fura 2


Summary: A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.

Top Publications

  1. Froschauer E, Kolisek M, Dieterich F, Schweigel M, Schweyen R. Fluorescence measurements of free [Mg2+] by use of mag-fura 2 in Salmonella enterica. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;237:49-55 pubmed
    The Mg2+ fluorescent dye mag-fura 2, entrapped in cells or organelles, has frequently been used for dual excitation ratio-metric determinations of free ionic Mg2+ concentrations in eukaryotic, mostly mammalian cells...
  2. Lüders A, Saborowski R, Bickmeyer U. Inhibition of multidrug/xenobiotic resistance transporter by MK571 improves dye (Fura 2) accumulation in crustacean tissues from lobster, shrimp, and isopod. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2009;150:368-71 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins (MRP) are one type of ATP-Binding-Cassette (ABC) transporters, which also transport dyes such as Fura 2, a calcium chelating fluorescence indicator...
  3. Brewer G, Reichensperger J, Brinton R. Prevention of age-related dysregulation of calcium dynamics by estrogen in neurons. Neurobiol Aging. 2006;27:306-17 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate age-associated dysregulation of [Ca2+]i homeostasis which was largely prevented by 17beta-estradiol with implications for estrogen/hormone therapy. ..
  4. Baker H, Errington R, Davies S, Campbell A. A mathematical model predicts that calreticulin interacts with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase. Biophys J. 2002;82:582-90 pubmed
  5. McHugh J, Kenyon J. An Excel-based model of Ca2+ diffusion and fura 2 measurements in a spherical cell. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2004;286:C342-8 pubmed
    ..In contrast, [Ca2+]avg,M2 follows [Ca2+]avg closely. ..
  6. Brailoiu E, Dun S, Gao X, Brailoiu G, Li J, Luo J, et al. C-peptide of preproinsulin-like peptide 7: localization in the rat brain and activity in vitro. Neuroscience. 2009;159:492-500 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our result raises the possibility that C-INSL7 acts as a signaling molecule independent from INSL7 in the rat CNS...
  7. Roan C, Huang C, Cheng H, Chien J, Chou C, Lin K, et al. Diethylstilbestrol-induced estrogen receptor-dependent [Ca2+]i rises and apoptosis in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2008;28:307-22 pubmed
    ..DES-caused cytotoxicity was mediated by an estrogen receptor- and Ca2+-dependent pathway. ..
  8. Juska A, Jardin I, Rosado J. Physical properties of two types of calcium stores and SERCAs in human platelets. Mol Cell Biochem. 2008;311:9-18 pubmed
    ..5 x 10(6 )s(-1) ions per cell. The properties of both calcium stores and the SERCAs and the characteristics found might be related to physiological or pathological state of the cells. ..
  9. Hirose A, Azuma H, Tokoro T, Hirai K. Endothelin-B receptors on suprachoroidal melanocytes mediate an endothelin-1-induced increase in the intracellular calcium concentration of rabbit ocular suprachoroidal tissue. Curr Eye Res. 2007;32:585-91 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that endothelin-1 increases intracellular calcium concentration in rabbit suprachoroidal tissue via endothelin-B receptors on melanocytes. ..

More Information


  1. Neumann S, Kovtun A, Dietzel I, Epple M, Heumann R. The use of size-defined DNA-functionalized calcium phosphate nanoparticles to minimise intracellular calcium disturbance during transfection. Biomaterials. 2009;30:6794-802 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistently, the viability of cells transfected by calcium phosphate/DNA nanoparticles was not changed, in remarkable contrast to the standard method where considerable cell death occurred. ..
  2. Teng H, Wilkinson R. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis in snake motor terminals is directly facilitated by intracellular Ca2+. J Physiol. 2005;565:743-50 pubmed
    ..Thus the rate of CME - isolated from stimulation, transmitter release, and other forms of endocytosis - is directly influenced by intraterminal Ca(2+). ..
  3. Choi Y, Lee K, Kim J, Kang S, Park S, Lee J, et al. Petatewalide B, a novel compound from Petasites japonicus with anti-allergic activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;178:17-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Petatewalide B from Petasites genus not only has anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects but also induces a transient increase of membrane potential in C6 glioma cells. ..
  4. Nani A, Belarbi M, Ksouri Megdiche W, Abdoul Azize S, Benammar C, Ghiringhelli F, et al. Effects of polyphenols and lipids from Pennisetum glaucum grains on T-cell activation: modulation of Ca(2+) and ERK1/ERK2 signaling. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015;15:426 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the immunomodulatory effects of P. glaucum could be contributed by its phenolic and lipid contents. ..
  5. Liao C, Lien C. Estimating intracellular Ca2+ concentrations and buffering in a dendritic inhibitory hippocampal interneuron. Neuroscience. 2009;164:1701-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These special features of Ca(2+) signaling in O-LM cells may have important functional implications for both normal and pathological conditions. ..
  6. Huang C, Huang C, Cheng J, Liu S, Chen I, Tsai J, et al. Fendiline-evoked [Ca2+]i rises and non-Ca2+-triggered cell death in human oral cancer cells. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2009;28:41-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, fendiline-caused cytotoxicity was not via a preceding [Ca(2+)](i) rise...
  7. Gruszczynska Biegala J, Sladowska M, Kuznicki J. AMPA Receptors Are Involved in Store-Operated Calcium Entry and Interact with STIM Proteins in Rat Primary Cortical Neurons. Front Cell Neurosci. 2016;10:251 pubmed
    ..Altogether, our data suggest that STIM proteins in neurons can control AMPA-induced Ca2+ entry as a part of the mechanism of SOCE. ..
  8. Young Shim E, Jung Kim H, Kim M, Rhie D, Jo Y, Kim M, et al. Desensitization of somatostatin-induced inhibition of low extracellular magnesium concentration-induced calcium spikes in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Brain Res. 2006;1111:61-71 pubmed
  9. Curtze S, Dembo M, Miron M, Jones D. Dynamic changes in traction forces with DC electric field in osteoblast-like cells. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:2721-9 pubmed
    ..We could not correlate the initial traction changes with any change in intracellular free calcium levels measured using the fluorescent dye Fura-2 AM. ..
  10. Pal Choudhuri S, Delay R, Delay E. L-Amino Acids Elicit Diverse Response Patterns in Taste Sensory Cells: A Role for Multiple Receptors. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0130088 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that synergistic and non-synergistic responses to L-amino acids and IMP are mediated by multiple receptors or possibly a receptor complex. ..
  11. Hong W, Nuwayhid S, Werling L. Modulation of bradykinin-induced calcium changes in SH-SY5Y cells by neurosteroids and sigma receptor ligands via a shared mechanism. Synapse. 2004;54:102-10 pubmed
    ..13 +/- 0.03 microM, 0.98 +/- 0.34 microM, and 5.2 +/- 1.4 microM, respectively. Thus, the modulation of bradykinin-induced [Ca2+]i changes by neurosteroids in these cells is likely due to their actions on sigma receptors. ..
  12. Evans G, Cousin M. Simultaneous monitoring of three key neuronal functions in primary neuronal cultures. J Neurosci Methods. 2007;160:197-205 pubmed
    ..We propose that this assay of three key neuronal functions could be simply translated into a high content screening format for studies investigating small molecule inhibitors of these processes. ..
  13. Dierkes P, Schlue W. Ca2+ influx into identified leech neurons induced by 5-hydroxytryptamine. J Neurobiol. 2005;62:106-20 pubmed
    ..In Retzius, anterior pagoda (AP), annulus erector (AE), and median nociceptive (N2) neurons, 5-HT had no effect on [Ca(2+)](i). ..
  14. Egholm C, Khammy M, Dalsgaard T, Mazur A, Tritsaris K, Hansen A, et al. GLP-1 inhibits VEGFA-mediated signaling in isolated human endothelial cells and VEGFA-induced dilation of rat mesenteric arteries. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2016;311:H1214-H1224 pubmed publisher
    ..GLP-1, on its own, also induced phosphorylation of Src and ERK1/2 that can lead to proliferation and is implicated in vessel permeability. ..
  15. Caputo C, Bolaños P. Effect of mitochondria poisoning by FCCP on Ca2+ signaling in mouse skeletal muscle fibers. Pflugers Arch. 2008;455:733-43 pubmed
    ..This suggests an important role for Ca(2+) in the FCCP effect on transient amplitude. ..
  16. Pons J, Kitlinska J, Jacques D, Perreault C, Nader M, Everhart L, et al. Interactions of multiple signaling pathways in neuropeptide Y-mediated bimodal vascular smooth muscle cell growth. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2008;86:438-48 pubmed publisher
    ..All 3 mechanisms converge to the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) signaling cascade and lead to VSMC proliferation. ..
  17. Gardam K, Geiger J, Hickey C, Hung A, Magoski N. Flufenamic acid affects multiple currents and causes intracellular Ca2+ release in Aplysia bag cell neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2008;100:38-49 pubmed publisher
    ..That FFA influences a number of neuronal properties needs to be taken into consideration when employing it as a cation channel antagonist. ..
  18. Abad E, Lorente G, Gavara N, Morales M, Gual A, Gasull X. Activation of store-operated Ca(2+) channels in trabecular meshwork cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:677-86 pubmed publisher
    ..CRAC and TRPC channels involved represent interesting modulators of TM function to improve aqueous humor outflow. ..
  19. Wu Y, Foster W, Younglai E. Rapid effects of pesticides on human granulosa-lutein cells. Reproduction. 2006;131:299-310 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that pesticides can have a rapid effect on human granulosa-lutein cells, and a nongenomic mechanism of action is suggested. ..
  20. Brueckl C, Kaestle S, Kerem A, Habazettl H, Krombach F, Kuppe H, et al. Hyperoxia-induced reactive oxygen species formation in pulmonary capillary endothelial cells in situ. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2006;34:453-63 pubmed
    ..oxygen species (ROS) and cytosolic calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) by in situ imaging of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) and fura 2 fluorescence, respectively, and translocation of the small GTPase Rac1 by immunofluorescence in isolated perfused ..
  21. Jung Y, Wirkus E, Amendola D, Gomez G. Characteristics of odorant elicited calcium fluxes in acutely-isolated chick olfactory neurons. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2005;191:511-20 pubmed
    ..It appears that there are common features of odorant signaling shared by a variety of vertebrate species, as well as features that may be peculiar to chickens. ..
  22. Stary C, Hogan M. Cytosolic calcium transients are a determinant of contraction-induced HSP72 transcription in single skeletal muscle fibers. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2016;120:1260-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Metabolic or mechanical factors associated with fatigue development and cross-bridge cycling likely play a more limited role. ..
  23. Bolanz K, Kovacs G, Landowski C, Hediger M. Tamoxifen inhibits TRPV6 activity via estrogen receptor-independent pathways in TRPV6-expressing MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:2000-10 pubmed publisher
    ..This study highlights a possible role of TRPV6 as therapeutic target in breast cancer therapy. ..
  24. Miyoshi H, Yasuda T, Otsuki S, Kondo T, Haraki T, Mukaida K, et al. Several Ryanodine Receptor Type 1 Gene Mutations of p.Arg2508 Are Potential Sources of Malignant Hyperthermia. Anesth Analg. 2015;121:994-1000 pubmed publisher
    ..Arg2508 may cause important changes related to MH. Studying the effects of changes in amino acids at 2508 in RYR1 on the movement of this large protein may lead to a better understanding of the pathology of MH events. ..
  25. Liu S, Cheng H, Huang C, Chang H, Chen W, Chen I, et al. Melittin-induced [Ca2+]i increases and subsequent death in canine renal tubular cells. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2008;27:417-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, melittin can cause Ca(2+)-dependent cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. ..
  26. Ilkan Z, Wright J, Goodall A, Gibbins J, Jones C, Mahaut Smith M. Evidence for shear-mediated Ca2+ entry through mechanosensitive cation channels in human platelets and a megakaryocytic cell line. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:9204-9217 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that platelets and Meg-01 cells express the MS cation channel Piezo1, which may contribute to Ca2+ entry and thrombus formation under arterial shear. ..
  27. Light P, Kanji H, Fox J, French R. Distinct myoprotective roles of cardiac sarcolemmal and mitochondrial KATP channels during metabolic inhibition and recovery. FASEB J. 2001;15:2586-94 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that sarc and mitoKATP channel populations play distinct protective roles, triggered by PKC and/or adenosine, during chemically induced hypoxia/reoxygenation...
  28. Son G, Son A, Yang Y, Park W, Chang I, Lee J, et al. Airborne allergens induce protease activated receptor-2-mediated production of inflammatory cytokines in human gingival epithelium. Arch Oral Biol. 2016;61:138-43 pubmed publisher
    ..GCE activates PAR-2, which can induce PLC/IP3-dependent Ca(2+) signaling pathway, ultimately triggering inflammation via the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and NLRP 3 in HGECs. ..
  29. Walker S, Cunniffe N, Bootman M, Roderick H. Dynamic imaging of calcium and STIM1 in the same cell using wide-field and TIRF microscopy. Biotechniques. 2008;45:347-8 pubmed publisher
  30. Teles A, Ureshino R, Dorta D, Lopes G, Hsu Y, Smaili S. Bcl-x(L) inhibits Bax-induced alterations in mitochondrial respiration and calcium release. Neurosci Lett. 2008;442:96-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This regulation of calcium flux by Bcl-x(L) may represent an important mechanism by which this protein promotes cell survival. ..
  31. Hsieh C, Lee M, Tsai Wu J, Chen M, Lee H, Chiang H, et al. Deleterious effects of MRI on chondrocytes. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2008;16:343-51 pubmed
    ..These results may be specific to the parameters used in this study and may not apply to other situations, field strengths, forms of cartilage injury, or animal species. ..
  32. Arner A, Sjuve Scott R, Haase H, Morano I, Uvelius B. Intracellular calcium in hypertrophic smooth muscle from rat urinary bladder. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2007;41:270-7 pubmed
    ..The increases in L-type calcium channels and in calcium sensitivity may be compensatory mechanisms. ..
  33. Castillo B, Porzgen P, Penner R, Horgen F, Fleig A. Development and optimization of a high-throughput bioassay for TRPM7 ion channel inhibitors. J Biomol Screen. 2010;15:498-507 pubmed publisher
    ..The quality of the bioassay window is excellent based on an established statistical parameter used to evaluate high-throughput screening window quality (Z and Z' factors > or =0.5). ..
  34. Sasaki N, Dayanithi G, Shibuya I. Ca2+ clearance mechanisms in neurohypophysial terminals of the rat. Cell Calcium. 2005;37:45-56 pubmed
  35. Psichas A, Larraufie P, Goldspink D, Gribble F, Reimann F. Chylomicrons stimulate incretin secretion in mouse and human cells. Diabetologia. 2017;60:2475-2485 pubmed publisher
    ..In GLUTag cells, the molecular pathway was found to involve LPL-mediated lipolysis, leading to the release of lipid species that activated FFA1 and elevated intracellular calcium. ..
  36. Fukunaga K, Kume H, Oguma T, Shigemori W, Tohda Y, Ogawa E, et al. Involvement of Ca2+ Signaling in the Synergistic Effects between Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists and ??-Adrenoceptor Agonists in Airway Smooth Muscle. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17: pubmed
    ..PKC and KCa channels may be molecular targets for cross talk between ??-adrenoceptors and muscarinic receptors. ..
  37. Singh A, Verma P, Balaji G, Samantaray S, Mohanakumar K. Nimodipine, an L-type calcium channel blocker attenuates mitochondrial dysfunctions to protect against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced Parkinsonism in mice. Neurochem Int. 2016;99:221-232 pubmed publisher
  38. Kloesch B, Steiner G, Mayer B, Schmidt K. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits endothelial nitric oxide formation and receptor ligand-mediated Ca(2+) release in endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Pharmacol Rep. 2016;68:37-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of H2S on Ca(2+) stores was not restricted to endothelial cells but was also observed in vascular and tracheal smooth muscle cells. ..
  39. Wennemuth G, Aumüller G. Angiotensin II-mediated calcium signals and mitogenesis in human prostate stromal cell line hPCPs. Br J Pharmacol. 2005;144:3-10 pubmed
    ..The subsequently performed proliferation assay revealed a mitogenic effect of Ang II on hPCPs in concentrations starting at 10 nM. This effect could be inhibited by losartan. ..
  40. McClelland D, Evans R, Barkworth L, Martin D, Scott R. A study comparing the actions of gabapentin and pregabalin on the electrophysiological properties of cultured DRG neurones from neonatal rats. BMC Pharmacol. 2004;4:14 pubmed
    ..The actions of pregabalin may involve both extracellular and intracellular drug target sites and modulation of a variety of neuronal conductances, by direct interactions, and through intracellular signalling involving protein kinase A. ..
  41. Kotsis F, Nitschke R, Doerken M, Walz G, Kuehn E. Flow modulates centriole movements in tubular epithelial cells. Pflugers Arch. 2008;456:1025-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the cilium may translate fluid flow into altered centriole movements to provide tubular epithelial cells with the spatial orientation required to establish and/or maintain a normal tubular geometry. ..
  42. Gottlieb C, Zhang S, Linder M. The Cysteine-rich Domain of the DHHC3 Palmitoyltransferase Is Palmitoylated and Contains Tightly Bound Zinc. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:29259-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data demonstrate that coordination of zinc ions by cysteine residues within the CRD is required for the structural integrity of DHHC proteins. ..
  43. Lieb S, Littmann T, Plank N, Felixberger J, Tanaka M, Schafer T, et al. Label-free versus conventional cellular assays: Functional investigations on the human histamine H1 receptor. Pharmacol Res. 2016;114:13-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Both noninvasive techniques are complementary to each other, but cannot fully replace reductionist signaling pathway focused assays. ..
  44. Kumon R, Aehle M, Sabens D, Parikh P, Han Y, Kourennyi D, et al. Spatiotemporal effects of sonoporation measured by real-time calcium imaging. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2009;35:494-506 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the complexity of downstream effects of sonoporation beyond the initial pore formation and subsequent diffusion-related transport through the cellular membrane. ..
  45. Butler J, Samantaray S, Beeson C, Ray S, Banik N. Involvement of calpain in the process of Jurkat T cell chemotaxis. J Neurosci Res. 2009;87:626-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide evidence for the involvement of calpain in the mechanisms of chemotaxis and warrants further exploration in MS patient and EAE animal samples. ..
  46. Janssen L, Wattie J, Lu Chao H, Tazzeo T. Muscarinic excitation-contraction coupling mechanisms in tracheal and bronchial smooth muscles. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2001;91:1142-51 pubmed
    ..mechanisms underlying muscarinic excitation-contraction coupling in canine airway smooth muscle using organ bath, fura 2 fluorimetric, and patch-clamp techniques...
  47. Laine J, Skoglund G, Fournier E, Tabti N. Development of the excitation-contraction coupling machinery and its relation to myofibrillogenesis in human iPSC-derived skeletal myocytes. Skelet Muscle. 2018;8:1 pubmed publisher
    ..Formation of typical triads requires other factors/conditions, and this should be taken into account when using in-vitro models to explore skeletal muscle diseases, especially those affecting E-C coupling. ..
  48. Williams B, Liu C, Deyoung L, Brock G, Sims S. Regulation of intracellular Ca2+ release in corpus cavernosum smooth muscle: synergism between nitric oxide and cGMP. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005;288:C650-8 pubmed
    ..01). Our results demonstrate that NO and cGMP act synergistically to reduce Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores. Reduction of intracellular Ca(2+) release may contribute to relaxation of the corpus cavernosum, leading to erection. ..
  49. Nunez J, Bambrick L, Krueger B, McCarthy M. Prolongation and enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor mediated excitation by chronic treatment with estradiol in developing rat hippocampal neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;21:3251-61 pubmed
    ..We propose that a component of the trophic effects of estradiol on hippocampal development results from enhanced calcium influx subsequent to GABA(A) receptor activation. ..
  50. Restini C, Bendhack L. Involvement of non-selective Ca2+ channels in the contraction induced by alkalinization of rat anococcygeus muscle cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006;553:288-96 pubmed
    ..7% (n=4) by 10 micromol/l SKF96365. Taken together, our results suggest that NH(4)Cl induces contraction of rat anococcygeus smooth muscle cells, as well as [Ca(2+)](c) increase due to Ca(2+) influx through non-selective Ca(2+) channels. ..
  51. Vrecl M, Babnik M, Sepčić K, Žužek M, Maček P, Diacci U, et al. Effect of the ostreolysin A/pleurotolysin B pore-forming complex on intracellular Ca2+ activity in the vascular smooth muscle cell line A10. Toxicol In Vitro. 2015;29:2015-21 pubmed publisher
  52. Dubois C, Panicot Dubois L, Gainor J, Furie B, Furie B. Thrombin-initiated platelet activation in vivo is vWF independent during thrombus formation in a laser injury model. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:953-60 pubmed
    ..In the tissue factor-mediated pathway, vWF plays a role in platelet accumulation during thrombus formation but is not required for platelet activation in vivo. ..
  53. Warwick H, Nahorski S, Challiss R. Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, mGlu1a and mGlu5a, couple to cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) through a common Ca2+ - and protein kinase C-dependent pathway. J Neurochem. 2005;93:232-45 pubmed
    ..Thus, although the [Ca(2+)](i) signatures activated by these mGlu receptors differ, they couple to CREB with comparable potency and recruit similar downstream components to execute CREB phosphorylation. ..