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) and the influence of pre-existing significant hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis...
  22. Lambert Niclot S, Flandre P, Valantin M, Peytavin G, Duvivier C, Haïm Boukobza S, et al. Factors associated with virological failure in HIV-1-infected patients receiving darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy. J Infect Dis. 2011;204:1211-6 pubmed publisher
    ..with virological failure in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients switching to darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) monotherapy...
  23. Decloedt E, Maartens G, Smith P, Merry C, Bango F, McIlleron H. The safety, effectiveness and concentrations of adjusted lopinavir/ritonavir in HIV-infected adults on rifampicin-based antitubercular therapy. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32173 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies in healthy volunteers and HIV-infected patients showed that doubling the dose of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) or adding additional ritonavir offsets this interaction...
  24. Jansen K, Sonnerborg A, Brockmeyer N, Thalme A, Svedhem V, Dupke S, et al. Long-term efficacy and safety of atazanavir/ritonavir treatment in a real-life cohort of treatment-experienced patients with HIV type 1 infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013;29:564-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we assessed the long-term outcomes of ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r)-containing regimens in ARV-experienced patients in a clinical setting in a ..
  25. DeJesus E, Rockstroh J, Henry K, Molina J, Gathe J, Ramanathan S, et al. Co-formulated elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate versus ritonavir-boosted atazanavir plus co-formulated emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection: a randomised, do. Lancet. 2012;379:2429-2438 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF with a ritonavir-boosted (RTV) protease inhibitor regimen of atazanavir (ATV)/RTV+FTC/TDF as initial therapy for HIV-1 infection...
  26. Mak I, Kramer J, Chen X, Chmielinska J, Spurney C, Weglicki W. Mg supplementation attenuates ritonavir-induced hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress, and cardiac dysfunction in rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2013;305:R1102-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Chronic systemic and cardiac effects of ritonavir (RTV), a universal PI booster, and Mg supplementation were examined...
  27. Curran A, Martinez E, Saumoy M, del Rio L, Crespo M, Larrousse M, et al. Body composition changes after switching from protease inhibitors to raltegravir: SPIRAL-LIP substudy. AIDS. 2012;26:475-81 pubmed publisher
    ..48-week changes in body fat distribution and bone mineral density (BMD) between patients switching from a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) to raltegravir (RAL) and patients continuing with PI/r...
  28. Savic R, Barrail Tran A, Duval X, Nembot G, Panhard X, Descamps D, et al. Effect of adherence as measured by MEMS, ritonavir boosting, and CYP3A5 genotype on atazanavir pharmacokinetics in treatment-naive HIV-infected patients. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2012;92:575-83 pubmed publisher
    We investigated population pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV), using drug intake times exactly recorded by the Medication Event Monitoring System...
  29. Mahlab Guri K, Asher I, Gradstein S, Zung A, Radian Sade S, Elbirt D, et al. Inhaled fluticasone causes iatrogenic cushing's syndrome in patients treated with Ritonavir. J Asthma. 2011;48:860-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Ritonavir, a protease inhibitor (PI), is commonly used in the treatment of HIV-1 infection. It is a potent inhibitor of the hepatic cytochrome P450 superfamily...
  30. Barber T, Harrison L, Asboe D, Williams I, Kirk S, Gilson R, et al. Frequency and patterns of protease gene resistance mutations in HIV-infected patients treated with lopinavir/ritonavir as their first protease inhibitor. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012;67:995-1000 pubmed publisher
    Selection of protease mutations on antiretroviral therapy (ART) including a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI) has been reported infrequently...
  31. Lu J, Nurko J, Jiang J, Weakley S, Lin P, Yao Q, et al. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) inhibits ritonavir-induced endothelial dysfunction in porcine pulmonary arteries. Med Sci Monit. 2011;17:BR312-318 pubmed
    HIV infection and treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) including HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir (RTV) have been associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease including pulmonary arterial ..
  32. Gruber V, Rainey P, Moody D, Morse G, Ma Q, Prathikanti S, et al. Interactions between buprenorphine and the protease inhibitors darunavir-ritonavir and fosamprenavir-ritonavir. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54:414-23 pubmed publisher
    ..agonist used for opioid dependence treatment and pain management, and the protease inhibitors (PIs) darunavir-ritonavir and fosamprenavir-ritonavir...
  33. Balkundi S, Nowacek A, Veerubhotla R, Chen H, Martinez Skinner A, Roy U, et al. Comparative manufacture and cell-based delivery of antiretroviral nanoformulations. Int J Nanomedicine. 2011;6:3393-404 pubmed publisher
    Nanoformulations of crystalline indinavir, ritonavir, atazanavir, and efavirenz were manufactured by wet milling, homogenization or sonication with a variety of excipients...
  34. Di Biagio A, Prinapori R, Giannarelli D, Maggiolo F, Di Giambenedetto S, Borghi V, et al. Duration of first-line antiretroviral therapy with tenofovir and emtricitabine combined with atazanavir/ritonavir, efavirenz or lopinavir/ritonavir in the Italian ARCA cohort. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013;68:200-5 pubmed publisher
    ..explore the durability of three first-line tenofovir/emtricitabine-based regimens in combination with atazanavir/ritonavir, efavirenz or lopinavir/ritonavir in HIV-1-infected patients...
  35. McComsey G, Daar E, O Riordan M, Collier A, Kosmiski L, Santana J, et al. Changes in fat mitochondrial DNA and function in subjects randomized to abacavir-lamivudine or tenofovir DF-emtricitabine with atazanavir-ritonavir or efavirenz: AIDS Clinical Trials Group study A5224s, substudy of A5202. J Infect Dis. 2013;207:604-11 pubmed publisher
    ..to abacavir-lamivudine (ABC/3TC) versus tenofovir DF-emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with efavirenz (EFV) or atazanavir-ritonavir (ATV/r)...
  36. Young B, Squires K, Ross L, Santiago L, Sloan L, Zhao H, et al. Inflammatory biomarker changes and their correlation with Framingham cardiovascular risk and lipid changes in antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected patients treated for 144 weeks with abacavir/lamivudine/atazanavir with or without ritonavir in ARIES. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013;29:350-8 pubmed publisher
    ..in which 515 antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected subjects initially received abacavir/lamivudine + atazanavir/ritonavir for 36 weeks...
  37. Li F, Lu J, Ma X. Metabolomic screening and identification of the bioactivation pathways of ritonavir. Chem Res Toxicol. 2011;24:2109-14 pubmed publisher
    b>Ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor regimens are widely used for HIV chemotherapy. However, ritonavir causes multiple side effects, and the mechanisms are not fully understood...
  38. Best B, Capparelli E, Diep H, Rossi S, Farrell M, Williams E, et al. Pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir crushed versus whole tablets in children. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011;58:385-91 pubmed publisher
    Lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra) is first-line therapy for pediatric HIV infection. In clinical practice, Kaletra tablets are occasionally crushed for pediatric administration...
  39. Bunupuradah T, Chetchotisakd P, Ananworanich J, Munsakul W, Jirajariyavej S, Kantipong P, et al. A randomized comparison of second-line lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy versus tenofovir/lamivudine/lopinavir/ritonavir in patients failing NNRTI regimens: the HIV STAR study. Antivir Ther. 2012;17:1351-61 pubmed publisher
    ..with HIV RNA?1,000 copies/ml while using NNRTI plus 2 NRTIs, and naive to PIs were randomized to lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) 400/100 mg twice daily monotherapy (mono-LPV/r) or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) once daily plus ..
  40. Albini L, Cesana B, Motta D, Focà E, Gotti D, Calabresi A, et al. A randomized, pilot trial to evaluate glomerular filtration rate by creatinine or cystatin C in naive HIV-infected patients after tenofovir/emtricitabine in combination with atazanavir/ritonavir or efavirenz. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012;59:18-30 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-infected patients were randomized to tenofovir/emtricitabine in association with atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) or efavirenz (EFV) Patients had to have an actual creatinine clearance >50 mL/minute (24-hour urine ..
  41. Gilks C, Walker A, Dunn D, Gibb D, Kikaire B, Reid A, et al. Lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy after 24 weeks of second-line antiretroviral therapy in Africa: a randomized controlled trial (SARA). Antivir Ther. 2012;17:1363-73 pubmed publisher
    ..It has never been evaluated as second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa. After 24 weeks of lopinavir/ritonavir-containing second-line therapy, DART participants were randomized to remain on combination therapy (CT), or ..
  42. Gisslen M, Fuchs D, Hagberg L, Svennerholm B, Zetterberg H. Cerebrospinal fluid viral breakthrough in two HIV-infected subjects on darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy. Scand J Infect Dis. 2012;44:997-1000 pubmed publisher
    Darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy maintains HIV suppression in most patients who have achieved an undetectable viral load on combination antiretroviral treatment, and is increasingly used in the clinic...
  43. Arribas J, Clumeck N, Nelson M, Hill A, Van Delft Y, Moecklinghoff C. The MONET trial: week 144 analysis of the efficacy of darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) monotherapy versus DRV/r plus two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, for patients with viral load < 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL at baseline. HIV Med. 2012;13:398-405 pubmed publisher
    In the MONotherapy in Europe with Tmc114 (MONET) trial, darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) monotherapy showed noninferior efficacy vs. two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) plus DRV/r at the primary 48-week analysis...
  44. Taiwo B, Zheng L, Gallien S, Matining R, Kuritzkes D, Wilson C, et al. Efficacy of a nucleoside-sparing regimen of darunavir/ritonavir plus raltegravir in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected patients (ACTG A5262). AIDS. 2011;25:2113-22 pubmed publisher
    To explore darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) plus raltegravir (RAL) combination therapy in antiretroviral-naive patients. Phase IIb, single-arm, open-label, multicenter study...
  45. Rockstroh J, DeJesus E, Henry K, Molina J, Gathe J, Ramanathan S, et al. A randomized, double-blind comparison of coformulated elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir DF vs ritonavir-boosted atazanavir plus coformulated emtricitabine and tenofovir DF for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection: analysis of week 96 re. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;62:483-6 pubmed publisher
    ..of elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir DF (EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF) compared with atazanavir boosted by ritonavir (ATV/RTV) plus emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) at 48 weeks...
  46. Skinner Adams T, Butterworth A, Porter K, D Amico R, Sawe F, Shaffer D, et al. The frequency of malaria is similar among women receiving either lopinavir/ritonavir or nevirapine-based antiretroviral treatment. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34399 pubmed publisher
    ..PI-sparing ART, and were followed prospectively for ?48 weeks; 73% also received cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. PI-containing treatment was not associated with protection against malaria in this study population. ..
  47. Estébanez M, Arribas J. Protease inhibitor monotherapy: what is its role?. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2012;9:179-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of the uncertainties possibly associated with protease inhibitor monotherapy such as the increased risk of neurological events and a higher level of subclinical inflammation will be discussed in this review. ..
  48. Hodder S, Jayaweera D, Mrus J, Ryan R, Witek J. Efficacy and safety outcomes among treatment-experienced women and men treated with etravirine in gender, race and clinical experience. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012;28:544-51 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-1-infected patients, mainly women, in North America, to assess outcomes with a darunavir/ritonavir-based regimen, which could include etravirine (ETR)...
  49. Hamada Y, Nishijima T, Watanabe K, Komatsu H, Tsukada K, Teruya K, et al. High incidence of renal stones among HIV-infected patients on ritonavir-boosted atazanavir than in those receiving other protease inhibitor-containing antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:1262-9 pubmed publisher
    Little information is available on the incidence of renal stones with ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r) use...
  50. Pasley M, Martinez M, Hermes A, D Amico R, Nilius A. Safety and efficacy of lopinavir/ritonavir during pregnancy: a systematic review. AIDS Rev. 2013;15:38-48 pubmed
    The co-formulated, ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor lopinavir is a frequently used component of HAART for treatment of HIV-infected women during pregnancy and prevention of mother-to-child transmission...
  51. Bedimo R, Maalouf N, Zhang S, Drechsler H, Tebas P. Osteoporotic fracture risk associated with cumulative exposure to tenofovir and other antiretroviral agents. AIDS. 2012;26:825-31 pubmed publisher
    ..08 (1.01-1.15, P = 0.026) in MV1 and 1.05 (0.97-1.13, P = 0.237) in MV2. Among protease inhibitors, lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/RTV) had an osteoporotic fracture hazard ratio of 1.09 (CI 1.00-1.20, P = 0.051) in MV2...
  52. Fourie J, Flamm J, Rodriguez French A, Kilby D, Domingo P, Lazzarin A, et al. Effect of baseline characteristics on the efficacy and safety of once-daily darunavir/ ritonavir in HIV-1-infected, treatment-naïve ARTEMIS patients at week 96. HIV Clin Trials. 2011;12:313-22 pubmed publisher
    ARTEMIS demonstrated significantly greater efficacy of once-daily darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) 800/100 mg versus lopinavir/ritonavir 800/200 mg (total daily dose) in treatment-naïve, HIV-1-infected patients at week 96...
  53. Reynes J, Lawal A, Pulido F, Soto Malave R, Gathe J, Tian M, et al. Examination of noninferiority, safety, and tolerability of lopinavir/ritonavir and raltegravir compared with lopinavir/ritonavir and tenofovir/ emtricitabine in antiretroviral-naïve subjects: the progress study, 48-week results. HIV Clin Trials. 2011;12:255-67 pubmed publisher
    ..comparing the efficacy and safety of a boosted protease inhibitor (PI) and an integrase inhibitor (lopi-navir/ritonavir [LPV/r] + raltegravir [RAL]) to a boosted PI and 2 NRTIs (LPV/r + tenofovir/ emtricitabine [TDF/FTC]) in ..
  54. Sevrioukova I, Poulos T. Dissecting cytochrome P450 3A4-ligand interactions using ritonavir analogues. Biochemistry. 2013;52:4474-81 pubmed publisher
    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibitors ritonavir and cobicistat, currently administered to HIV patients as pharmacoenhancers, were designed on the basis of the chemical structure/activity relationships rather than the CYP3A4 crystal ..
  55. Ucciferri C, Falasca K, Vignale F, Di Nicola M, Pizzigallo E, Vecchiet J. Improved metabolic profile after switch to darunavir/ritonavir in HIV positive patients previously on protease inhibitor therapy. J Med Virol. 2013;85:755-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the switch from lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) or fosamprenavir/ritonavir (FPV/r) to darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) is able to improve the lipid profile...
  56. Feld J, Kowdley K, Coakley E, Sigal S, Nelson D, Crawford D, et al. Treatment of HCV with ABT-450/r-ombitasvir and dasabuvir with ribavirin. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:1594-603 pubmed publisher
    The interferon-free combination of the protease inhibitor ABT-450 with ritonavir (ABT-450/r) and the NS5A inhibitor ombitasvir (also known as ABT-267) plus the nonnucleoside polymerase inhibitor dasabuvir (also known as ABT-333) and ..
  57. Martinez E, D Albuquerque P, Llibre J, Gutierrez F, Podzamczer D, Antela A, et al. Changes in cardiovascular biomarkers in HIV-infected patients switching from ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors to raltegravir. AIDS. 2012;26:2315-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Biomarkers and lipids changes at 48 weeks were weakly correlated. : Switching from PI/r to RAL induced significant changes in several cardiovascular biomarkers that were not completely explained by lipid changes. ..
  58. Sevrioukova I, Poulos T. Interaction of human cytochrome P4503A4 with ritonavir analogs. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2012;520:108-16 pubmed publisher
    b>Ritonavir is a HIV protease inhibitor that also potently inactivates cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), a major human drug-metabolizing enzyme...
  59. Lambert Niclot S, Flandre P, Valantin M, Peytavin G, Sayon S, Morand Joubert L, et al. Resistant minority species are rarely observed in patients on darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012;67:1470-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Nine of the 225 HIV-1-infected patients enrolled in the MONOI trial (darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy or darunavir/ritonavir + two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in a switch strategy) ..
  60. Zhu L, Liao S, Child M, Zhang J, Persson A, Sevinsky H, et al. Pharmacokinetics and inhibitory quotient of atazanavir/ritonavir versus lopinavir/ritonavir in HIV-infected, treatment-naive patients who participated in the CASTLE Study. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012;67:465-8 pubmed publisher
    To characterize the pharmacokinetics and inhibitory quotient (IQ) of atazanavir/ritonavir- and lopinavir/ritonavir-based regimens in HIV-infected, treatment-naive patients...
  61. Molina J, Lamarca A, Andrade Villanueva J, Clotet B, Clumeck N, Liu Y, et al. Efficacy and safety of once daily elvitegravir versus twice daily raltegravir in treatment-experienced patients with HIV-1 receiving a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor: randomised, double-blind, phase 3, non-inferiority study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12:27-35 pubmed publisher
    Elvitegravir is a once daily inhibitor of HIV-1 integrase boosted by ritonavir. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of elvitegravir with raltegravir, another HIV-1 integrase inhibitor, in patients in whom previous antiretroviral ..
  62. Dejesus E, Mills A, Bhatti L, Conner C, Storfer S. A randomised comparison of safety and efficacy of nevirapine vs. atazanavir/ritonavir combined with tenofovir/emtricitabine in treatment-naïve patients. Int J Clin Pract. 2011;65:1240-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r) on a background of tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) in HIV-1-infected treatment-naï..
  63. Ghosn J, Delaugerre C, Flandre P, Galimand J, Cohen Codar I, Raffi F, et al. Polymorphism in Gag gene cleavage sites of HIV-1 non-B subtype and virological outcome of a first-line lopinavir/ritonavir single drug regimen. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24798 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that pre-therapy mutations in gag cleavage site sequence were significantly associated with the virological outcome of a first-line LPV/r single drug regimen in the Monark trial. ..
  64. Murphy R, Marconi V, Gandhi R, Kuritzkes D, Sunpath H. Coadministration of lopinavir/ritonavir and rifampicin in HIV and tuberculosis co-infected adults in South Africa. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44793 pubmed publisher
    In HIV-infected patients receiving rifampicin-based treatment for tuberculosis (TB), the dosage of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is adjusted to prevent sub-therapeutic lopinavir concentrations...
  65. Bittar R, Giral P, Aslangul E, Assoumou L, Valantin M, Kalmykova O, et al. Effects of rosuvastatin versus pravastatin on low-density lipoprotein diameter in HIV-1-infected patients receiving ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor. AIDS. 2012;26:1801-5 pubmed
    HIV infection is associated with an atherogenic lipoprotein profile, and ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors exacerbate this phenotype...
  66. Santos J, Moltó J, Llibre J, Negredo E, Bravo I, Ornelas A, et al. Antiretroviral simplification with darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy in routine clinical practice: safety, effectiveness, and impact on lipid profile. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37442 pubmed publisher
    Simplification of antiretroviral treatment (ART) with darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) monotherapy has achieved sustained suppression of plasma viral load (pVL) in clinical trials; however, its effectiveness and safety profile has not been ..
  67. Di Giambenedetto S, Fabbiani M, Colafigli M, Ciccarelli N, Farina S, Sidella L, et al. Safety and feasibility of treatment simplification to atazanavir/ritonavir + lamivudine in HIV-infected patients on stable treatment with two nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors + atazanavir/ritonavir with virological suppression (Atazanav. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013;68:1364-72 pubmed publisher
    To explore 48 week safety and efficacy of treatment simplification to atazanavir/ritonavir?+?lamivudine in HIV-infected patients with virological suppression on a stable atazanavir/ritonavir-based standard triple regimen...
  68. Bertz R, Persson A, Chung E, Zhu L, Zhang J, McGrath D, et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of atazanavir-containing antiretroviral regimens, with or without ritonavir, in patients who are HIV-positive and treatment-naïve. Pharmacotherapy. 2013;33:284-94 pubmed publisher
    ..virus (HIV)-protease inhibitor atazanavir (ATV) in the presence and absence of the pharmacokinetic booster ritonavir, utilizing ATV plasma trough concentrations (Ctrough ) and clinical biomarkers of antiviral efficacy and safety ..
  69. Chinello P, Cicalini S, Pichini S, Pacifici R, Tempestilli M, Petrosillo N. Sildenafil plasma concentrations in two HIV patients with pulmonary hypertension treated with ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors. Curr HIV Res. 2012;10:162-4 pubmed
    ..exist about pharmacokinetic interactions between sildenafil and protease inhibitors (PI); in particular, ritonavir has been shown to increase sildenafil AUC and Cmax by several folds...
  70. Reyskens K, Fisher T, Schisler J, O Connor W, Rogers A, Willis M, et al. Cardio-metabolic effectsof HIV protease inhibitors (lopinavir/ritonavir). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73347 pubmed publisher
    ..In light of this, we hypothesized that HIV protease inhibitor (PI) treatment (Lopinavir/Ritonavir) elevates myocardial oxidative stress and concomitantly inhibits the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), thereby ..
  71. Bierman W, van Vonderen M, Veldkamp A, Burger D, Danner S, Reiss P, et al. The lopinavir/ritonavir-associated rise in lipids is not related to lopinavir or ritonavir plasma concentration. Antivir Ther. 2011;16:647-55 pubmed publisher
    ..between lopinavir plasma concentration and the magnitude of lipid elevation after initiation of lopinavir/ritonavir-containing antiretroviral therapy is unclear...