econazole

Summary

Summary: An imidazole derivative that is commonly used as a topical antifungal agent.

Top Publications

  1. Hornstein E, Vassilopoulos D, Thomas D, Friedman F, Tsokos G. Modulation of human T-lymphocyte plasma membrane Ca2+ permeability by imidazole antimycotics. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1996;18:237-45 pubmed
    ..b>Econazole, miconazole and clotrimazole dramatically inhibited the THG mediated increase in [Ca+2]i and induced an increase ..
  2. Sosto F, Benvenuti C. Controlled study on thymol + eugenol vaginal douche versus econazole in vaginal candidiasis and metronidazole in bacterial vaginosis. Arzneimittelforschung. 2011;61:126-31 pubmed publisher
    ..thymol: 89-83-8 and eugenol: 97-53-0), with econazole (CAS 27220-47-9) in VC and metronidazole (CAS 443-48-1) in BV, as suppository reference therapies...
  3. Ambrogi V, Perioli L, Pagano C, Marmottini F, Moretti M, Mizzi F, et al. Econazole nitrate-loaded MCM-41 for an antifungal topical powder formulation. J Pharm Sci. 2010;99:4738-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, an econazole nitrate (ECO) formulation with improved drug dissolution and proper moisture adsorption was designed...
  4. Prajna N, John R, Nirmalan P, Lalitha P, Srinivasan M. A randomised clinical trial comparing 2% econazole and 5% natamycin for the treatment of fungal keratitis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003;87:1235-7 pubmed
    To compare 2% econazole and 5% natamycin in the management of fungal keratitis...
  5. Burguière A, Hitchen P, Dover L, Dell A, Besra G. Altered expression profile of mycobacterial surface glycopeptidolipids following treatment with the antifungal azole inhibitors econazole and clotrimazole. Microbiology. 2005;151:2087-95 pubmed
    The azole antifungal drugs econazole and clotrimazole are known cytochrome P450 enzyme inhibitors...
  6. Baloglu E, Karavana S, Senyigit Z, Hilmioglu Polat S, Metin D, Zekioglu O, et al. In-situ gel formulations of econazole nitrate: preparation and in-vitro and in-vivo evaluation. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011;63:1274-82 pubmed publisher
    This study describes the in-situ gelling of econazole nitrate containing thermosensitive polymers composed of poloxamer 407 and 188 as a novel treatment platform for vaginal candidiasis...
  7. Vera Cabrera L, Campos Rivera M, Escalante Fuentes W, Pucci M, Ocampo Candiani J, Welsh O. In vitro activity of ACH-702, a new isothiazoloquinolone, against Nocardia brasiliensis compared with econazole and the carbapenems imipenem and meropenem alone or in combination with clavulanic acid. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:2191-3 pubmed publisher
    ..125 and 0.5 microg/ml. The same values for econazole were 2 and 4 microg/ml...
  8. Prajna N, Nirmalan P, Mahalakshmi R, Lalitha P, Srinivasan M. Concurrent use of 5% natamycin and 2% econazole for the management of fungal keratitis. Cornea. 2004;23:793-6 pubmed
    To determine if concurrent use of 5% natamycin and 2% econazole offers greater benefits than monotherapy with 5% natamycin for the management of fungal keratitis...
  9. Drago L, De Vecchi E, Fassina M, Mombelli B, Bonaccorso C, Gismondo M. Antimycotic activity and phagocytosis effects of econazole in combination with ibuprofen isobuthanolammonium against vaginal strains. J Chemother. 2000;12:509-15 pubmed
    ..In this study we investigated the presence of synergistic activity of econazole and ibuprofen isobuthanolammonium against 310 different vaginal isolates, by using the microdilution broth assay ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Aboul Enein H, Ali I. Comparison of the chiral resolution of econazole, miconazole, and sulconazole by HPLC using normal-phase amylose CSPs. Fresenius J Anal Chem. 2001;370:951-5 pubmed
    Resolution of the enantiomers of (+/-)-econazole, (+/-)-miconazole, and (+/-)-sulconazole has been achieved on different normal-phase chiral amylose columns, Chi-ralpak AD, AS, and AR...
  2. Parodi B, Russo E, Caviglioli G, Baldassari S, Gaglianone N, Schito A, et al. A chitosan lactate/poloxamer 407-based matrix containing Eudragit RS microparticles for vaginal delivery of econazole: design and in vitro evaluation. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2013;39:1911-20 pubmed publisher
    ..and poloxamer 407 was evaluated as a delivery system for the vaginal administration of the antifungal drug econazole. The matrix was investigated both containing the pure drug and after introducing microparticles of Eudragit RS ..
  3. Chen G, Zeng B, Eastmond S, Elsenussi S, Boa A, Xu S. Pharmacological comparison of novel synthetic fenamate analogues with econazole and 2-APB on the inhibition of TRPM2 channels. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;167:1232-43 pubmed publisher
    Fenamate analogues, econazole and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) are inhibitors of transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channels and are used as research tools...
  4. Hammer K, Carson C, Riley T. In vitro activities of ketoconazole, econazole, miconazole, and Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil against Malassezia species. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000;44:467-9 pubmed
    The in vitro activities of ketoconazole, econazole, miconazole, and tea tree oil against 54 Malassezia isolates were determined by agar and broth dilution methods...
  5. Matsumoto K, Takagi K, Kato A, Ishibashi T, Mori Y, Tashima K, et al. Role of transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channels in visceral nociception and hypersensitivity. Exp Neurol. 2016;285:41-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that oral administration of the TRPM2 inhibitor econazole (30mg/kg) reduced the visceromotor response (VMR) to noxious colorectal distention (CRD) at 80mmHg in control ..
  6. Driscoll M, McLean K, Cheesman M, Jowitt T, Howard M, Carroll P, et al. Expression and characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis CYP144: common themes and lessons learned in the M. tuberculosis P450 enzyme family. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1814:76-87 pubmed publisher
    ..98 ?M), clotrimazole (0.37 ?M) and econazole (0.78 ?M) being highest...
  7. Van den Driessche F, Vanhoutte B, Brackman G, Crabbé A, Rigole P, Vercruysse J, et al. Evaluation of combination therapy for Burkholderia cenocepacia lung infection in different in vitro and in vivo models. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0172723 pubmed publisher
    ..cenocepacia biofilms, including four imidazoles of which econazole and miconazole were selected for further investigation...
  8. Defontaine A, Bouchara J, Declerk P, Planchenault C, Chabasse D, Hallet J. In-vitro resistance to azoles associated with mitochondrial DNA deficiency in Candida glabrata. J Med Microbiol. 1999;48:663-70 pubmed
    ..zones for the azole compounds fluconazole, ketoconazole and miconazole, and less frequently for isoconazole, econazole and clotrimazole...
  9. Lee J, Kang N, Kang Y. Binding free energies of inhibitors to iron porphyrin complex as a model for Cytochrome P450. Biopolymers. 2012;97:219-28 pubmed publisher
    ..at the same level of theory are consistent with the values of the corresponding X-ray structures, except for the econazole complex. The correlation coefficient r(2) values of 0.91 and 0...
  10. Thomson S, Rice C, Zhang T, Edrada Ebel R, Henriquez F, Roberts C. Characterisation of sterol biosynthesis and validation of 14?-demethylase as a drug target in Acanthamoeba. Sci Rep. 2017;7:8247 pubmed publisher
    ..While miconazole and sulconazole have intermediate activity econazole is least effective...
  11. Aboul Enein H, Ali I. Comparative study of the enantiomeric resolution of chiral antifungal drugs econazole, miconazole and sulconazole by HPLC on various cellulose chiral columns in normal phase mode. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2002;27:441-6 pubmed
    The chiral resolution of (+/-)-econazole, (+/-)-miconazole and (+/-)-sulconazole on the columns containing different cellulose derivatives namely Chiralcel OD, OJ, OB, OK, OC and OF in normal phase mode has been described...
  12. Cheng J, Shu S, Kuo C, Chou C, Tsai W, Fang Y, et al. Effect of diindolylmethane on Ca(2+) movement and viability in HA59T human hepatoma cells. Arch Toxicol. 2011;85:1257-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Diindolylmethane-induced Ca(2+) influx was not inhibited by nifedipine, econazole, SK&F96365, and protein kinase C modulators but was inhibited by aristolochic acid...
  13. Albertini B, Passerini N, Di Sabatino M, Vitali B, Brigidi P, Rodriguez L. Polymer-lipid based mucoadhesive microspheres prepared by spray-congealing for the vaginal delivery of econazole nitrate. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2009;36:591-601 pubmed publisher
    ..for the preparation of mucoadhesive microparticles and to design an innovative vaginal delivery systems for econazole nitrate (ECN) able to enhance the drug antifungal activity...
  14. Soboloff J, Zhang Y, Minden M, Berger S. Sensitivity of myeloid leukemia cells to calcium influx blockade: application to bone marrow purging. Exp Hematol. 2002;30:1219-26 pubmed
    ..b>Econazole (Ec) and ketotifen (Ke) were variably effective against human and murine leukemia cell lines after 24 hours of ..
  15. Köfeler H, Fauler G, Windischhofer W, Leis H. Effect of cytochrome P-450 inhibitors econazole, bifonazole and clotrimazole on prostanoid formation. Br J Pharmacol. 2000;130:1241-6 pubmed
    1. The present study was carried out to clarify the effect of the imidazole antimycotics econazole, bifonazole and clotrimazole on prostanoid biosynthesis...
  16. Huang J, Liu C, Chou C, Liu S, Hsu S, Chang H, et al. Effects of econazole on Ca2+ levels in and the growth of human prostate cancer PC3 cells. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2005;32:735-41 pubmed
    1. Econazole is used clinically as an antifungal drug with many different in vitro effects. However, the effects of econazole on prostate cancer cells are unknown...
  17. Firooz A, Nafisi S, Maibach H. Novel drug delivery strategies for improving econazole antifungal action. Int J Pharm. 2015;495:599-607 pubmed publisher
    b>Econazole is a commonly used azole antifungal in clinical treatment of superficial fungal infections...
  18. Neji S, Makni F, Cheikhrouhou F, Sellami H, Boudaya S, Turki H, et al. First case of Trichophyton soudanense isolated in Tunisia. Mycopathologia. 2010;170:353-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient was treated with fluconazole, topical econazole, and ciclopiroxolamine varnish. Although T...
  19. Pirone E, Infantino A, Masin A, Melega F, Pianon P, Dodi G, et al. Can proctological procedures resolve perianal pruritus and mycosis? A prospective study of 23 cases. Int J Colorectal Dis. 1992;7:18-20 pubmed
    ..The remaining three patients required antifungal treatment with econazole. Two of these, however, continued to complain of pruritus...
  20. Furneri P, Corsello S, Masellis G, Salvatori M, Cammarata E, Roccasalva L, et al. Econazole-polycarbophil, a new delivery system for topical therapy: microbiological and clinical results on vaginal candidiasis. J Chemother. 2008;20:336-40 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the addition of a bioadhesive polymer to econazole, which increases the duration of the active drug at the site of infection, leads to a greater frequency of negative culture after treatment ..
  21. Cheng H, Lu Y, Lu T, Cheng J, Mar G, Fang Y, et al. Effect of methoxychlor on Ca(2+) movement and viability in MDCK renal tubular cells. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2012;111:224-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Methoxychlor-induced Ca(2+) entry was not affected by nifedipine and SK&F96365 but was inhibited by econazole and protein kinase C modulators...
  22. Al Marzouqi A, Elwy H, Shehadi I, Adem A. Physicochemical properties of antifungal drug-cyclodextrin complexes prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide and by conventional techniques. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2009;49:227-33 pubmed publisher
    ..for obtaining solid inclusion complexes between beta-cyclodextrin and three antifungal drugs (itraconazole, econazole, and fluconazole)...
  23. Warrilow A, Martel C, Parker J, Melo N, Lamb D, Nes W, et al. Azole binding properties of Candida albicans sterol 14-alpha demethylase (CaCYP51). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:4235-45 pubmed publisher
    ..CaCYP51 had similar affinities for clotrimazole, econazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, and voriconazole, with K(d) values of 10 to 26 ?M under oxidative ..
  24. Vennewald I, Klemm E. Otomycosis: Diagnosis and treatment. Clin Dermatol. 2010;28:202-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These drugs are essential in the treatment of patients with malignant fungal otitis externa complicated by mastoiditis and meningitis. ..
  25. Jenner S, Sage S. Two pathways for store-mediated calcium entry in human platelets. Platelets. 2000;11:215-21 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a role for tyrosine kinases in generating only the later stages of store-mediated calcium entry in platelets and may explain the incomplete inhibition of this pathway by inhibitors of tyrosine kinases. ..
  26. Zhang Y, Berger S. Increased calcium influx and ribosomal content correlate with resistance to endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cell death in mutant leukemia cell lines. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:6507-16 pubmed
    Cell clones were derived by treatment of HL-60 cells with stepwise increasing concentrations of econazole (Ec), an imidazole antifungal that blocks Ca2+ influx and induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related cell death in multiple ..
  27. Jancar S, Teixeira C, de Lima W, Fujimura A, Sirois P. Inhibitory effect of econazole on the release of thromboxanes. Agents Actions. 1991;34:387-92 pubmed
    The effect of econazole on the release of thromboxanes was investigated. It was found that econazole inhibited concentration-dependently the aggregation of guinea pig platelets stimulated with arachidonic acid...
  28. Yu Y, Niapour M, Zhang Y, Berger S. Mitochondrial regulation by c-Myc and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha controls sensitivity to econazole. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008;7:483-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Econazole is an azole antifungal with anticancer activity that blocks Ca(2+) influx and stimulates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) release through the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in sustained ..
  29. Lee K, Son S, Babnigg G, Villereal M. Tyrosine phosphatase and cytochrome P450 activity are critical in regulating store-operated calcium channels in human fibroblasts. Exp Mol Med. 2006;38:703-17 pubmed
    ..as demonstrated by the fact that the products of cytochrome P-450 activity (14,15 EET) stimulated SOCE while econazole, an inhibitor of cytochrome P450, suppressed BK-stimulated Ca2+ entry...
  30. Carrillo Munoz A, Guglietta A, Palacin C, Casals J, del Valle O, Guardia C, et al. In vitro antifungal activity of sertaconazole compared with nine other drugs against 250 clinical isolates of dermatophytes and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Chemotherapy. 2004;50:308-13 pubmed
    ..ketoconazole, miconazole, clotrimazole, sertaconazole, terbinafine, tioconazole, fluconazole, isoconazole and econazole. Except for fluconazole, all the drugs tested have shown to be highly effective, especially sertaconazole and ..
  31. Oda S, Uchida K, Wang X, Lee J, Shimada Y, Tominaga M, et al. TRPM2 contributes to antigen-stimulated Ca²? influx in mucosal mast cells. Pflugers Arch. 2013;465:1023-30 pubmed publisher
    ..suppressed following the administration of three TRPM2 inhibitors with different chemical structures, including econazole, flufenamic acid (FFA), and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate...
  32. Leclercq L, Nardello Rataj V. Pickering emulsions based on cyclodextrins: A smart solution for antifungal azole derivatives topical delivery. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2016;82:126-37 pubmed publisher
    ..stability and surfactant free) has been used to obtain sustainable formulations for antifungal econazole derivatives delivery...
  33. Hill K, McNulty S, Randall A. Inhibition of TRPM2 channels by the antifungal agents clotrimazole and econazole. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2004;370:227-37 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate, using patch clamp electrophysiology, that the antifungal imidazoles clotrimazole and econazole inhibit ADP-ribose-activated currents in HEK-293 cells expressing recombinant human TRPM2 (hTRPM2)...
  34. Shah R, Eldridge D, Palombo E, Harding I. Microwave-assisted microemulsion technique for production of miconazole nitrate- and econazole nitrate-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2017;117:141-150 pubmed publisher
    ..microemulsion technique to encapsulate selected ionic drug substances such as miconazole nitrate and econazole nitrate. The microwave-produced SLNs had a small size (250-300nm), low polydispersity (<0...
  35. Yan Q, Machalz D, Zöllner A, Sorensen E, Wolber G, Bureik M. Efficient substrate screening and inhibitor testing of human CYP4Z1 using permeabilized recombinant fission yeast. Biochem Pharmacol. 2017;146:174-187 pubmed publisher
    ..We also identified five new inhibitors of CYP4Z1: miconazole, econazole, aminobenzotriazole, tolazoline, and 1-benzylimidazole respectively, with the last compound being the most ..
  36. Sun S, Lyu Q, Han L, Ma Q, Hu H, He S, et al. [Molecular identification and in vitro susceptibility of Fusarium from fungal keratitis in central China]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 2015;51:660-7 pubmed
    ..MIC) of vorionazole, ketoconazole, terbinafine, natamycin, 5-flucytosine, fluconazol, amphotericin B, nystatin, econazole, clotrimazole, miconazole and itraconazole to 145 isolates of Fusarium were determined by microbroth dilution ..
  37. Wey P, Petitjeans F, Lions C, Ould Ahmed M, Escarment J. Laryngeal dyspnea in relation to an interaction between acenocoumarol and topical econazole lotion. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2008;6:173-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Seventeen days earlier, she had received a prescription for topical econazole lotion 1% to be applied 3 times daily for 1 month to treat a dermatitis affecting 12% of the body surface...
  38. Jan C, Ho C, Wu S, Tseng C. Multiple effects of econazole on calcium signaling: depletion of thapsigargin-sensitive calcium store, activation of extracellular calcium influx, and inhibition of capacitative calcium entry. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999;1448:533-42 pubmed
    The effect of econazole on intracellular calcium levels ([Ca2+]i) in Madin Darby canine kidney cells was investigated using fura-2 fluorimetry. Econazole increased [Ca2+]i dose-dependently at 5-50 microM...
  39. Chen Z, Yang Y, Werner S, Wipf P, Weber S. A screening method for chiral selectors that does not require covalent attachment. J Am Chem Soc. 2006;128:2208-9 pubmed
    ..Eight bind the racemic target, econazole. Among them, one has measurable chiral selectivity...
  40. Ho Y, Wu C, Chou H, Wang Y, Tseng H, Chen C, et al. Molecular mechanisms of econazole-induced toxicity on human colon cancer cells: G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and caspase 8-independent apoptotic signaling pathways. Food Chem Toxicol. 2005;43:1483-95 pubmed
    b>Econazole (Eco), a potent broad-spectrum anti-fungal agent, has been used in the treatment of superficial mycosis. Eco is a store-operated Ca2+ channel antagonist which induces cytotoxic cell death of leukemia...
  41. Landowski C, Bolanz K, Suzuki Y, Hediger M. Chemical inhibitors of the calcium entry channel TRPV6. Pharm Res. 2011;28:322-30 pubmed publisher
    ..4 ?M). These results suggest that compound #03 is a relatively selective and potent inhibitor for TRPV6 and that it is an interesting lead compound for the treatment of prostate cancer and other cancers of epithelial origin. ..
  42. Castro Puyana M, Crego A, Marina M, Garcia Ruiz C. Enantioselective separation of azole compounds by EKC. Reversal of migration order of enantiomers with CD concentration. Electrophoresis. 2007;28:2667-74 pubmed
    ..The best enantiomeric resolutions for miconazole, econazole, and sulconazole were observed with HP-beta-CD whereas for the separation of the enantiomers of ketoconazole, ..
  43. Preney L, Théraud M, Guiguen C, Gangneux J. Experimental evaluation of antifungal and antiseptic agents against Rhodotorula spp. Mycoses. 2003;46:492-5 pubmed
    ..tested strains were susceptible to ketoconazole, 5-fluorocytosine, amphotericin B, and nystatin, intermediate to econazole and resistant to fluconazole, itraconazole and miconazole...
  44. Pandey R, Ahmad Z, Sharma S, Khuller G. Nano-encapsulation of azole antifungals: potential applications to improve oral drug delivery. Int J Pharm. 2005;301:268-76 pubmed
    ..was designed to improve the oral bioavailability of two clinically important antifungal drugs-clotrimazole and econazole. Each drug was encapsulated in nanoparticles of a synthetic polymer (polylactide-co-glycolide, PLG) or a natural ..
  45. Milano A, Pasca M, Provvedi R, Lucarelli A, Manina G, Ribeiro A, et al. Azole resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is mediated by the MmpS5-MmpL5 efflux system. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2009;89:84-90 pubmed publisher
    ..tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG. All the analyzed resistant mutants exhibited both increased econazole efflux and increased transcription of mmpS5-mmpL5 genes, encoding a hypothetical efflux system belonging to the ..
  46. Jan C, Ho C, Wu S, Tseng C. Mechanism of rise and decay of thapsigargin-evoked calcium signals in MDCK cells. Life Sci. 1999;64:259-67 pubmed
    ..The thapsigargin-evoked CCE was abolished by La3 and Gd3+, and was partly inhibited by SKF 96365 and econazole. After depletion of the internal Ca2+ store for 30 min with another inhibitor of the internal Ca2+ pump, ..
  47. Mathivanan S, de la Torre Martínez R, Wolf C, Mangano G, Polenzani L, Milanese C, et al. Effect of econazole and benzydamine on sensory neurons in culture. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2016;67:851-858 pubmed
    b>Econazole is an anti-mycotic agent widely used for the treatment of cutaneous fungal infections, and for the therapy of vaginal candidiasis...
  48. Ahmad Z, Sharma S, Khuller G. In vitro and ex vivo antimycobacterial potential of azole drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;251:19-22 pubmed
    The antimycobacterial activity of two clinically approved antifungal azole drugs, clotrimazole and econazole, was evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv under in vitro and ex vivo conditions...
  49. Lachassagne D, Soubrand M, Casellas M, Gonzalez Ospina A, Dagot C. Impact of sludge stabilization processes and sludge origin (urban or hospital) on the mobility of pharmaceutical compounds following sludge landspreading in laboratory soil-column experiments. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2015;22:17135-50 pubmed publisher
    ..SMX), salicylic acid (SAL), ibuprofen (IBU), paracetamol (PAR), diclofenac (DIC), ketoprofen (KTP), econazole (ECZ), atenolol (ATN), and their solid-liquid distribution during sludge treatment (from thickening to ..
  50. Li Y, Chou C, Liang W, Tseng H, Fang Y, Hung T, et al. Effect of NPC-14686 (Fmoc-l-Homophenylalanine) on Ca²⁺ Homeostasis and Viability in OC2 Human Oral Cancer Cells. Chin J Physiol. 2015;58:285-93 pubmed publisher
    ..NPC-14686- elicited Ca²⁺ signal was decreased by nifedipine, econazole, SKF96365, and GF109203X...
  51. Muellenhoff M, Cukrowski T, Morgan M, Miller R. Enlarging pigmented patches on the hand. Int J Dermatol. 2003;42:810-1 pubmed
    ..If Tinea nigra should be considered in the differential diagnosis of palmoplantar pigmentation, potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation may facilitate the diagnosis. ..
  52. Kim S, Cho S, Oh T, Kim P. Design and synthesis of 1H-1,2,3-triazoles derived from econazole as antitubercular agents. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012;22:6844-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Econazole has been known to be active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We have designed and synthesized 1H-1,2,3-triazoles derived from econazole as antitubercular agents...
  53. Jan C, Wu S, Tseng C. A further investigation of ATP-induced calcium mobilization in MDCK cells. Chin J Physiol. 1999;42:33-9 pubmed
    ..1 mM) in Ca(2+)-free medium. This capacitative Ca2+ entry was inhibited by econazole (25 microM) or SKF96365 (50 microM)...