phenytoin

Summary

Summary: An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.

Top Publications

  1. Mountney A, Shear D, Potter B, Marcsisin S, Sousa J, Melendez V, et al. Ethosuximide and phenytoin dose-dependently attenuate acute nonconvulsive seizures after traumatic brain injury in rats. J Neurotrauma. 2013;30:1973-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we assessed the anti-seizure profile of ethosuximide (ETX, 12.5-187.5 mg/kg) and phenytoin (PHT, 5-30 mg/kg) in a spontaneously occurring NCS model associated with penetrating ballistic-like brain injury ..
  2. Zhang C, Kwan P, Zuo Z, Baum L. In vitro concentration dependent transport of phenytoin and phenobarbital, but not ethosuximide, by human P-glycoprotein. Life Sci. 2010;86:899-905 pubmed publisher
    ..Bi-directional transport assays and concentration equilibrium transport assays (CETAs) were performed for phenytoin (PHT), phenobarbital (PB), and ethosuximide (ESM) using wildtype Madin-Darby Canine Kidney II cell line MDCKII ..
  3. Lopez M, Dorado P, Monroy N, Alonso M, Jung Cook H, Machín E, et al. Pharmacogenetics of the antiepileptic drugs phenytoin and lamotrigine. Drug Metabol Drug Interact. 2011;26:5-12 pubmed publisher
    ..on the pharmacogenetics of two commonly prescribed antiepileptic drugs with similar mechanisms of action; phenytoin (PHT) and lamotrigine (LTG)...
  4. Miyazaki H. [Association between phenytoin-induced gingival hyperplasia and periodontopathic bacteria in institutionalized patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities]. Kokubyo Gakkai Zasshi. 2010;77:140-8 pubmed
    The association between phenytoin-induced gingival hyperplasia (PIGH) and five major periodontopathic bacteria was investigated by real-time PCR in 12 subjects (30.6 +/- 7.95 years of age) with severe motor and intellectual disabilities...
  5. Pereira C, Alchorne A. Assessment of the effect of phenytoin on cutaneous healing from excision of melanocytic nevi on the face and on the back. BMC Dermatol. 2010;10:7 pubmed publisher
    Topical phenytoin is a powerful skin wounds healing and it may be useful in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical phenytoin 0...
  6. Abramov J, Wells P. Embryonic catalase protects against endogenous and phenytoin-enhanced DNA oxidation and embryopathies in acatalasemic and human catalase-expressing mice. FASEB J. 2011;25:2188-200 pubmed publisher
    ..catalase protects the embryo from both physiological oxidative stress and the ROS-initiating antiepileptic drug phenytoin. Compared to wild-type (WT) catalase-normal controls, both untreated and phenytoin-exposed aCat mice exhibited a ..
  7. Kamp H, Fabian E, Groeters S, Herold M, Krennrich G, Looser R, et al. Application of in vivo metabolomics to preclinical/toxicological studies: case study on phenytoin-induced systemic toxicity. Bioanalysis. 2012;4:2291-301 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Phenytoin was administered to five Wistar rats of both sexes at dietary dose levels of 600 and 2400 ppm over 28 days and ..
  8. Naidech A, Garg R, Liebling S, Levasseur K, Macken M, Schuele S, et al. Anticonvulsant use and outcomes after intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke. 2009;40:3810-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Antiepileptic drug administration and free phenytoin serum levels were retrieved from the electronic medical records...
  9. Hong J, Choi Y, Kim W. Differences between the measured and calculated free serum phenytoin concentrations in epileptic patients. Yonsei Med J. 2009;50:517-20 pubmed publisher
    The pharmacokinetics of phenytoin is complicated by genetic and environmental differences. It is, therefore, important to monitor the serum concentrations in patients who receive phenytoin...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Kumar A, Xagoraraki I. Human health risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in water: an uncertainty analysis for meprobamate, carbamazepine, and phenytoin. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010;57:146-56 pubmed publisher
    ..QPhRA, hereafter) framework, including Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis for meprobamate, carbamazepine, and phenytoin during (1) accidental exposures of stream water and fish consumption and (2) direct ingestion of finished ..
  2. Tai S, Yeh C, Phinney K. Development and validation of a reference measurement procedure for certification of phenytoin, phenobarbital, lamotrigine, and topiramate in human serum using isotope-dilution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011;401:1915-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Phenytoin (PHT), phenobarbital (PHB), lamotrigine (LTG), and topiramate (TPM) are some of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Monitoring of their concentrations in serum is important for the treatment of epilepsy...
  3. Kesavan R, Narayan S, Adithan C. Influence of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms on phenytoin-induced neurological toxicity in Indian epileptic patients. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2010;66:689-96 pubmed publisher
    Cytochrome P450 2C9 and 2C19 (CYP2C9 and CYP2C19, respectively) genetic polymorphisms play an important role in phenytoin (PHT) metabolism...
  4. Kandil A, Dvorak T, Mignano J, Wu J, Zhu J. Multifocal Stevens-Johnson syndrome after concurrent phenytoin and cranial and thoracic radiation treatment, a case report. Radiat Oncol. 2010;5:49 pubmed publisher
    ..three well-demarcated areas on his scalp, chest and back, corresponding to ports of radiation therapy while on phenytoin. The rash spread from these locations and became more generalized and associated with pain and sloughing in the ..
  5. Kruer R, Harris L, Goodwin H, Kornbluth J, Thomas K, Slater L, et al. Changing trends in the use of seizure prophylaxis after traumatic brain injury: a shift from phenytoin to levetiracetam. J Crit Care. 2013;28:883.e9-13 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Phenytoin decreases seizure risk 73% vs placebo during this time...
  6. Zafar S, Khan A, Ghauri A, Shamim M. Phenytoin versus Leviteracetam for seizure prophylaxis after brain injury - a meta analysis. BMC Neurol. 2012;12:30 pubmed publisher
    Current standard therapy for seizure prophylaxis in Neuro-surgical patients involves the use of Phenytoin (PHY). However, a new drug Levetiracetam (LEV) is emerging as an alternate treatment choice...
  7. Pahuja M, Kleekal T, Reeta K, Tripathi M, Gupta Y. Interaction profile of Zizyphus jujuba with phenytoin, phenobarbitone, and carbamazepine in maximal electroshock-induced seizures in rats. Epilepsy Behav. 2012;25:368-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of HEZJ with phenytoin (PHT), phenobarbitone (PB), and carbamazepine (CBZ) in maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures in male ..
  8. Murphy Human T, Welch E, Zipfel G, Diringer M, Dhar R. Comparison of short-duration levetiracetam with extended-course phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis after subarachnoid hemorrhage. World Neurosurg. 2011;75:269-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on data suggesting that a short course may be adequate, coupled with an association between phenytoin exposure and poor cognitive outcome, our institution modified their seizure prophylaxis protocol for patients ..
  9. Hu X, Chen Z, Mao X, Tang S. Effects of phenytoin and Echinacea purpurea extract on proliferation and apoptosis of mouse embryonic palatal mesenchymal cells. J Cell Biochem. 2011;112:1311-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the teratogenic agent phenytoin and extract of the immunostimulant Echinacea purpurea in the etiology of cleft palate associated with the ..
  10. van Vliet E, Zibell G, Pekcec A, Schlichtiger J, Edelbroek P, Holtman L, et al. COX-2 inhibition controls P-glycoprotein expression and promotes brain delivery of phenytoin in chronic epileptic rats. Neuropharmacology. 2010;58:404-12 pubmed publisher
    ..epileptic rats was associated with a significant reduction in the brain penetration of the antiepileptic drug phenytoin. Importantly, the brain delivery of phenytoin was significantly enhanced by sub-chronic cyclooxygenase-2 ..
  11. Fonseka H, Ekanayake S, Dissanayake M. Two percent topical phenytoin sodium solution in treating pyoderma gangrenosum: a cohort study. Int Wound J. 2010;7:519-23 pubmed publisher
    Oral phenytoin is an extensively used medicine for the treatment of convulsive disorders. Topical phenytoin has also been used for various types of ulcers...
  12. Taylor S, Heinrichs R, Janzen J, Ehtisham A. Levetiracetam is associated with improved cognitive outcome for patients with intracranial hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care. 2011;15:80-4 pubmed publisher
    ..patients with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) includes prophylaxis of seizure using antiepileptic drugs, commonly phenytoin. Phenytoin therapy is associated with a high incidence of cognitive disturbance...
  13. Kern K, Schebesch K, Schlaier J, Hansen E, Feigl G, Brawanski A, et al. Levetiracetam compared to phenytoin for the prevention of postoperative seizures after craniotomy for intracranial tumours in patients without epilepsy. J Clin Neurosci. 2012;19:99-100 pubmed publisher
    Anticonvulsant drugs are frequently given after craniotomy. Phenytoin (PHT) is the most commonly used agent; levetiracetam (LEV) is a new anticonvulsant drug with fewer side effects...
  14. Inaba K, Menaker J, Branco B, Gooch J, Okoye O, Herrold J, et al. A prospective multicenter comparison of levetiracetam versus phenytoin for early posttraumatic seizure prophylaxis. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013;74:766-71; discussion 771-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Brain Trauma Foundation guidelines recommend seizure prophylaxis for preventing early posttraumatic seizure (PTS). Phenytoin (PHE) is commonly used...
  15. Krishnamoorthy G, Nair R, Sundar U, Kini P, Shrivastava M. Early predisposition to osteomalacia in Indian adults on phenytoin or valproate monotherapy and effective prophylaxis by simultaneous supplementation with calcium and 25-hydroxy vitamin D at recommended daily allowance dosage: a prospective study. Neurol India. 2010;58:213-9 pubmed publisher
    ..liver, bone), calcium and 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) concentrations after initiation of treatment with phenytoin or valproic acid monotherapy and (b) the effect of simultaneous supplementation with calcium and 25-OHD at ..
  16. Forcelli P, Gale K, Kondratyev A. Early postnatal exposure of rats to lamotrigine, but not phenytoin, reduces seizure threshold in adulthood. Epilepsia. 2011;52:e20-2 pubmed publisher
    ..exposed to phenobarbital or diazepam as pups, we examined the effects of early life exposure to lamotrigine and phenytoin, two commonly used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), for their effect on seizure threshold in adult rats...
  17. Arai M, Osaka H. Acute leukoencephalopathy possibly induced by phenytoin intoxication in an adult patient with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency. Epilepsia. 2011;52:e58-61 pubmed publisher
    ..student with no personal or family history of neurologic disorders developed convulsions and was administered phenytoin. Two months later, he developed lower limb-dominant acute demyelinating polyneuropathy, from which he recovered ..
  18. Azzato E, Chen R, Wacholder S, Chanock S, Klebanoff M, Caporaso N. Maternal EPHX1 polymorphisms and risk of phenytoin-induced congenital malformations. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2010;20:58-63 pubmed publisher
    The teratogenic effects of the anti-epileptic drug phenytoin have been linked to genetic differences in phenytoin disposition...
  19. Phabphal K, Geater A, Limapichart K, Sathirapanya P, Setthawatcharawanich S, Witeerungrot N, et al. The association between BsmI polymorphism and bone mineral density in young patients with epilepsy who are taking phenytoin. Epilepsia. 2013;54:249-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We recruited ambulatory young adults with epilepsy who were taking phenytoin. Data regarding demographics, basic laboratory studies, history of clinical epilepsy, parathyroid hormone, and ..
  20. Szaflarski J, Sangha K, Lindsell C, Shutter L. Prospective, randomized, single-blinded comparative trial of intravenous levetiracetam versus phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis. Neurocrit Care. 2010;12:165-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed a study comparing intravenous (IV) levetiracetam (LEV) to IV phenytoin (PHT) for seizure prophylaxis after neurological injury...
  21. Moro Alvarez M, Diaz Curiel M, de la Piedra C, Mariñoso M, Carrascal M. Bone disease induced by phenytoin therapy: clinical and experimental study. Eur Neurol. 2009;62:219-30 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have made references to prolonged treatment with phenytoin as a possible risk factor in the development of osteoporosis and/or osteomalacia...
  22. Shah D, Husain A. Utility of levetiracetam in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Seizure. 2009;18:676-9 pubmed publisher
    To determine the utility and tolerability of levetiracetam (LEV) compared to phenytoin (PHT) in preventing clinical seizures in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)...
  23. Liu X, Wu Y, Chen Z, Ma M, Su L. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials on the theraputic effect of intravenous sodium valproate in status epilepticus. Int J Neurosci. 2012;122:277-83 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no significant statistics in SE controlled between intravenous sodium valproate and phenytoin. Compared with diazepam, sodium valproate had a statistically significant lower risk of time interval for ..
  24. Helldén A, Bergman U, Engström Hellgren K, Masquelier M, Nilsson Remahl I, Odar Cederlof I, et al. Fluconazole-induced intoxication with phenytoin in a patient with ultra-high activity of CYP2C9. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2010;66:791-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a patient with Behçet's disease who required treatment with high doses of phenytoin. When fluconazole, a potent inhibitor of CYP2C9, was added to the treatment regimen, the patient developed ..
  25. Alvarez V, Januel J, Burnand B, Rossetti A. Second-line status epilepticus treatment: comparison of phenytoin, valproate, and levetiracetam. Epilepsia. 2011;52:1292-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Phenytoin (PHT), valproic acid (VPA), or levetiracetam (LEV) are commonly used as second-line treatment of status epilepticus (SE), but comparative studies are not available...
  26. Cotton B, Kao L, Kozar R, Holcomb J. Cost-utility analysis of levetiracetam and phenytoin for posttraumatic seizure prophylaxis. J Trauma. 2011;71:375-9 pubmed publisher
    The standard for early posttraumatic brain injury (TBI) seizure prophylaxis is phenytoin. Despite its effectiveness, some argue for the use of newer antiepileptics (e.g...
  27. Abramov J, Wells P. Embryoprotective role of endogenous catalase in acatalasemic and human catalase-expressing mouse embryos exposed in culture to developmental and phenytoin-enhanced oxidative stress. Toxicol Sci. 2011;120:428-38 pubmed publisher
    ..protective importance of constitutive embryonic catalase against endogenous ROS and the ROS-initiating teratogen phenytoin in embryo culture...
  28. Hollisaz M, Khedmat H, Yari F. A randomized clinical trial comparing hydrocolloid, phenytoin and simple dressings for the treatment of pressure ulcers [ISRCTN33429693]. BMC Dermatol. 2004;4:18 pubmed
    ..study we compared the therapeutic effects of HD on pressure ulcer healing with two other topical applications, phenytoin cream (PC) and simple dressing (SD)...
  29. Zhou X, Li Y, Ji W, Jiang T, Sun X, Zhu Y, et al. Phenytoin can accelerate the healing process after experimental myocardial infarction?. Int J Cardiol. 2006;107:21-9 pubmed
    ..b>Phenytoin can increase gingival overgrowth by stimulating the proliferation of connective tissue, which implies a novel ..
  30. Scheinfeld N. Phenytoin in cutaneous medicine: its uses, mechanisms and side effects. Dermatol Online J. 2003;9:6 pubmed
    b>Phenytoin (diphenylhydantoin or Dilantin) is a highly effective and widely prescribed anticonvulsant agent used in the treatment of grand mal and psychomotor epilepsy...
  31. Kjaer D, Horvath Puho E, Christensen J, Vestergaard M, Czeizel A, Sørensen H, et al. Use of phenytoin, phenobarbital, or diazepam during pregnancy and risk of congenital abnormalities: a case-time-control study. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2007;16:181-8 pubmed
    ..We studied congenital abnormalities following exposure to phenytoin, phenobarbital, and diazepam in early pregnancy, i.e., second and third month, compared to mid-pregnancy, i.e...
  32. Turan M, Saraydin S, Canbay E, Karadayi K, Bulut E, Cetinkaya O, et al. Positive effects of phenytoin on experimental colonic anastomoses. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2004;19:250-7 pubmed
    Anastomotic dehiscence following colorectal surgery is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Phenytoin has wound-healing promoting and collagenase inhibitory effects...
  33. Jones K, Puccio A, Harshman K, Falcione B, Benedict N, Jankowitz B, et al. Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis in severe traumatic brain injury. Neurosurg Focus. 2008;25:E3 pubmed publisher
    Current standard of care for patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is prophylactic treatment with phenytoin for 7 days to decrease the risk of early posttraumatic seizures...
  34. Forsyth P, Weaver S, Fulton D, Brasher P, Sutherland G, Stewart D, et al. Prophylactic anticonvulsants in patients with brain tumour. Can J Neurol Sci. 2003;30:106-12 pubmed
    ..g. only anaplastic astrocytomas). When taken together with the results of a similar randomized trial, prophylactic anticonvulsants are unlikely to be effective or useful in brain tumour patients who have not had a seizure. ..
  35. Jose L, Binila C, Chandy S, Mathews J, Mathews K. Acenocoumarol and phenytoin toxicity in the presence of CYP2C9 mutation. J Assoc Physicians India. 2008;56:250-2 pubmed
    This case report describes a rare interaction between therapeutic doses of phenytoin and acenocoumarol resulting in both acute phenytoin toxicity and increased international normalized ratio (INR)...
  36. Ogutu B, Newton C, Muchohi S, Otieno G, Edwards G, Watkins W, et al. Pharmacokinetics and clinical effects of phenytoin and fosphenytoin in children with severe malaria and status epilepticus. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2003;56:112-9 pubmed
    Status epilepticus is common in children with severe falciparum malaria and is associated with poor outcome. Phenytoin is often used to control status epilepticus, but its water-soluble prodrug, fosphenytoin, may be more useful as it is ..
  37. Pereira L, Sanchez J. Reversible panhypogammaglobulinemia associated with phenytoin treatment. Scand J Infect Dis. 2002;34:785-7 pubmed
    ..otitis due to panhypogammaglobulinemia and low levels of mature CD19 + B cells (84 cells/microl) associated with phenytoin treatment...
  38. Gilad R, Izkovitz N, Dabby R, Rapoport A, Sadeh M, Weller B, et al. Treatment of status epilepticus and acute repetitive seizures with i.v. valproic acid vs phenytoin. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008;118:296-300 pubmed publisher
    ..acid (VPA) in patients with status epilepticus (SE) or acute repetitive seizures (ARS) comparing it with phenytoin (PHT) treatment...
  39. Takada K, Sugiyama H, Umezawa K, Mega J, Hirasawa M. The subgingival microflora in phenytoin-induced gingival hyperplasia. J Periodontal Res. 2003;38:477-81 pubmed
    Microbial flora and gingival conditions were compared between a group of patients with phenytoin-induced gingival hyperplasia as a test group, a control group of patients who were administered phenytoin without gingival hyperplasia and a ..
  40. Burkhardt R, Leppik I, Blesi K, Scott S, Gapany S, Cloyd J. Lower phenytoin serum levels in persons switched from brand to generic phenytoin. Neurology. 2004;63:1494-6 pubmed
    After generic phenytoin (PHT) was marketed, the authors identified eight adult patients (ages 34 to 49) whose seizures increased enough to require intervention after switching to generic PHT...
  41. Habibipour S, Oswald T, Zhang F, Joshi P, Zhou X, Dorsett Martin W, et al. Effect of sodium diphenylhydantoin on skin wound healing in rats. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003;112:1620-7 pubmed
    This study evaluated the effect of phenytoin (sodium diphenylhydantoin) on skin wound healing in a rat model. The study was divided into two parts...
  42. Man C, Kwan P, Baum L, Yu E, Lau K, Cheng A, et al. Association between HLA-B*1502 allele and antiepileptic drug-induced cutaneous reactions in Han Chinese. Epilepsia. 2007;48:1015-8 pubmed
    ..HLA-B*1502 was associated with severe cutaneous reactions (SCR) induced by AEDs, which included carbamazepine, phenytoin, and lamotrigine (p = 0.001, odds ratio = 17...
  43. Lee S, Lee S, Kim J. Contributions of CYP2C9/CYP2C19 genotypes and drug interaction to the phenytoin treatment in the Korean epileptic patients in the clinical setting. J Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;40:448-52 pubmed
    We examined the contribution of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 genotypes and drug interactions to the phenytoin metabolism among 97 Korean epileptic patients to determine if pharmacogenetic testing could be utilized in routine clinical practice...
  44. Ramasamy K, Narayan S, Chanolean S, Chandrasekaran A. Severe phenytoin toxicity in a CYP2C9*3*3 homozygous mutant from India. Neurol India. 2007;55:408-9 pubmed
    ..Indian adult female patient with a history of generalized tonic clonic seizures who developed severe features of phenytoin (DPH) toxicity on therapeutic dosage of this antiepileptic drug...
  45. Young K, Okada P, Sokolove P, Palchak M, Panacek E, Baren J, et al. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of phenytoin for the prevention of early posttraumatic seizures in children with moderate to severe blunt head injury. Ann Emerg Med. 2004;43:435-46 pubmed
    We determine the efficacy of prophylactic phenytoin in preventing early posttraumatic seizures in children with moderate to severe blunt head injury...
  46. Orup H, Holmes L, Keith D, Coull B. Craniofacial skeletal deviations following in utero exposure to the anticonvulsant phenytoin: monotherapy and polytherapy. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2003;6:2-19 pubmed
    To identify and quantify the craniofacial effects from prenatal exposure to phenytoin monotherapy and polytherapy using cephalometric, hand-wrist, and panoramic radiographs and to determine if such deviations persist with age...
  47. Bhatia A, Nanda S, Gupta U, Gupta S, Reddy B. Topical phenytoin suspension and normal saline in the treatment of leprosy trophic ulcers: a randomized, double-blind, comparative study. J Dermatolog Treat. 2004;15:321-7 pubmed
    To evaluate and compare two strengths of topical phenytoin sodium suspension (2% and 4%) with normal saline in the healing of acute trophic ulcers in leprosy patients...
  48. Lin C, Yen M, Hu O, Lin M, Hsiong C, Hung C, et al. Association of galactose single-point test levels and phenytoin metabolic polymorphisms with gingival hyperplasia in patients receiving long-term phenytoin therapy. Pharmacotherapy. 2008;28:35-41 pubmed
    ..whether the occurrence or severity of gingival hyperplasia is associated with liver function test results or phenytoin metabolism. Prospective analysis. University-affiliated medical center in Taipei, Taiwan...
  49. McMillin G, Juenke J, Dasgupta A. Effect of ultrafiltrate volume on determination of free phenytoin concentration. Ther Drug Monit. 2005;27:630-3 pubmed
    Monitoring free phenytoin concentration is clinically useful for patients with uremia, hepatic disease, hypoalbuminemia, and related conditions...
  50. Santaguida S, Janigro D, Hossain M, Oby E, Rapp E, Cucullo L. Side by side comparison between dynamic versus static models of blood-brain barrier in vitro: a permeability study. Brain Res. 2006;1109:1-13 pubmed
    ..C6) to obtain elevated trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and selective permeability to sucrose and phenytoin. The experiments were performed in parallel using Transwell systems DIV-BBB models and data were then cross ..
  51. Rosemary J, Surendiran A, Rajan S, Shashindran C, Adithan C. Influence of the CYP2C9 AND CYP2C19 polymorphisms on phenytoin hydroxylation in healthy individuals from south India. Indian J Med Res. 2006;123:665-70 pubmed
    b>Phenytoin, a widely used anti-epileptic drug, is metabolized mainly by CYP2C9 (90%) and partly by CYP2C19 (10%) to its major metabolite 5-(para-hydroxyphenyl)-5- phenylhydantoin (p-HPPH)...
  52. Marchi N, Betto G, Fazio V, Fan Q, Ghosh C, Machado A, et al. Blood-brain barrier damage and brain penetration of antiepileptic drugs: role of serum proteins and brain edema. Epilepsia. 2009;50:664-77 pubmed publisher
    ..the effects of BBB damage on brain distribution of hydrophilic [deoxy-glucose (DOG) and sucrose] and lipophilic (phenytoin and diazepam) molecules...
  53. Kaushal S, Rani A, Chopra S, Singh G. Safety and efficacy of clobazam versus phenytoin-sodium in the antiepileptic drug treatment of solitary cysticercus granulomas. Neurol India. 2006;54:157-60 pubmed
    ..efficacy (measured by the incidence of 'treatment failure') of clobazam in comparison to standard treatment with phenytoin-sodium for prevention of seizures in persons with solitary cysticercus granulomas (SCGs)...