levamisole

Summary

Summary: An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)

Top Publications

  1. Martin R, Verma S, Levandoski M, Clark C, Qian H, Stewart M, et al. Drug resistance and neurotransmitter receptors of nematodes: recent studies on the mode of action of levamisole. Parasitology. 2005;131 Suppl:S71-84 pubmed
    Here we review recent studies on the mode of action of the cholinergic anthelmintics (levamisole, pyrantel etc.). We also include material from studies on the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans...
  2. Buchanan J, Oyer R, Patel N, Jacquet G, Bornikova L, Thienelt C, et al. A confirmed case of agranulocytosis after use of cocaine contaminated with levamisole. J Med Toxicol. 2010;6:160-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Starting in early 2003, South American cocaine cartels began to add levamisole, a pharmaceutical agent, to bulk cocaine prior to shipment to the USA (Valentino and Fuentecilla 2005)...
  3. Diez Zaera M, Diaz Hernandez J, Hernández Álvarez E, Zimmermann H, Diaz Hernandez M, Miras Portugal M. Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase promotes axonal growth of hippocampal neurons. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:1014-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Selective blockade of TNAP activity with levamisole or specific TNAP knockdown with short hairpin RNA interference inhibited the growth and branching of principal ..
  4. Di Costanzo F, Sobrero A, Gasperoni S, Dogliotti L, Frassineti L, Falcone A, et al. Adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of colon cancer: randomized multicenter trial of the Italian National Intergroup of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Colon Cancer (INTACC). Ann Oncol. 2003;14:1365-72 pubmed
    To determine whether the addition of leucovorin to the combination 5-fluorouracil plus levamisole prolongs disease-free survival and overall survival in patients with radically resected colon cancer (Dukes' B(2-3) and C)...
  5. Francis M, Evans S, Jensen M, Madsen D, Mancuso J, Norman K, et al. The Ror receptor tyrosine kinase CAM-1 is required for ACR-16-mediated synaptic transmission at the C. elegans neuromuscular junction. Neuron. 2005;46:581-94 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that CAM-1 contributes to the localization or stabilization of postsynaptic ACR-16 receptors and presynaptic release sites. ..
  6. Dondorp A, Silamut K, Charunwatthana P, Chuasuwanchai S, Ruangveerayut R, Krintratun S, et al. Levamisole inhibits sequestration of infected red blood cells in patients with falciparum malaria. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:460-6 pubmed
    ..This is inhibited by the alkaline phosphatase-inhibitor levamisole, resulting in decreased cytoadhesion...
  7. Geller L, Whang T, Mercer S, Phelps R. Retiform purpura: a new stigmata of illicit drug use?. Dermatol Online J. 2011;17:7 pubmed
    ..These findings are similar to recent reports of agranulocytosis and purpura induced by levamisole-tainted cocaine...
  8. Kozlenkov A, Le Du M, Cuniasse P, Ny T, Hoylaerts M, Millan J. Residues determining the binding specificity of uncompetitive inhibitors to tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase. J Bone Miner Res. 2004;19:1862-72 pubmed
    ..mutants were characterized for their sensitivity toward the uncompetitive inhibitors l-homoarginine (L-hArg), levamisole, theophylline, and l-phenylalanine...
  9. Towers P, Edwards B, Richmond J, Sattelle D. The Caenorhabditis elegans lev-8 gene encodes a novel type of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit. J Neurochem. 2005;93:1-9 pubmed
    ..subunit (previously designated ACR-13), which has functional roles in body wall and uterine muscles as part of a levamisole-sensitive receptor...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Wu V, Huang J, Lien H, Hsieh S, Liu H, Yang C, et al. Levamisole-induced multifocal inflammatory leukoencephalopathy: clinical characteristics, outcome, and impact of treatment in 31 patients. Medicine (Baltimore). 2006;85:203-13 pubmed
    b>Levamisole (LEV) has been used as an immunomodulating medication in patients with recurrent aphthous ulcers and as an adjuvant for chemotherapy...
  2. Sutherland I, Damsteegt A, Miller C, Leathwick D. Multiple species of nematodes resistant to ivermectin and a benzimidazole-levamisole combination on a sheep farm in New Zealand. N Z Vet J. 2008;56:67-70 pubmed publisher
    ..To confirm the presence of multiple anthelmintic resistance on a sheep farm in New Zealand...
  3. Lu H, Huo X, Zhang Y, Zheng M, Ma M, Zhang H, et al. Enhancing effects of the chemical adjuvant levamisole on the DNA vaccine pVIR-P12A-IL18-3C. Microbiol Immunol. 2008;52:440-6 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that LMS may be useful as an adjuvant for improving the protective efficiency of DNA vaccination against FMDV in pigs. ..
  4. Zhu N, LeGatt D, Turner A. Agranulocytosis after consumption of cocaine adulterated with levamisole. Ann Intern Med. 2009;150:287-9 pubmed
  5. Martin R, Bai G, Clark C, Robertson A. Methyridine (2-[2-methoxyethyl]-pyridine]) and levamisole activate different ACh receptor subtypes in nematode parasites: a new lead for levamisole-resistance. Br J Pharmacol. 2003;140:1068-76 pubmed
    ..We are interested in resistance in parasitic nematodes to the anthelmintic levamisole. During studies on methyridine, we found that it gave us a new insight into pharmacological changes associated ..
  6. Touroutine D, Fox R, Von Stetina S, Burdina A, Miller D, Richmond J. acr-16 encodes an essential subunit of the levamisole-resistant nicotinic receptor at the Caenorhabditis elegans neuromuscular junction. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:27013-21 pubmed
    ..NMJ) contains three pharmacologically distinct ionotropic receptors: gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors, levamisole-sensitive nicotinic receptors, and levamisole-insensitive nicotinic receptors...
  7. Friis T, Engel A, Klein B, Rygaard J, Houen G. Levamisole inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Angiogenesis. 2005;8:25-34 pubmed
    The synthetic anthelmintic compound Levamisole has previously been used in cancer treatment as an adjuvant in combination with 5-fluorouracil. Its mode of action remains unclear, but an immune-stimulatory effect has been suggested...
  8. Wang H, Zhang J, Gao C, Zhu Y, Wang C, Zheng W. Topical levamisole hydrochloride therapy attenuates experimental murine allergic rhinitis. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;577:162-9 pubmed
    ..We used BALB/c mice with experimental allergic rhinitis, and determined that levamisole delivered locally (intranasal, i.n...
  9. Hegde M, Karki S, Thomas E, Kumar S, Panjamurthy K, Ranganatha S, et al. Novel levamisole derivative induces extrinsic pathway of apoptosis in cancer cells and inhibits tumor progression in mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43632 pubmed publisher
    b>Levamisole, an imidazo(2,1-b)thiazole derivative, has been reported to be a potential antitumor agent...
  10. Ho E, Leung D, Leung G, Wan T, Wong A, Wong C, et al. Aminorex and rexamino as metabolites of levamisole in the horse. Anal Chim Acta. 2009;638:58-68 pubmed publisher
    Administration studies of levamisole in horses were carried out using two different levamisole preparations, namely, levamisole hydrochloride oral bolus and levamisole phosphate injectable solution...
  11. Ramanadham M, Nageshwari B. Anti-proliferative effect of levamisole on human myeloma cell lines in vitro. J Immunotoxicol. 2010;7:327-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Levamisole has been employed as an immunomodulatory agent in conjunction with 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of colon cancer relapse. At high doses, levamisole has been shown to have both anti-cancer and immunosuppressive activities...
  12. Valpotic H, Kovsca Janjatovic A, Lackovic G, Bozic F, Dobranić V, Svoboda D, et al. Increased number of intestinal villous M cells in levamisole -pretreated weaned pigs experimentally infected with F4ac? enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain. Eur J Histochem. 2010;54:e18 pubmed publisher
    ..We have developed a model of parenteral/oral immunization of 4-weeks-old pigs with either levamisole or vaccine candidate F4ac(+) non-ETEC strain to study their effects on de novo differentiation of antigen-..
  13. Bozic F, Bilic V, Valpotic I. Levamisole mucosal adjuvant activity for a live attenuated Escherichia coli oral vaccine in weaned pigs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2003;26:225-31 pubmed
    The present study tested the hypothesis that levamisole exerts its immunopotentiating activity in weaned pigs vaccinated against colibacillosis by priming the lymphocytes and macrophages in the mesenteric lymph node (MLN)...
  14. Sun A, Wang J, Chia J, Chiang C. Levamisole can modulate the serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha level in patients with recurrent aphthous ulcerations. J Oral Pathol Med. 2006;35:111-6 pubmed
    ..stage had a significantly higher than normal serum level of TNF-alpha and assessed whether treatment with levamisole can modulate serum TNF-alpha levels in RAU patients...
  15. Cascinu S, Catalano V, Piga A, Mattioli R, Marcellini M, Pancotti A, et al. The role of levamisole in the adjuvant treatment of stage III colon cancer patients: a randomized trial of 5-fluorouracil and levamisole versus 5-fluorouracil alone. Cancer Invest. 2003;21:701-7 pubmed
    Adjuvant 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and levamisole (Lev) have been considered standard treatment for stage III colon cancer patients...
  16. Kudo N, Kubota H, Gotoh H, Ishida H, Ikadai H, Oyamada T. Efficacy of thiabendazole, mebendazole, levamisole and ivermectin against gullet worm, Gongylonema pulchrum: in vitro and in vivo studies. Vet Parasitol. 2008;151:46-52 pubmed
    In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of thiabendazole, mebendazole, levamisole and ivermectin against Gongylonema pulchrum...
  17. Gabriel E, Campbell W. Effect of ambient salinity on immobilization of Caenorhabditis elegans by nematocidal agents. Parasitol Res. 2003;90:390-2 pubmed
    ..We report that the paralyzing property of ivermectin was enhanced by the presence of salt, while the efficacy of levamisole and chlorpromazine was reduced.
  18. Neveu C, Charvet C, Fauvin A, Cortet J, Beech R, Cabaret J. Genetic diversity of levamisole receptor subunits in parasitic nematode species and abbreviated transcripts associated with resistance. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2010;20:414-25 pubmed publisher
    The molecular mechanisms of levamisole (LEV) activity and expression of resistance remain largely unknown in parasitic nematodes...
  19. Chung C, Tumeh P, Birnbaum R, Tan B, Sharp L, McCoy E, et al. Characteristic purpura of the ears, vasculitis, and neutropenia--a potential public health epidemic associated with levamisole-adulterated cocaine. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;65:722-725.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..two patients in the online Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology with purpura presumably induced by levamisole in contaminated cocaine...
  20. Ullrich K, Koval R, Koval E, Bapoje S, Hirsh J. Five consecutive cases of a cutaneous vasculopathy in users of levamisole-adulterated cocaine. J Clin Rheumatol. 2011;17:193-6 pubmed publisher
    Five patients with an antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated cutaneous vasculopathy secondary to levamisole-adulterated cocaine were prospectively followed up at a single hospital...
  21. Wiebke E, Grieshop N, Loehrer P, Eckert G, Sidner R. Antitumor effects of 5-fluorouracil on human colon cancer cell lines: antagonism by levamisole. J Surg Res. 2003;111:63-9 pubmed
    The addition of levamisole (Lev) to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for the adjuvant treatment of stage III colon cancer has been shown to improve 5-year survival in patients. The mechanism of action of Lev remains unknown...
  22. Larocque A, Hoffman R. Levamisole in cocaine: unexpected news from an old acquaintance. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2012;50:231-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Levamisole is a pharmaceutical with anthelminthic and immunomodulatory properties that was previously used in both animals and humans to treat inflammatory conditions and cancer...
  23. Culetto E, Baylis H, Richmond J, Jones A, Fleming J, Squire M, et al. The Caenorhabditis elegans unc-63 gene encodes a levamisole-sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:42476-83 pubmed
    The anthelmintic drug levamisole causes hypercontraction of body wall muscles and lethality in nematode worms...
  24. Neveu C, Charvet C, Fauvin A, Cortet J, Castagnone Sereno P, Cabaret J. Identification of levamisole resistance markers in the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus using a cDNA-AFLP approach. Parasitology. 2007;134:1105-10 pubmed
    cDNA-AFLP (cDNA-Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism)-based strategy has been used to identify levamisole (LEV) resistance markers in the nematode Haemonchus contortus...
  25. Hernando G, Bergé I, Rayes D, Bouzat C. Contribution of subunits to Caenorhabditis elegans levamisole-sensitive nicotinic receptor function. Mol Pharmacol. 2012;82:550-60 pubmed publisher
    ..seven different nicotinic receptor (AChR) subunits, five of which have been shown to be components of adult levamisole-sensitive AChRs (L-AChRs)...
  26. Sargison N, Jackson F, Bartley D, Moir A. Failure of moxidectin to control benzimidazole-, levamisole- and ivermectin-resistant Teladorsagia circumcinda in a sheep flock. Vet Rec. 2005;156:105-9 pubmed
    Control of a benzimidazole-, levamisole- and ivermectin-resistant population of Teladorsagia circumcincta was attempted using moxidectin administered orally at the manufacturer's recommended dose rate of 200 microg/kg bodyweight...
  27. Robertson A, Clark C, Martin R. Levamisole and ryanodine receptors. I: A contraction study in Ascaris suum. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2010;171:1-7 pubmed publisher
    Cholinergic anthelmintics (like levamisole) are important drugs but resistance with reduced responses by the parasite to these compounds is a concern...
  28. Yin J, Jin H, Kang Y, Xiao C, Zhao L, Li X, et al. Efficacy of modified levamisole adjuvant on inactivated virus vaccine. Viral Immunol. 2006;19:525-35 pubmed
    To improve efficacy, especially for the cell-mediated response to inactivated viral vaccines, a modified levamisole (LMS) adjuvant formulation, designated LMS+, was evaluated for its efficacy in mice and chickens, using Newcastle Disease ..
  29. Buchanan J, Vogel J, Eberhardt A. Levamisole-induced occlusive necrotizing vasculitis of the ears after use of cocaine contaminated with levamisole. J Med Toxicol. 2011;7:83-4 pubmed publisher
    ..for the last several months, 30% of that cocaine has been "cut" with a veterinary pharmaceutical, levamisole. Levamisole can cause agranulocytosis, leaving patients susceptible to fulminate and opportunistic infections ..
  30. Charvet C, Robertson A, Cabaret J, Martin R, Neveu C. Selective effect of the anthelmintic bephenium on Haemonchus contortus levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptors. Invert Neurosci. 2012;12:43-51 pubmed publisher
    ..A number of anthelmintic compounds like levamisole and pyrantel target the AChRs of nematodes producing spastic paralysis of the worms...
  31. Martin R, Robertson A, Buxton S, Beech R, Charvet C, Neveu C. Levamisole receptors: a second awakening. Trends Parasitol. 2012;28:289-96 pubmed publisher
    b>Levamisole and pyrantel are old (1965) but useful anthelmintics that selectively activate nematode acetylcholine ion channel receptors; they are used to treat roundworm infections in humans and animals...
  32. Chiadmi F, Lyer A, Cisternino S, Toledano A, Schlatter J, Ratiney R, et al. Stability of levamisole oral solutions prepared from tablets and powder. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2005;8:322-5 pubmed
    To study the stability of levamisole oral solutions (25 mg/mL) prepared from powder and tablets stored at 4 +/- 3 degrees C and 23 +/- 2 degrees C in amber glass prescription bottles...
  33. Wolford A, McDonald T, Eng H, Hansel S, Chen Y, Bauman J, et al. Immune-mediated agranulocytosis caused by the cocaine adulterant levamisole: a case for reactive metabolite(s) involvement. Drug Metab Dispos. 2012;40:1067-75 pubmed publisher
    ..professionals that a substantial percentage of cocaine imported into the United States is adulterated with levamisole, a veterinary pharmaceutical that can cause blood cell disorders such as severe neutropenia and agranulocytosis...
  34. Zwang N, Van Wagner L, Rose S. A case of levamisole-induced systemic vasculitis and cocaine-induced midline destructive lesion: a case report. J Clin Rheumatol. 2011;17:197-200 pubmed publisher
    We describe a case of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive vasculitis from levamisole-tainted cocaine with concomitant cocaine-induced midline destructive lesions of the palate and nasal septum...
  35. Soliman G, Taher E, Mahmoud M. Therapeutic efficacy of Dormectin, Ivermectin and Levamisole against different stages of Trichinella spiralis in rats. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2011;35:86-91 pubmed publisher
    Three commonly used antihelmenthic drugs including Dormectin (0.2 mg/kg), Ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg) and Levamisole (7.5 mg/kg) were examined for their antihelmenthic efficacy against experimental Trichinella spiralis infection in rats.
  36. John S, Manda S, Hamrock D. Cocaine-induced thrombotic vasculopathy. Am J Med Sci. 2011;342:524-6 pubmed publisher
    ..disturbing trend of "cutting" cocaine with pharmacologically active substances, the most common being levamisole. This agent is known to cause serious adverse effects including agranulocytosis and cutaneous eruptions...
  37. Graf J, Lynch K, Yeh C, Tarter L, Richman N, Nguyen T, et al. Purpura, cutaneous necrosis, and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies associated with levamisole-adulterated cocaine. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63:3998-4001 pubmed publisher
    ..in 6 patients who presented with retiform purpura and extensive cutaneous necrosis after exposure to levamisole-adulterated cocaine...
  38. Levandoski M, Piket B, Chang J. The anthelmintic levamisole is an allosteric modulator of human neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003;471:9-20 pubmed
    L-[-]-2,3,5,6-Tetrahydro-6-phenylimidazo[2,1b]-thiazole hydrochloride (levamisole) is an anthelmintic that targets the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of parasitic nematodes...
  39. Wang X, Jin H, Du X, Cai C, Yu Y, Zhao G, et al. The protective efficacy against Schistosoma japonicum infection by immunization with DNA vaccine and levamisole as adjuvant in mice. Vaccine. 2008;26:1832-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Levamisole (LMS) as an adjuvant enhances cell-mediated immunity in DNA vaccination; we investigated the efficacy and liver immunopathology alleviation of a DNA vaccine, VR1012-SjGST-32, in a LMS formulation in the murine challenge model...
  40. Gross R, Brucker J, Bahce Altuntas A, Abadi M, Lipoff J, Kotlyar D, et al. A novel cutaneous vasculitis syndrome induced by levamisole-contaminated cocaine. Clin Rheumatol. 2011;30:1385-92 pubmed publisher
    ..the clinical and serologic features of a cutaneous vasculitis due to cocaine contaminated with the adulterant levamisole, we report four new cases of this syndrome along with 12 previously reported cases identified through a PubMed ..
  41. Buchanan J, Lavonas E. Agranulocytosis and other consequences due to use of illicit cocaine contaminated with levamisole. Curr Opin Hematol. 2012;19:27-31 pubmed publisher
    Most of the illicit cocaine consumed in the United States and elsewhere is contaminated with levamisole, a veterinary medication. Agranulocytosis caused by levamisole exposure through cocaine abuse was first described in 2009...
  42. Maude R, Silamut K, Plewes K, Charunwatthana P, Ho M, Abul Faiz M, et al. Randomized controlled trial of levamisole hydrochloride as adjunctive therapy in severe falciparum malaria with high parasitemia. J Infect Dis. 2014;209:120-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The oral anthelminthic drug levamisole inhibits cytoadherence in vitro and reduces sequestration of late-stage parasites in uncomplicated falciparum ..
  43. Spickett A, de Villiers J, Boomker J, Githiori J, Medley G, Stenson M, et al. Tactical treatment with copper oxide wire particles and symptomatic levamisole treatment using the FAMACHA(©) system in indigenous goats in South Africa. Vet Parasitol. 2012;184:48-58 pubmed publisher
    ..the COWP, the goats were examined according to the FAMACHA(©) system and symptomatically treated with 12 mg/kg levamisole when anaemic. The percentage reduction in faecal egg count due to the COWP treatment was 89.0%...
  44. Whittaker A, Sternberg P. Coordination of opposing sex-specific and core muscle groups regulates male tail posture during Caenorhabditis elegans male mating behavior. BMC Biol. 2009;7:33 pubmed publisher
    ..acetylcholine regulates both ventral and dorsal curling of the male tail, partially through anthelmintic levamisole-sensitive, nicotinic receptor subunits...
  45. Haller D, Catalano P, Macdonald J, O Rourke M, Frontiera M, Jackson D, et al. Phase III study of fluorouracil, leucovorin, and levamisole in high-risk stage II and III colon cancer: final report of Intergroup 0089. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:8671-8 pubmed
    In 1990, fluorouracil (FU) plus levamisole for 1 year became standard adjuvant treatment for patients with high-risk stages II and III colon cancer...
  46. Chai P, Bastan W, Machan J, Hack J, Babu K. Levamisole exposure and hematologic indices in cocaine users. Acad Emerg Med. 2011;18:1141-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Levamisole is an antihelminthic agent found in nearly 70% of seized U.S. cocaine. Sporadic case literature describes a life-threatening agranulocytosis associated with levamisole exposure secondary to cocaine use...
  47. Jacob R, Silva C, Powers J, Schieke S, Mendese G, Burlingame R, et al. Levamisole-induced vasculopathy: a report of 2 cases and a novel histopathologic finding. Am J Dermatopathol. 2012;34:208-13 pubmed publisher
    Although cocaine-induced pseudovasculitis and urticarial vasculitis have been reported in the past, levamisole-induced vasculopathy with ecchymosis and necrosis, termed here LIVEN, has only recently been described in association with ..
  48. Zhang W, Du X, Zhao G, Jin H, Kang Y, Xiao C, et al. Levamisole is a potential facilitator for the activation of Th1 responses of the subunit HBV vaccination. Vaccine. 2009;27:4938-46 pubmed publisher
    Chemical compounds activating innate responses may present potential adjuvants for the vaccine development. Levamisole (LMS), demonstrated as a potent adjuvant for DNA and viral killed vaccines in our previous studies, may activate such ..
  49. Gower N, Walker D, Baylis H. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signaling regulates mating behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans males. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:3978-86 pubmed
    ..An itr-1 gain-of-function mutation rescues infertility caused by egl-8 RNA interference, indicating that egl-8 and itr-1 function together as central components of the signaling events controlling sperm transfer. ..
  50. Bozic F, Lackovic G, Kovsca Janjatovic A, Smolec O, Valpotic I. Levamisole synergizes experimental F4ac+ Escherichia coli oral vaccine in stimulating ileal Peyer's patch T cells in weaned pigs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2006;29:199-204 pubmed
    Recent findings demonstrate that priming by levamisole of weaned pigs experimentally vaccinated against postweaning colibacillosis (PWC) contributes to immune protection from challenge-induced clinical disease through stimulation of the ..
  51. Albonico M, Bickle Q, Ramsan M, Montresor A, Savioli L, Taylor M. Efficacy of mebendazole and levamisole alone or in combination against intestinal nematode infections after repeated targeted mebendazole treatment in Zanzibar. Bull World Health Organ. 2003;81:343-52 pubmed
    To evaluate the efficacy of and resistance to mebendazole (500 mg) and levamisole (40 or 80 mg), alone or in combination, for the treatment of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm infections on Pemba Island - an area ..
  52. Salem F, Badr M, Neamat Allah A. Biochemical and pathological studies on the effects of levamisole and chlorambucil on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice. Vet Ital. 2011;47:89-95 pubmed
    Clinicopathological studies on the effects of combining immunostimulant drugs (levamisole) with anti-cancer drugs (chlorambucil) revealed the enhancement of the latter against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice and resulted in a ..
  53. Shan C, Hua Z, Zhao P, Zhang H. Treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria with levamisole: a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. J Int Med Res. 2009;37:1167-72 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of treating chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) with levamisole in combination with levocetirizine...