Summary: A urea hydantoin that is found in URINE and PLANTS and is used in dermatological preparations.

Top Publications

  1. Gabler M, Heinrichs A. Altering soluble and potentially rumen degradable protein for prepubertal Holstein heifers. J Dairy Sci. 2003;86:2122-30 pubmed
    ..Feeding 62.1 +/- 0.8 g CP/Mcal ME with increased potentially rumen degradable protein (28.2 versus 20.9% B2BS) at 2.0% BW affected rumen fermentation but did not affect DM digestibility or N utilization. ..
  2. Kahn L, Nolan J. Kinetics of allantoin metabolism in sheep. Br J Nutr. 2000;84:629-34 pubmed
    The kinetics of allantoin metabolism were studied in rumen-cannulated sheep by means of a single intravenous injection of [4,5-(14)C]allantoin...
  3. Desimone M, Catoni E, Ludewig U, Hilpert M, Schneider A, Kunze R, et al. A novel superfamily of transporters for allantoin and other oxo derivatives of nitrogen heterocyclic compounds in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2002;14:847-56 pubmed
    ..Here, it is shown that Arabidopsis plants are able to use allantoin as sole nitrogen source...
  4. Lamberto I, Percudani R, Gatti R, Folli C, Petrucco S. Conserved alternative splicing of Arabidopsis transthyretin-like determines protein localization and S-allantoin synthesis in peroxisomes. Plant Cell. 2010;22:1564-74 pubmed publisher
    S-allantoin, a major ureide compound, is produced in plant peroxisomes from oxidized purines...
  5. Cooper T, Ferguson D, Rai R, Bysani N. The GLN3 gene product is required for transcriptional activation of allantoin system gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:1014-8 pubmed
    ..This observation identified transcriptional activation as the most likely point of GLN3 participation in the expression of allantoin system genes.
  6. Karagoz H, Yuksel F, Ulkur E, Evinc R. Comparison of efficacy of silicone gel, silicone gel sheeting, and topical onion extract including heparin and allantoin for the treatment of postburn hypertrophic scars. Burns. 2009;35:1097-103 pubmed publisher
    ..of silicone gel (Scarfade), silicone gel sheet (Epi-Derm), and topical onion extract including heparin and allantoin (Contractubex) for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. Forty-five postburn scars were included in the study...
  7. Niu C, Chen W, Wu H, Cheng K, Wen Y, Lin K, et al. Decrease of plasma glucose by allantoin, an active principle of yam ( Dioscorea spp.), in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:12031-5 pubmed publisher
    The effect of allantoin, an active component of yam, on plasma glucose of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats) is investigated...
  8. Ding S, Jia L, Durandin A, Crean C, Kolbanovskiy A, Shafirovich V, et al. Absolute configurations of spiroiminodihydantoin and allantoin stereoisomers: comparison of computed and measured electronic circular dichroism spectra. Chem Res Toxicol. 2009;22:1189-93 pubmed publisher
    ..of this approach, we performed a proof-of-principle computation of the ECD and ORD of the R and S enantiomers of allantoin (similar in chemical composition to Sp) of known absolute configurations...
  9. Rintoul M, Cusa E, Baldoma L, Badia J, Reitzer L, Aguilar J. Regulation of the Escherichia coli allantoin regulon: coordinated function of the repressor AllR and the activator AllS. J Mol Biol. 2002;324:599-610 pubmed
    The allantoin regulon of Escherichia coli, formed by three operons expressed from promoters allA(P), gcl(P) and allD(P), is involved in the anaerobic utilization of allantoin as nitrogen source...

More Information


  1. Hellsten Y, Svensson M, Sjodin B, Smith S, Christensen A, Richter E, et al. Allantoin formation and urate and glutathione exchange in human muscle during submaximal exercise. Free Radic Biol Med. 2001;31:1313-22 pubmed
    ..16 +/- 0.02 to 0.27 +/- 0.03 micromol/kg d.w.) and allantoin (from 0.39 +/- 0.05 to 0.69 +/- 0.14 micromol/kg d.w.) in the muscle...
  2. Cooper T, Gorski M, Turoscy V. A cluster of three genes responsible for allantoin degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1979;92:383-96 pubmed
    Mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae unable to utilize allantoin as sole nitrogen source were isolated and divided into three groups on the basis of their biochemical and genetic characteristics...
  3. Shalbaf M, Gibbons N, Wood J, Maitland D, Rokos H, Elwary S, et al. Presence of epidermal allantoin further supports oxidative stress in vitiligo. Exp Dermatol. 2008;17:761-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These reactions generate H(2)O(2) yielding allantoin from uric acid when reactive oxygen species accumulates...
  4. Zhang L, Liu Y, Chen G. Simultaneous determination of allantoin, choline and L-arginine in Rhizoma Dioscoreae by capillary electrophoresis. J Chromatogr A. 2004;1043:317-21 pubmed
    A rapid, easy and reproducible capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for the simultaneous determination of allantoin, choline and arginine in Rhizoma Dioscoreae was developed first time...
  5. Chen X, Calder A, Prasitkusol P, Kyle D, Jayasuriya M. Determination of 15N isotopic enrichment and concentrations of allantoin and uric acid in urine by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. J Mass Spectrom. 1998;33:130-7 pubmed
    A method for the determination of 15N enrichment and concentration of allantoin and uric acid simultaneously in urine using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is described...
  6. P lissier H, Frerich A, Desimone M, Schumacher K, Tegeder M. PvUPS1, an allantoin transporter in nodulated roots of French bean. Plant Physiol. 2004;134:664-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Phaseolus vulgaris) or soybean (Glycine max), most of the fixed nitrogen is used for synthesis of the ureides allantoin and allantoic acid, the major long-distance transport forms of organic nitrogen in these species...
  7. Cusa E, Obradors N, Baldoma L, Badia J, Aguilar J. Genetic analysis of a chromosomal region containing genes required for assimilation of allantoin nitrogen and linked glyoxylate metabolism in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:7479-84 pubmed
    Growth experiments with Escherichia coli have shown that this organism is able to use allantoin as a sole nitrogen source but not as a sole carbon source...
  8. Hasegawa A, Ogasawara H, Kori A, Teramoto J, Ishihama A. The transcription regulator AllR senses both allantoin and glyoxylate and controls a set of genes for degradation and reutilization of purines. Microbiology. 2008;154:3366-78 pubmed publisher
    Purines are degraded via uric acid to yield allantoin. Under anaerobic conditions, allantoin is further degraded via carbamoylphosphate to NH(4)+ to provide a nitrogen source and, under aerobic conditions, to 3-phosphoglycerate via ..
  9. Gabison L, Chiadmi M, Colloc h N, Castro B, El Hajji M, Prangé T. Recapture of [S]-allantoin, the product of the two-step degradation of uric acid, by urate oxidase. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:2087-91 pubmed
    Urate oxidase from Aspergillus flavus catalyzes the degradation of uric acid to [S]-allantoin through 5-hydroxyisourate as a metastable intermediate...
  10. Cooper T, Chisholm V, Cho H, Yoo H. Allantoin transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by two induction systems. J Bacteriol. 1987;169:4660-7 pubmed
    We show that the allantoin transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae responds to two induction systems, one mediated by allophanate or its analog oxalurate and the other mediated by allantoin or its analog hydantoin acetate...
  11. French J, Neau D, Ealick S. Characterization of the structure and function of Klebsiella pneumoniae allantoin racemase. J Mol Biol. 2011;410:447-60 pubmed publisher
    The oxidative catabolism of uric acid produces 5-hydroxyisourate (HIU), which is further degraded to (S)-allantoin by two enzymes, HIU hydrolase and 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline decarboxylase...
  12. Ho W, Ying S, Chan P, Chan H. Use of onion extract, heparin, allantoin gel in prevention of scarring in chinese patients having laser removal of tattoos: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Dermatol Surg. 2006;32:891-6 pubmed
    ..05). Contractubex gel is effective in scar prevention in Chinese patients having laser removal of tattoos. ..
  13. Sahle M, Burgess W, Kidanemariam A. Multiplication of the V4 strain of Newcastle disease virus in Madin Derby bovine kidney cells. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2002;69:201-6 pubmed
  14. Yardim Akaydin S, Sepici A, Ozkan Y, Torun M, Simsek B, Sepici V. Oxidation of uric acid in rheumatoid arthritis: is allantoin a marker of oxidative stress?. Free Radic Res. 2004;38:623-8 pubmed
    ..Reaction of uric acid with free radicals, such as hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) results in allantoin production...
  15. Xu L, Sun Y. Fabrication and characterization of open-tubular CEC modified with tentacle-type metal-chelating polymer chains. Electrophoresis. 2007;28:1658-67 pubmed
    ..The separation was considered to be effected by a combination of ligand exchange and electrophoretic mobility. ..
  16. Li M, Wang X, Aa J, Qin W, Zha W, Ge Y, et al. GC/TOFMS analysis of metabolites in serum and urine reveals metabolic perturbation of TCA cycle in db/db mice involved in diabetic nephropathy. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013;304:F1317-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The relative abundances of TCA intermediates in urine relative to those in serum were suggested as an index of renal damage. ..
  17. Tebot I, Britos A, Godeau J, Cirio A. Microbial protein production determined by urinary allantoin and renal urea sparing in normal and low protein fed Corriedale sheep. Vet Res. 2002;33:101-6 pubmed
    ..5 g N/d) fed Corriedale sheep. Renal functional tests for urea handling studies, and determination of urinary allantoin as an indirect method to estimate the microbial protein production were used...
  18. Schmidt A, Su Y, Kunze R, Warner S, Hewitt M, Slocum R, et al. UPS1 and UPS2 from Arabidopsis mediate high affinity transport of uracil and 5-fluorouracil. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:44817-24 pubmed
    ..Two plant transporters, AtUPS1 and PvUPS1, were recently identified as transporters for allantoin in Arabidopsis and French bean, respectively...
  19. Yokozawa T, Sekiya M, Cho E, Kurokawa M, Shiraki K. Effect of Wen-Pi-Tang extract on lung damage by influenza virus infection. Phytomedicine. 2004;11:625-32 pubmed
    ..The serum levels of uric acid and allantoin in influenza virus-infected mice were reduced by Wen-Pi-Tang extract administration...
  20. Carlson M, Thompson R. Identification of allantoin, uric acid, and indoxyl sulfate as biochemical indicators of filth in food packaging by LC. J AOAC Int. 2001;84:782-8 pubmed
    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for the determination of allantoin, uric acid, and indoxyl sulfate in mammalian urine contaminated packaging material including paper bagging, corrugated cardboard, grayboard, and burlap ..
  21. Kand Ár R, Záková P. Allantoin as a marker of oxidative stress in human erythrocytes. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2008;46:1270-4 pubmed publisher
    ..It was determined that this compound has important antioxidative properties and it may be oxidized to allantoin by various reactive oxygen species...
  22. El Mubarak M, Lamari F, Kontoyannis C. Simultaneous determination of allantoin and glycolic acid in snail mucus and cosmetic creams with high performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection. J Chromatogr A. 2013;1322:49-53 pubmed publisher
    A new methodology for simultaneous quantitative analysis of allantoin and glycolic acid in snail mucus and cosmetic creams was developed...
  23. Lv Y, Liu X, Yan S, Liang X, Yang Y, Dai W, et al. Metabolomic study of myocardial ischemia and intervention effects of Compound Danshen Tablets in rats using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2010;52:129-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that CDT presented protective effects on MI by reversing potential biomarkers to sham levels, especially for the four metabolites in the pathway of purine metabolism (hypoxanthine, xanthine, inosine and allantoin).
  24. Poffers J, Lumeij J, Redig P. Investigations into the uricolytic properties of urate oxidase in a granivorous (Columba livia domestica) and in a carnivorous (Buteo jamaicensis) avian species. Avian Pathol. 2002;31:573-9 pubmed
    ..Plasma concentrations of allantoin and uric acid were determined at various times in experimental groups before and after receiving 100, 200, and ..
  25. Johnson VanWieringen L, Harrison J, Davidson D, Swift M, von Keyserlingk M, Vazquez Anon M, et al. Effects of rumen-undegradable protein sources and supplemental 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid and lysine-HCl on lactation performance in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2007;90:5176-88 pubmed
    ..Additionally, there was a trend for whole-blood Lys concentrations to be greater for diets supplemented with Lys x HCl. ..
  26. Marzluf G. Genetic regulation of nitrogen metabolism in the fungi. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 1997;61:17-32 pubmed
    ..Nitrogen metabolic regulation appears to play a significant role in the pathogenicity of certain animal and plant fungal pathogens. ..
  27. Werner A, Witte C. The biochemistry of nitrogen mobilization: purine ring catabolism. Trends Plant Sci. 2011;16:381-7 pubmed publisher
    ..lie in the remobilization of nitrogen resources, it has also emerged that catabolic intermediates, the ureides allantoin and allantoate, are likely to be involved in protecting plants against abiotic stress...
  28. Thurston A, Taylor J, Gardner J, Sinclair K, Young L. Monoallelic expression of nine imprinted genes in the sheep embryo occurs after the blastocyst stage. Reproduction. 2008;135:29-40 pubmed
    ..Thus, for the majority of ovine imprinted genes examined, monoallelic expression does not occur until after the blastocyst stage. ..
  29. Middelhoven W. Cryptococcus allantoinivorans sp.nov., an anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast (Tremellales) physiologically resembling other species of the Cryptococcus laurentii complex that degrade polysaccharides and C2 compounds. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2005;87:101-8 pubmed
    A novel Cryptococcus species is proposed to accommodate a yeast strain (CBS 9604) able to assimilate allantoin as sole carbon source, a characteristic very uncommon among yeasts...
  30. Lee C, Isaac H, Huang S, Long L, Wang H, Gruber J, et al. Limited antioxidant effect after consumption of a single dose of tomato sauce by young males, despite a rise in plasma lycopene. Free Radic Res. 2009;43:622-8 pubmed publisher
    ..01) after the meal. Levels of plasma F(2)-isoprostanes, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid products, allantoin and urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine did not change after either meal, but urinary F(2)-isoprostanes (p<0...
  31. Yoo H, Cooper T. Sequences of two adjacent genes, one (DAL2) encoding allantoicase and another (DCG1) sensitive to nitrogen-catabolite repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gene. 1991;104:55-62 pubmed
    ..repression (NCR) and regulated by the DAL80 product, a previously documented control element regulating allantoin pathway gene expression...
  32. Oliver M, Guo L, Alexander D, Ryals J, Wone B, Cushman J. A sister group contrast using untargeted global metabolomic analysis delineates the biochemical regulation underlying desiccation tolerance in Sporobolus stapfianus. Plant Cell. 2011;23:1231-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, the metabolic profiles obtained uncovered a cascade of biochemical regulation strategies critical to the survival of S. stapfianus under desiccation. ..
  33. Cai N, Tan L, Li Y, Xia T, Hu T, Su X. Biosensing platform for the detection of uric acid based on graphene quantum dots and G-quadruplex/hemin DNAzyme. Anal Chim Acta. 2017;965:96-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Uric acid could be decomposed by uricase and then produced hydrogen peroxide and allantoin. We thus successfully achieved the indirect detection of uric acid by monitoring the concentration of hydrogen ..
  34. Scalera F, Borlak J, Beckmann B, Martens Lobenhoffer J, Thum T, Tager M, et al. Endogenous nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor asymmetric dimethyl L-arginine accelerates endothelial cell senescence. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004;24:1816-22 pubmed
    ..This effect was associated with an increase of oxidative stress: allantoin, a marker of oxygen free radical generation, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased ..
  35. Bertilsson J, Akerlind M, Eriksson T. The effects of high-sugar ryegrass/red clover silage diets on intake, production, digestibility, and N utilization in dairy cows, as measured in vivo and predicted by the NorFor model. J Dairy Sci. 2017;100:7990-8003 pubmed publisher
    ..Rumen pool of total purines did not differ between treatments, nor did protein production assessed from urinary allantoin. The NorFor feed evaluation model overestimated digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and N, but ..
  36. Yang L, Feng X, Zhang S, Yang J, Wang H, Ge X, et al. [Processing technics of Rhizoma Dioscoreae stired by wheat bran]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2009;34:1658-60 pubmed
    ..The content of allantoin in Rhizoma Dioscoreae was determine by HPLC method...
  37. Esiaba I, Angeles D, Holden M, Tan J, Asmerom Y, Gollin G, et al. Urinary Allantoin Is Elevated in Severe Intraventricular Hemorrhage in the Preterm Newborn. Transl Stroke Res. 2016;7:97-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Assessment of the oxidative stress status in these infants is therefore important. Urinary allantoin concentration was measured in preterm neonates as a marker of oxidative stress associated with IVH...
  38. Nishinami S, Yoshizawa S, Arakawa T, Shiraki K. Allantoin and hydantoin as new protein aggregation suppressors. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018;114:497-503 pubmed publisher
    b>Allantoin is widely used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products, and is composed of a hydantoin ring and a ureido group. Recent reports showed that allantoin suppresses thermal aggregation of hen egg white lysozyme (LYZ)...
  39. King C, Purcell L. Inhibition of N2 fixation in soybean is associated with elevated ureides and amino acids. Plant Physiol. 2005;137:1389-96 pubmed
  40. Ogihara T, Hirano K, Ogihara H, Misaki K, Hiroi M, Morinobu T, et al. Non-protein-bound transition metals and hydroxyl radical generation in cerebrospinal fluid of newborn infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Pediatr Res. 2003;53:594-9 pubmed
    ..Our preliminary observations provide direct evidence that hydroxyl radicals are generated in the CNS during asphyxiation. Iron chelation therapy could be worth developing as a neuroprotective strategy for perinatal asphyxia. ..
  41. Vogels G, van der Drift C. Degradation of purines and pyrimidines by microorganisms. Bacteriol Rev. 1976;40:403-68 pubmed
  42. Becker B, Kastenbauer S, Ködel U, Kiesl D, Pfister H. Urate oxidation in CSF and blood of patients with inflammatory disorders of the nervous system. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2004;23:1201-4 pubmed
    ..The oxidation product allantoin is normally not passively distributed between blood and cerebrospinal fluid (gradient 3:1) and increases 5-fold ..
  43. Ferreira E, Vasques C, Gadia R, Chan R, Guerra E, Mezzomo L, et al. Topical interventions to prevent acute radiation dermatitis in head and neck cancer patients: a systematic review. Support Care Cancer. 2017;25:1001-1011 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacological interventions used in the trials were trolamine, aloe vera, allantoin, Lianbai liquid, sucralfate, Na-sucrose octasulfate, olive oil, hialuronic acid, and dexpanthenol...
  44. Chakeredza S, ter Meulen U, Ndlovu L. Effect of cowpea hay, groundnut hay, cotton seed meal and maize meal supplementation to maize stover on intake, digestibility, microbial protein supply and acetate kinetics in weaner lambs. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2002;34:49-64 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that small amounts of forage supplements can improve nutrient intake when animals consume low-quality forages and provide a basis for comparing such supplements with bought-in protein and energy supplements. ..
  45. Xia Y, O Shea T, McFarlane J. Changes in concentrations of follistatin in maternal plasma and foetal fluids during pregnancy and parturition in sheep. Anim Reprod Sci. 2009;114:148-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that follistatin may play a role in femaleness development, and that follistatin may be involved in the mechanism of normal parturition and in regulation of the tissue repair after parturition. ..
  46. Chen X, Tao Y, Zhao L, Xie Z, Chen G. Preliminary electrochemiluminescence study of allantoin in the presence of tris(2,2'-bipyridine) ruthenium (II). Luminescence. 2005;20:109-16 pubmed
    Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) based on allantoin and tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium (II) [Ru(bpy)3 (2+)] was studied in aqueous alkaline buffer solution (pH 11.0). In a flowing system, the eluted allantoin was mixed with 1...
  47. Seet R, Lee C, Lim E, Quek A, Huang H, Huang S, et al. Oral zinc supplementation does not improve oxidative stress or vascular function in patients with type 2 diabetes with normal zinc levels. Atherosclerosis. 2011;219:231-9 pubmed publisher
    ..reliable biomarkers of oxidative damage (F(2)-isoprostanes, neuroprostanes, cholesterol oxidation products, allantoin) as well as hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid products and vascular-related indices (augmentation index, pulse wave ..
  48. Shao X, Lu W, Gao F, Li D, Hu J, Li Y, et al. Uric Acid Induces Cognitive Dysfunction through Hippocampal Inflammation in Rodents and Humans. J Neurosci. 2016;36:10990-11005 pubmed
    Uric acid (UA) is a purine metabolite that in most mammals is degraded by the hepatic enzyme uricase to allantoin. Epidemiological studies have shown that an elevated UA level predicts the development of cognition and memory deficits; ..
  49. Casartelli A, Riewe D, Hubberten H, Altmann T, Hoefgen R, Heuer S. Exploring traditional aus-type rice for metabolites conferring drought tolerance. Rice (N Y). 2018;11:9 pubmed publisher
    ..revealed an overall higher accumulation of N-rich metabolites (amino acids and nucleotide-related metabolites allantoin and uridine) in shoots of the tolerant varieties...
  50. Doi T, Takeda A, Asada A, Kajimura K. Characterization of the decomposition of compounds derived from imidazolidinyl urea in cosmetics and patch test materials. Contact Dermatitis. 2012;67:284-92 pubmed publisher
    ..In the analysed cosmetic samples and patch test materials, imidazolidinyl urea was primarily composed of allantoin, (4-hydroxymethyl-2,5-dioxo-imidazolidine-4-yl)-urea (HU), (3,4-bis-hydroxymethyl-2,5-dioxo-imidazolidine-4-yl)-..
  51. Ribatti D, De Falco G, Nico B, Ria R, Crivellato E, Vacca A. In vivo time-course of the angiogenic response induced by multiple myeloma plasma cells in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane. J Anat. 2003;203:323-8 pubmed
  52. Kiep L, Maderner S, Seifert K. Metabolism of metamizol in early stages of the incubated hen's egg. Pharmazie. 2002;57:829-33 pubmed
    ..The data presented here demonstrate the usefulness of the developed model also in early stages of the incubated hen's egg. Consequently, the model is suitable as a complementary method for xenobiotic metabolism. ..
  53. Collier R, Tegeder M. Soybean ureide transporters play a critical role in nodule development, function and nitrogen export. Plant J. 2012;72:355-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In soybean, the products of fixation are the ureides allantoin and allantoic acid, which are also the dominant long-distance transport forms of nitrogen from nodules to the ..