Summary: Compounds based on reduced IMIDAZOLES containing a single double bond.

Top Publications

  1. Sharma V, Lansdell T, Peddibhotla S, Tepe J. Sensitization of tumor cells toward chemotherapy: enhancing the efficacy of camptothecin with imidazolines. Chem Biol. 2004;11:1689-99 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that inhibition of NF-kappaB by this imidazoline may present improved strategies in the chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer. ..
  2. Laios I, Cleeren A, Leclercq G, Nonclercq D, Laurent G, Schlenk M, et al. Effects of (R,S)/(S,R)-4,5-bis(2-chloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-imidazolines and (R,S)/(S,R)-2,3-bis(2-chloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)piperazines on estrogen receptor alpha level and transcriptional activity in MCF-7 cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2007;74:1029-38 pubmed
    4,5-Diaryl-2-imidazolines (Im(s)) and 2,3-diarylpiperazines (Pip(s)) belong to the type II class of estrogens...
  3. Musonda C, Yardley V, de Souza R, Ncokazi K, Egan T, Chibale K. Antiplasmodial, beta-haematin inhibition, antitrypanosomal and cytotoxic activity in vitro of novel 4-aminoquinoline 2-imidazolines. Org Biomol Chem. 2008;6:4446-51 pubmed publisher
    A novel series of 4-aminoquinoline-containing 2-imidazolines were synthesized via a one-pot 3-component condensation reaction of amine, aldehyde and isocyanoacetate...
  4. Paige J, Nguyen Duc T, Song W, Jaffrey S. Fluorescence imaging of cellular metabolites with RNA. Science. 2012;335:1194 pubmed publisher
    ..These RNAs constitute a versatile approach for fluorescence imaging of small molecules and have the potential to detect essentially any cellular biomolecule. ..
  5. Paige J, Wu K, Jaffrey S. RNA mimics of green fluorescent protein. Science. 2011;333:642-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Spinach is markedly resistant to photobleaching, and Spinach fusion RNAs can be imaged in living cells. These RNA mimics of GFP provide an approach for genetic encoding of fluorescent RNAs. ..
  6. Sharma V, Tepe J. Diastereochemical diversity of imidazoline scaffolds via substrate controlled TMSCl mediated cycloaddition of azlactones. Org Lett. 2005;7:5091-4 pubmed
    ..chloride mediated substrate controlled 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition for the diastereoselective synthesis of either syn- or anti-imidazolines. This method provides scaffolds with four points of diversity and control over two stereocenters.
  7. Bour S, Iglesias Osma M, Marti L, Duro P, Garcia Barrado M, Pastor M, et al. The imidazoline I2-site ligands BU 224 and 2-BFI inhibit MAO-A and MAO-B activities, hydrogen peroxide production, and lipolysis in rodent and human adipocytes. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006;552:20-30 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our observations demonstrate on WAT novel effects of BU 224 and 2-BFI different from their already reported actions on brain or endocrine pancreas. ..
  8. Moorthy N, Ramos M, Fernandes P. Analysis of van der Waals surface area properties for human ether-a-go-go-related gene blocking activity: computational study on structurally diverse compounds. SAR QSAR Environ Res. 2012;23:521-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These results can be used with other molecular modelling studies for the design of novel molecules that are free of cardiotoxicity. ..
  9. Tovar C, Graves B, Packman K, Filipovic Z, Higgins B, Xia M, et al. MDM2 small-molecule antagonist RG7112 activates p53 signaling and regresses human tumors in preclinical cancer models. Cancer Res. 2013;73:2587-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, RG7112 was highly synergistic with androgen deprivation in LNCaP xenograft tumors. Our findings offer a preclinical proof-of-concept that RG7112 is effective in treatment of solid tumors expressing wild-type p53. ..

More Information


  1. Talley T, Harel M, Hibbs R, Radic Z, Tomizawa M, Casida J, et al. Atomic interactions of neonicotinoid agonists with AChBP: molecular recognition of the distinctive electronegative pharmacophore. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:7606-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This template defines the association of interacting amino acids and their energetic contributions to the distinctive interactions of neonicotinoids...
  2. Verreault M, Schmitt C, Goldwirt L, Pelton K, Haidar S, Levasseur C, et al. Preclinical Efficacy of the MDM2 Inhibitor RG7112 in MDM2-Amplified and TP53 Wild-type Glioblastomas. Clin Cancer Res. 2016;22:1185-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, significant efficacy in a subset of non-MDM2-amplified models suggests that additional markers of response to MDM2 inhibitors must be identified. ..
  3. Genet J, Jaworska G, Deparis F. Effect of dose rate and mixtures of fungicides on selection for QoI resistance in populations of Plasmopara viticola. Pest Manag Sci. 2006;62:188-94 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the choice of the fungicide partner and its dosage in the mixture can significantly affect the success of QoI resistance management strategies under practical conditions...
  4. Paramasivam M, Chandrasekaran S. Dynamics and residues of mixed formulation of fenamidone and mancozeb in gherkin field ecosystem. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2013;98:292-6 pubmed publisher
    ..02 µg/g) and just after treatment for mancozeb (2 µg/g). These results can be utilized in formulating the spray schedule and safety evaluation for these pesticides in gherkin...
  5. Olsen S, Smith S. Bond selection in the photoisomerization reaction of anionic green fluorescent protein and kindling fluorescent protein chromophore models. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:8677-89 pubmed publisher
    ..We offer a prediction of the gas-phase absorption of AHBMI, which has not yet been measured. We offer a hypothesis to explain the unusual fluorescence of AHBMI in DMF solution, as well as an experimental proposal to test our hypothesis. ..
  6. Tsuzuki S, Tokuda H, Mikami M. Theoretical analysis of the hydrogen bond of imidazolium C(2)-H with anions. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2007;9:4780-4 pubmed
    ..This shows that the C(2)-H...X hydrogen bond is not essential for the attraction. ..
  7. Send R, Kaila V, Sundholm D. Reduction of the virtual space for coupled-cluster excitation energies of large molecules and embedded systems. J Chem Phys. 2011;134:214114 pubmed publisher
    ..The RVS approach thus renders purely quantum mechanical treatments of chromophores in protein environments feasible and offers an ab initio alternative to quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics separation schemes. ..
  8. Zhao B, Du H, Shi Y. Cu(I)-catalyzed C-H alpha-amination of aryl ketones: direct synthesis of imidazolinones. J Org Chem. 2009;74:4411-3 pubmed publisher
    ..A variety of imidazolinone derivatives are prepared in moderate yields under mild conditions. A possible catalytic cycle is proposed for this reaction. ..
  9. Kennedy W, Crane L, Gonzalez R, George O, Edwards L. Centrally acting imidazolines stimulate vascular alpha 1A-adrenergic receptors in Rat-Tail Artery. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2006;26:645-57 pubmed
    ..4. Our work suggests that clonidine and moxonidine are promiscuous compounds at micromolar concentrations and that harmane and rilmenidine are more selective compounds for in vivo imidazoline research. ..
  10. Muccioli G, Wouters J, Charlier C, Scriba G, Pizza T, Di Pace P, et al. Synthesis and activity of 1,3,5-triphenylimidazolidine-2,4-diones and 1,3,5-triphenyl-2-thioxoimidazolidin-4-ones: characterization of new CB1 cannabinoid receptor inverse agonists/antagonists. J Med Chem. 2006;49:872-82 pubmed
  11. Toker Y, Rahbek D, Klaerke B, Bochenkova A, Andersen L. Direct and indirect electron emission from the green fluorescent protein chromophore. Phys Rev Lett. 2012;109:128101 pubmed
    ..1 eV. The data show that the first electronically excited state is bound in the Franck-Condon region, and that electron emission proceeds through an indirect (resonant) electron-emission channel within the corresponding absorption band. ..
  12. Sladojevich F, Arlow S, Tang P, Ritter T. Late-stage deoxyfluorination of alcohols with PhenoFluor. J Am Chem Soc. 2013;135:2470-3 pubmed publisher
    ..A series of simple guidelines for predicting the selectivity in substrates with multiple alcohols is given. ..
  13. Luo Y, Wang S, Yun M, Li X, Wang J, Sun Z. The toxic effects of ionic liquids on the activities of acetylcholinesterase and cellulase in earthworms. Chemosphere. 2009;77:313-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that [C(8)mim]Br-exposure can affect the metabolized enzyme activity of earthworms at low concentrations and can even cause worm death at high doses, both of which have potential impacts on the soil environment. ..
  14. Geden J, Pancholi A, Shipman M. Palladium-catalyzed multicomponent synthesis of 2-aryl-2-imidazolines from aryl halides and diamines. J Org Chem. 2013;78:4158-64 pubmed publisher
    ..three-component reaction that combines aryl halides, isocyanides, and diamines provides access to 2-aryl-2-imidazolines in yields up to 96%...
  15. Nikolic K, Agbaba D. Imidazoline antihypertensive drugs: selective i(1) -imidazoline receptors activation. Cardiovasc Ther. 2012;30:209-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present review we provide a brief update to the field of imidazoline research, highlighting some of the chemical diversity and progress made in the theoretical studies of imidazoline receptor ligands. ..
  16. Stancik C, Lavoie A, Schütz J, Achurra P, Lindner P, Gast A, et al. Micelles of imidazolium-functionalized polystyrene diblock copolymers investigated with neutron and light scattering. Langmuir. 2004;20:596-605 pubmed
    ..We find that these micelles can sequester water and that interactions between the micelles lead to structure factor peaks at elevated concentrations. ..
  17. Kargar H, Moghadam M, Mirkhani V, Tangestaninejad S, Mohammadpoor Baltork I, Nameni I. Dehydrogenation of 2-imidazolines with sodium periodate catalyzed by manganese(III) tetraphenylporphyrin. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011;21:2146-8 pubmed publisher
    In the present work, dehydrogenation of 2-substituted imidazolines with sodium periodate in the presence of tetraphenylporphyrinatomanganese(III) chloride, [Mn(TPP)Cl], is reported...
  18. Emel Yanenko V, Verevkin S, Heintz A, Voss K, Schulz A. Imidazolium-based ionic liquids. 1-methyl imidazolium nitrate: thermochemical measurements and ab initio calculations. J Phys Chem B. 2009;113:9871-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The ab initio calculations indicate that [H-MIM][NO3] is most probably separated into the neutral species methyl-imidazole and HNO3 in the gaseous phase at conditions of the vaporization experiments. ..
  19. Kinsky O, Hargraves T, Anumol T, Jacobsen N, Dai J, Snyder S, et al. Metformin Scavenges Methylglyoxal To Form a Novel Imidazolinone Metabolite in Humans. Chem Res Toxicol. 2016;29:227-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in addition to lowering hepatic gluconeogenesis, metformin also scavenges the highly reactive MG in vivo, thereby reducing potentially detrimental MG protein adducts, with subsequent reductions in diabetic complications. ..
  20. Koga M, Serritella A, Messmer M, Hayashi Takagi A, Hester L, Snyder S, et al. Glutathione is a physiologic reservoir of neuronal glutamate. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;409:596-602 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased glutamate levels following inhibition of glutathione synthesis temporally precede later effects upon oxidative stress. ..
  21. He H, Ren L, Tian H, Lu H, Zhao D. Effects of imidazolines on neurogenic contraction in isolated urinary bladder detrusor strips from rabbit. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2012;90:219-27 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the effects of imidazolines on the function of the urinary bladder, we tested the effects of moxonidine, clonidine, and agmatine on the ..
  22. Schopfer P, Liszkay A, Bechtold M, Frahry G, Wagner A. Evidence that hydroxyl radicals mediate auxin-induced extension growth. Planta. 2002;214:821-8 pubmed
    ..These results provide the experimental background for a novel hypothesis on the mechanism of plant cell growth in which (*OH), produced from (O*-)(2) and H2O2 by cell wall peroxidase, acts as a wall-loosening agent. ..
  23. Dahlström M, Lindgren F, Berntsson K, Sjögren M, Mårtensson L, Jonsson P, et al. Evidence for different pharmacological targets for imidazoline compounds inhibiting settlement of the barnacle Balanus improvisus. J Exp Zool A Comp Exp Biol. 2005;303:551-62 pubmed
  24. Ramey J, Bailen E, Lockey R. Rhinitis medicamentosa. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2006;16:148-55 pubmed
    ..Validated criteria need to be developed for better diagnosis of the condition. Stopping the nasal decongestant is the first-line treatment for RM. If necessary, intranasal glucocorticosteroids should be used to speed recovery. ..
  25. Diamanti E, Del Bello F, Carbonara G, Carrieri A, Fracchiolla G, Giannella M, et al. Might the observed ?(2A)-adrenoreceptor agonism or antagonism of allyphenyline analogues be ascribed to different molecular conformations?. Bioorg Med Chem. 2012;20:2082-90 pubmed publisher
    ..From a structural overlay investigation it emerged that an extended conformation appeared to be associated with dual ?(2C)-agonism/?(2A)-antagonism, whereas a folded conformation associated with ?(2C)-/?(2A)-agonism. ..
  26. Clayden J, Foricher Y, Helliwell M, Johnson P, Mitjans D, Vinader V. Conformational arm-wrestling: battles for stereochemical control in benzamides bearing matched and mismatched chiral 2- and 6-substituents. Org Biomol Chem. 2006;4:444-54 pubmed
  27. Tamm M, Petrovic D, Randoll S, Beer S, Bannenberg T, Jones P, et al. Structural and theoretical investigation of 2-iminoimidazolines--carbene analogues of iminophosphoranes. Org Biomol Chem. 2007;5:523-30 pubmed
    ..Finally, the charge distribution in - and the relative contribution of relevant resonance structures have been determined using natural bond orbitals (NBO) and natural resonance theory (NRT)...
  28. Hatlapatka K, Wienbergen A, Kühne C, Jörns A, Willenborg M, Rustenbeck I. Selective enhancement of nutrient-induced insulin secretion by ATP-sensitive K+ channel-blocking imidazolines. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;331:1033-41 pubmed publisher
    ..K(+) channel (K(ATP) channel)-dependent and -independent signaling to the insulinotropic characteristics of imidazolines was explored using perifused mouse islets and beta-cells...
  29. Wang T, Hao X, Huang J, Niu J, Gong J, Song M. Chiral bis(imidazolinyl)phenyl NCN pincer rhodium(III) catalysts for enantioselective allylation of aldehydes and carbonyl-ene reaction of trifluoropyruvates. J Org Chem. 2013;78:8712-21 pubmed publisher
  30. Nenajdenko V, Muzalevskiy V, Shastin A, Balenkova E, Kondrashov E, Ushakov I, et al. Fragmentation of trifluoromethylated alkenes and acetylenes by N,N-binucleophiles. Synthesis of imidazolines or imidazolidines (oxazolidines) controlled by substituent. J Org Chem. 2010;75:5679-88 pubmed publisher
    ..with N,N- or N,O-binucleophiles leads to unexpected fragmentation products (imidazolines) or to heterocyclization giving CF(3)-substituted imidazolidines (N,N-) and oxazolidines (N,O-) depending on ..
  31. Nakamura S, Yamaji R, Iwanaga M. Enantioselective construction of imidazolines having vicinal tetra-substituted stereocenters by direct Mannich reaction of ?-substituted ?-isocyanoacetates with ketimines. Chem Commun (Camb). 2016;52:7462-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A variety of imidazolines containing congested vicinal tetra-substituted stereocenters were obtained in excellent yields with high ..
  32. Anderson N, Seif I, Nutt D, Hudson A, Robinson E. Autoradiographical distribution of imidazoline binding sites in monoamine oxidase A deficient mice. J Neurochem. 2006;96:1551-9 pubmed
    ..Using the MAO-A knockout mice it was also possible to demonstrate a non-MAO-A population of binding sites labelled by the putative I-BS endogenous ligand, harmane. ..
  33. Musgrave I, Hughes R. Investigation of I1-imidazoline receptors using microphysiometry and molecular modelling. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1998;72:137-46 pubmed
    ..the extracellular acidification rates of cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells were unaffected by a number of imidazolines considered to be agonists at the I1-site...
  34. Cheng Y, Hu Y, He Q. [Synthesis and antitumor activity of arylsubstituted imidazolin-2-one derivatives]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2005;40:711-6 pubmed
    ..One of the synthesized products, compound 4y, displayed an encouraging selective activity against HL60 cells, and it was partlydue to the cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. Compound 4y is worthy to be intensively studied. ..
  35. Cessna A, Elliott J, Bailey J. Leaching of three imidazolinone herbicides during sprinkler irrigation. J Environ Qual. 2012;41:882-92 pubmed publisher
    ..With the frequency and amount of rainfall typically encountered in the prairie region of Canada, contamination of shallow ground water with detectable concentrations of the three imidazolinone herbicides would be unlikely. ..
  36. Barth M, Bondoux M, Luccarini J, Peyrou V, Dodey P, Pruneau D, et al. From bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists to orally active and selective bradykinin B1 receptor antagonists. J Med Chem. 2012;55:2574-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Initially, potent imidazoline derivatives were studied, but these compounds suffered from low bioavailability. This issue could be overcome by the use of less basic amino derivatives leading to orally active compounds. ..
  37. Cao Q, Quan L, He C, Li N, Li K, Liu F. Partition of horseradish peroxidase with maintained activity in aqueous biphasic system based on ionic liquid. Talanta. 2008;77:160-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the tested IL-ABS could be considered as a potential enzyme extraction system. ..
  38. Bobko A, Kirilyuk I, Grigor ev I, Zweier J, Khramtsov V. Reversible reduction of nitroxides to hydroxylamines: roles for ascorbate and glutathione. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007;42:404-12 pubmed
    ..In summary, the data provide new insight into the redox chemistry of NR and HA, and significantly affect interpretation and strategy of their use as redox- and ROS-sensitive probes, or as antioxidants...
  39. Zhao M, Li Z, Peng L, Tang Y, Wang C, Zhang Z, et al. Novel 1-oxyl-2-substitutedphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazolines: synthesis, selectively analgesic action, and QSAR analysis. Bioorg Med Chem. 2007;15:2815-26 pubmed
    ..The established QSAR model showed reasonable accuracy and thus it is promising to be used for screening new 1-oxyl-2-substitutedphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline derivatives as analgesic agents. ..
  40. van de Veerdonk F, Smeekens S, Joosten L, Kullberg B, Dinarello C, Van der Meer J, et al. Reactive oxygen species-independent activation of the IL-1beta inflammasome in cells from patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:3030-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The absence of ROS in CGD monocytes may explain the presence of an inflammatory phenotype characterized by granulomas and inflammatory bowel disease occurring in CGD patients. ..
  41. Parker C, Nabulsi N, Holden D, Lin S, Cass T, Labaree D, et al. Evaluation of 11C-BU99008, a PET ligand for the imidazoline2 binding sites in rhesus brain. J Nucl Med. 2014;55:838-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Further work is under way to translate the use of (11)C-BU99008 to the clinic. ..
  42. López M, Mecerreyes D, Lopez Cabarcos E, López Ruiz B. Amperometric glucose biosensor based on polymerized ionic liquid microparticles. Biosens Bioelectron. 2006;21:2320-8 pubmed
    ..The biosensor thus prepared can be employed in aqueous and in non-aqueous media with satisfactory results for glucose determination in human serum samples. The useful lifetime of this biosensor was 150 days. ..
  43. Monroy Ordoñez E, Villalon C, Cobos Puc L, Márquez Conde J, Sánchez López A, Centurión D. Evidence that some imidazoline derivatives inhibit peripherally the vasopressor sympathetic outflow in pithed rats. Auton Neurosci. 2008;143:40-5 pubmed publisher
  44. Rodriguez F, Rozas I, Ortega J, Erdozain A, Meana J, Callado L. Guanidine and 2-aminoimidazoline aromatic derivatives as alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists. 2. Exploring alkyl linkers for new antidepressants. J Med Chem. 2008;51:3304-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Significantly, these experiments confirmed the antagonistic properties of 17b and 20b, and therefore both compounds can be considered as potential antidepressants. ..
  45. Nieto L, Mascaraque A, Miller F, Glacial F, Ríos Martínez C, Kaiser M, et al. Synthesis and antiprotozoal activity of N-alkoxy analogues of the trypanocidal lead compound 4,4'-bis(imidazolinylamino)diphenylamine with improved human blood-brain barrier permeability. J Med Chem. 2011;54:485-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, this compound displayed low micromolar IC(50) against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Plasmodium falciparum and moderate activity by intraperitoneal administration in the STIB900 murine model of acute sleeping sickness. ..
  46. Sakai Y, Takagi S. Reorganized actin filaments anchor chloroplasts along the anticlinal walls of Vallisneria epidermal cells under high-intensity blue light. Planta. 2005;221:823-30 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that the BL-induced avoidance response of chloroplasts includes photosynthesis-dependent and actin-dependent anchorage of chloroplasts on the A side of epidermal cells. ..
  47. von Rauch M, Busch S, Gust R. Investigations on the effects of basic side chains on the hormonal profile of (4R,5S)/(4S,5R)-4,5-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-imidazolines. J Med Chem. 2005;48:466-74 pubmed
    ..In this study we tried to turn the hormonal profile of (4R,5S)/(4S,5R)-4,5-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-imidazolines from agonistic to antagonistic by introduction of a dimethylaminoethane, a piperidin-1-ylethane, or a ..
  48. Andreeff M, Kelly K, Yee K, Assouline S, Strair R, Popplewell L, et al. Results of the Phase I Trial of RG7112, a Small-Molecule MDM2 Antagonist in Leukemia. Clin Cancer Res. 2016;22:868-76 pubmed publisher
    ..MDM2 inhibition resulted in p53 stabilization and transcriptional activation of p53-target genes. We provide proof-of-concept that MDM2 inhibition restores p53 function and generates clinical responses in hematologic malignancies. ..
  49. Kober E, Nerkowski T, Janas Z, Jerzykiewicz L. Vanadate complexes bearing an imidazolidine-bridged bis(aryloxido) ligand: synthesis and solid state and solution structure. Dalton Trans. 2012;41:5188-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The (51)V, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra as well as ES-MS showed that 2 does not stay intact in solution and undergoes dissociation to give 1 and [VO(OEt)(3)]. ..
  50. Huang S, Shao Y, Zhang L, Zhou X. Cycloamidination of Aminoalkenes with Nitriles: Synthesis of Substituted 2-Imidazolines and Tetrahydropyrimidines. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2015;54:14452-6 pubmed publisher
    ..the desired intramolecular hydroamination of alkenylamidines, and allows a new direct access to substituted 2-imidazolines and tetrahydropyrimidines in high yields under operationally simple reaction conditions...
  51. Shen J, Li Y, Huang X, Yu X, He J, Li S. [Expression of acetohydroxyacid synthase isozyme genes ilvBN, ilvGM, ilvIH and their resistance to AHAS-inhibitor herbicides]. Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2009;25:1007-13 pubmed
  52. Schuijt M, Tom B, de Vries R, Saxena P, Sluiter W, van Kats J, et al. Superoxide does not mediate the acute vasoconstrictor effects of angiotensin II: a study in human and porcine arteries. J Hypertens. 2003;21:2335-44 pubmed
    ..Acute vasoconstriction by Ang II is not mediated via superoxide generated through NAD(P)H oxidase and/or XO activation. Such activation, if occurring, rather results in the generation of the vasodilator H2O2. ..
  53. Tsutsui H, Sugiura T, Hayashi K, Ohkita M, Takaoka M, Yukimura T, et al. Moxonidine prevents ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal injury in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;603:73-8 pubmed publisher