clotrimazole

Summary

Summary: An imidazole derivative with a broad spectrum of antimycotic activity. It inhibits biosynthesis of the sterol ergostol, an important component of fungal CELL MEMBRANES. Its action leads to increased membrane permeability and apparent disruption of enzyme systems bound to the membrane.

Top Publications

  1. Zhu Y, Ye J, Huizinga J. Clotrimazole-sensitive K+ currents regulate pacemaker activity in interstitial cells of Cajal. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007;292:G1715-25 pubmed
    ..The objective of the present study was to investigate a potential role for clotrimazole (CTL)-sensitive K currents (I(CTL)) in the regulation of ICC excitability and pacemaker activity...
  2. Koegel H, Alzheimer C. Expression and biological significance of Ca2+-activated ion channels in human keratinocytes. FASEB J. 2001;15:145-154 pubmed
    ..was predominantly mediated by a DIDS- and niflumic acid-sensitive Cl- current, whereas a charybdotoxin- and clotrimazole-sensitive K+ current underlay the prominent hyperpolarization...
  3. Khanna R, Roy L, Zhu X, Schlichter L. K+ channels and the microglial respiratory burst. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001;280:C796-806 pubmed
    ..The respiratory burst was markedly inhibited by blockers of SK2 (apamin) and SK4 channels (clotrimazole and charybdotoxin), and to a lesser extent, by the potent Kv1.3 blocker agitoxin-2.
  4. Parsons S, Huizinga J. Transient outward potassium current in ICC. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;298:G456-66 pubmed publisher
    ..11). The current was completely blocked by 20 microM clotrimazole but was unaffected by 20 microM ketoconazole, 10 microM E4031, or 20 microM clofilium; 5 mM 4-aminopyridine ..
  5. Banhidy F, Acs N, Puho E, Czeizel A. Rate of preterm births in pregnant women with common lower genital tract infection: a population-based study based on the clinical practice. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2009;22:410-8 pubmed publisher
    ..After early diagnosis and treatment of vulvovaginitis-bacterial vaginosis, clotrimazole and ampicillin seemed to be most effective to reduce the preterm birth during the study period...
  6. Khalid M, Tokunaga Y, Caputy A, Walters E. Inhibition of tumor growth and prolonged survival of rats with intracranial gliomas following administration of clotrimazole. J Neurosurg. 2005;103:79-86 pubmed
    b>Clotrimazole, an imidazole derivative and inhibitor of cytochrome P-450, inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells by downregulating the movement of intracellular Ca++ and K+ and by interfering with the translation initiation process...
  7. Suschka S, Fladung B, Merk H. Clinical comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of once daily Canesten with twice daily Nizoral (clotrimazole 1% cream vs. ketoconazole 2% cream) during a 28-day topical treatment of interdigital tinea pedis. Mycoses. 2002;45:91-6 pubmed
    The effects of two topical cream formulations containing clotrimazole 1% and ketoconazole 2%, respectively, were clinically compared in a double-blind, randomized manner for a 28-day therapy of interdigital tinea pedis in 106 treated ..
  8. Neylon C, Nurgali K, Hunne B, Robbins H, Moore S, Chen M, et al. Intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in enteric neurones of the mouse: pharmacological, molecular and immunochemical evidence for their role in mediating the slow afterhyperpolarization. J Neurochem. 2004;90:1414-22 pubmed
    ..The slow afterhyperpolarization recorded from these cells was abolished by the IK channel blocker clotrimazole. RT-PCR and western analysis of extracts from the colon revealed an IK channel transcript and protein identical ..
  9. Nguyen T, Matsuyama H, Baell J, Hunne B, Fowler C, Smith J, et al. Effects of compounds that influence IK (KCNN4) channels on afterhyperpolarizing potentials, and determination of IK channel sequence, in guinea pig enteric neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2007;97:2024-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The late AHP was inhibited by two blockers of I(K) channels, TRAM34 (0.1-1 microM) and clotrimazole (10 microM), and was enhanced by the potentiator of the opening of these channels, DC-EBIO (100 nM)...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Zancan P, Rosas A, Marcondes M, Marinho Carvalho M, Sola Penna M. Clotrimazole inhibits and modulates heterologous association of the key glycolytic enzyme 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase. Biochem Pharmacol. 2007;73:1520-7 pubmed
    b>Clotrimazole is an antifungal azole derivative recently recognized as a calmodulin antagonist with promising anticancer effects...
  2. Meseguer V, Karashima Y, Talavera K, D hoedt D, Donovan Rodriguez T, Viana F, et al. Transient receptor potential channels in sensory neurons are targets of the antimycotic agent clotrimazole. J Neurosci. 2008;28:576-86 pubmed publisher
    b>Clotrimazole (CLT) is a widely used drug for the topical treatment of yeast infections of skin, vagina, and mouth. Common side effects of topical CLT application include irritation and burning pain of the skin and mucous membranes...
  3. Bilensoy E, Rouf M, Vural I, Sen M, Hincal A. Mucoadhesive, thermosensitive, prolonged-release vaginal gel for clotrimazole:beta-cyclodextrin complex. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2006;7:E38 pubmed
    ..b>Clotrimazole (1%) has been formulated in a vaginal gel using the thermosensitive polymer Pluronic F127 (20%) together with ..
  4. Majewski N, Nogueira V, Bhaskar P, Coy P, Skeen J, Gottlob K, et al. Hexokinase-mitochondria interaction mediated by Akt is required to inhibit apoptosis in the presence or absence of Bax and Bak. Mol Cell. 2004;16:819-30 pubmed
  5. Singh S, Jain S, Muthu M, Tiwari S, Tilak R. Preparation and evaluation of buccal bioadhesive films containing clotrimazole. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2008;9:660-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of present study was to prepare and evaluate buccal bioadhesive films of clotrimazole for oral candidiasis...
  6. Joiner W, Basavappa S, Vidyasagar S, Nehrke K, Krishnan S, Binder H, et al. Active K+ secretion through multiple KCa-type channels and regulation by IKCa channels in rat proximal colon. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003;285:G185-96 pubmed
    ..CHO) cells led to the expression of Ca2+-activated K+ channels that were blocked by the IK channel inhibitor clotrimazole (CLT)...
  7. Czeizel A, Fladung B, Vargha P. Preterm birth reduction after clotrimazole treatment during pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2004;116:157-63 pubmed
    We have previously found an association between the combination of topical and vaginal clotrimazole treatment during pregnancy and a decreased prevalence of preterm births in the population-based data set of the Hungarian Case-Control ..
  8. Marcondes M, Sola Penna M, Zancan P. Clotrimazole potentiates the inhibitory effects of ATP on the key glycolytic enzyme 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010;497:62-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Clotrimazole (CTZ) has been proposed as a potential anti-neoplastic agent, which inhibits glucose metabolism. The present work aimed to evaluate the effects of CTZ on the kinetic mechanism of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK)...
  9. Burguière A, Hitchen P, Dover L, Dell A, Besra G. Altered expression profile of mycobacterial surface glycopeptidolipids following treatment with the antifungal azole inhibitors econazole and clotrimazole. Microbiology. 2005;151:2087-95 pubmed
    The azole antifungal drugs econazole and clotrimazole are known cytochrome P450 enzyme inhibitors...
  10. Vazquez J, Patton L, Epstein J, Ramlachan P, Mitha I, Noveljic Z, et al. Randomized, comparative, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter trial of miconazole buccal tablet and clotrimazole troches for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis: study of miconazole Lauriad® efficacy and safety (SMiLES). HIV Clin Trials. 2010;11:186-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The study compared the efficacy and safety of MBT once daily with clotrimazole 10 mg troches (CT) 5 times daily for 14 days...
  11. Wulff H, Miller M, Hansel W, Grissmer S, Cahalan M, Chandy K. Design of a potent and selective inhibitor of the intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel, IKCa1: a potential immunosuppressant. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:8151-6 pubmed
    The antimycotic clotrimazole, a potent inhibitor of the intermediate-conductance calcium-activated K(+) channel, IKCa1, is in clinical trials for the treatment of sickle cell disease and diarrhea and is effective in ameliorating the ..
  12. Gemma S, Campiani G, Butini S, Kukreja G, Coccone S, Joshi B, et al. Clotrimazole scaffold as an innovative pharmacophore towards potent antimalarial agents: design, synthesis, and biological and structure-activity relationship studies. J Med Chem. 2008;51:1278-94 pubmed publisher
    ..of an innovative class of antimalarial agents based on a polyaromatic pharmacophore structurally related to clotrimazole and easy to synthesize by low-cost synthetic procedures...
  13. Singal A, Pandhi D, Agrawal S, Das S. Comparative efficacy of topical 1% butenafine and 1% clotrimazole in tinea cruris and tinea corporis: a randomized, double-blind trial. J Dermatolog Treat. 2005;16:331-5 pubmed
    Localized tinea cruris and tinea corporis can be treated by topical imidazoles (clotrimazole) or newer topical agents like butenafine, a benzylamine derivative with fungicidal activity...
  14. Bork S, Yokoyama N, Matsuo T, Claveria F, Fujisaki K, Igarashi I. Clotrimazole, ketoconazole, and clodinafop-propargyl as potent growth inhibitors of equine Babesia parasites during in vitro culture. J Parasitol. 2003;89:604-6 pubmed
    The antifungal agents clotrimazole (CLT) and ketoconazole (KC) and the herbicide clodinafop-propargyl (CP) inhibit growth of Plasmodium sp., Toxoplasma sp., and Trypanosoma sp...
  15. Shahin M, Hady S, Hammad M, Mortada N. Novel jojoba oil-based emulsion gel formulations for clotrimazole delivery. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2011;12:239-47 pubmed publisher
    ..combination of the two gelling agents (HPMC and Carbopol 934 P), showed excellent stability and high extent of clotrimazole release was microbiologically evaluated against Candida albicans using cylinder and plate method...
  16. Hill K, McNulty S, Randall A. Inhibition of TRPM2 channels by the antifungal agents clotrimazole and econazole. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2004;370:227-37 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate, using patch clamp electrophysiology, that the antifungal imidazoles clotrimazole and econazole inhibit ADP-ribose-activated currents in HEK-293 cells expressing recombinant human TRPM2 (hTRPM2)..
  17. Dulger B, Gonuz A, Aysel V. Inhibition of clotrimazole-resistant Candida albicans by some endemic Sideritis species from Turkey. Fitoterapia. 2006;77:404-5 pubmed
    The anticandidal activity of the methanol extracts of seven endemic Sideritis species were evaluated at 30 mg/ml concentration against clotrimazole-resistant Candida albicans.
  18. Wulff H, Gutman G, Cahalan M, Chandy K. Delineation of the clotrimazole/TRAM-34 binding site on the intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel, IKCa1. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:32040-5 pubmed
    ..b>Clotrimazole, a membrane-permeant triarylmethane, blocked IKCa1 with equal affinity when applied externally or internally, ..
  19. Santos S, Lorenzoni A, Ferreira L, Mattiazzi J, Adams A, Denardi L, et al. Clotrimazole-loaded Eudragit® RS100 nanocapsules: preparation, characterization and in vitro evaluation of antifungal activity against Candida species. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2013;33:1389-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Clotrimazole is a common choice for the treatment of vulvovaginal infections, but its low solubility and some side effects pose a challenge to its application...
  20. Chang J, Oh Y, Kong H, Kim E, Jang D, Nam K, et al. Prolonged antifungal effects of clotrimazole-containing mucoadhesive thermosensitive gels on vaginitis. J Control Release. 2002;82:39-50 pubmed
    To develop more effective treatment for vaginal candidasis, clotrimazole (CT) was formulated in mucoadhesive thermosensitive gels (MTG). Several MTG formulations composed of poloxamers (P) 407, 188, and polycarbophil (PC) were prepared...
  21. Bartolommei G, Tadini Buoninsegni F, Hua S, Moncelli M, Inesi G, Guidelli R. Clotrimazole inhibits the Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) by interfering with Ca2+ binding and favoring the E2 conformation. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:9547-51 pubmed
    b>Clotrimazole (CLT) is an antimycotic imidazole derivative that is known to inhibit cytochrome P-450, ergosterol biosynthesis and proliferation of cells in culture, and to interfere with cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis...
  22. Uchida K, Ymaguchi H. [Therapeutic efficacy of a topical antifungal solution preparation formulated with pyrrolnitrin and clotrimazole in combination (Pyroace W) in guinea pig model of tinea pedis]. Jpn J Antibiot. 1999;52:68-74 pubmed
    The therapeutic efficacy of a topical antifungal solution containing a mixture of 0.2% pyrrolnitrin and 0.4% clotrimazole (Pyroace W) was tested in a guinea pig model of tinea pedis using a 1% newly solution formulated preparation of ..
  23. Vandorpe D, Shmukler B, Jiang L, Lim B, Maylie J, Adelman J, et al. cDNA cloning and functional characterization of the mouse Ca2+-gated K+ channel, mIK1. Roles in regulatory volume decrease and erythroid differentiation. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:21542-53 pubmed
    ..properties, mediating whole cell and unitary currents sensitive to low nM concentrations of both clotrimazole (CLT) and its des-imidazolyl metabolite, 2-chlorophenyl-bisphenyl-methanol, and to low nM concentrations of ..
  24. Fang Y, Hu L, Zhou X, Jaiseng W, Zhang B, Takami T, et al. A genomewide screen in Schizosaccharomyces pombe for genes affecting the sensitivity of antifungal drugs that target ergosterol biosynthesis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:1949-59 pubmed publisher
    We performed a genomewide screen for altered sensitivity to antifungal drugs, including clotrimazole and terbinafine, that target ergosterol biosynthesis using a Schizosaccharomyces pombe gene deletion library consisting of 3,004 ..
  25. Hagen S, Wu H, Morrison S. NH(4)Cl inhibition of acid secretion: possible involvement of an apical K(+) channel in bullfrog oxyntic cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2000;279:G400-10 pubmed
    ..We propose that NH(4)Cl blocks activity of an apical K(+) channel present in stimulated oxyntic cells. Our data suggest that the activity of this channel is important for the regulation of acid secretion in bullfrog oxyntic cells...
  26. Klokouzas A, Wu C, van Veen H, Barrand M, Hladky S. cGMP and glutathione-conjugate transport in human erythrocytes. Eur J Biochem. 2003;270:3696-708 pubmed
    ..Furthermore the evidence suggests that the protein responsible for cGMP transport is the same as that mediating low-affinity DNP-SG transport in human erythrocytes. ..
  27. Souto E, Muller R. The use of SLN and NLC as topical particulate carriers for imidazole antifungal agents. Pharmazie. 2006;61:431-7 pubmed
    ..On the day of production 91.7% and 98.7% of clotrimazole, but only 62.1% and 70.3% of ketoconazole have been recovered from SLN and NLC, respectively...
  28. Retzer D. Chronic vulvovaginal candidiasis. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:2554-6; author reply 2554-6 pubmed
  29. Borhade V, Pathak S, Sharma S, Patravale V. Clotrimazole nanoemulsion for malaria chemotherapy. Part II: stability assessment, in vivo pharmacodynamic evaluations and toxicological studies. Int J Pharm. 2012;431:149-60 pubmed publisher
    The aim of present investigation was to evaluate the potential of clotrimazole as antimalarial drug. Due to poor aqueous solubility and high lipophilicity, it was previously formulated in a nanoemulsion based system...
  30. Tom L. Ototoxicity of common topical antimycotic preparations. Laryngoscope. 2000;110:509-16 pubmed
    To determine the ototoxic effects of five commonly used topical antimycotic agents-clotrimazole, miconazole, nystatin, tolnaftate, and gentian violet-in the guinea pig.
  31. Romanenko V, Nakamoto T, Srivastava A, Begenisich T, Melvin J. Regulation of membrane potential and fluid secretion by Ca2+-activated K+ channels in mouse submandibular glands. J Physiol. 2007;581:801-17 pubmed
    ..Finally, we found that the modest hyperpolarization of cells from the double-null mice was maintained by the electrogenic Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. ..
  32. Kurnatowski P, Kurnatowska A. [Treatment of fungal infections of upper respiratory tract and ear]. Otolaryngol Pol. 2007;61:280-5 pubmed
    ..In ENT practice topical and systemic drugs can be administrated. Topical lozenges include amphotericin B, clotrimazole, chlorhexidine or chlorquinaldol and oral gels: nystatin and miconazole...
  33. Ahmed H, Ihmaid S, Omar A, Shehata A, Rateb H, Zayed M, et al. Design, synthesis, molecular docking of new lipophilic acetamide derivatives affording potential anticancer and antimicrobial agents. Bioorg Chem. 2018;76:332-342 pubmed publisher
    ..5c, 6a, 6f and 8c exhibited appreciable antifungal activity with MIC values range 33-40 mg/mL comparable with clotrimazole (MIC 25 mg/mL)...
  34. Zgoła Grześkowiak A, Grzeskowiak T. Application of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by HPLC-MS/MS for the trace determination of clotrimazole in environmental water samples. J Sep Sci. 2013;36:2514-21 pubmed publisher
    A method for the analysis of clotrimazole was developed with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for sample pre-concentration and HPLC-MS/MS for analysis...
  35. Cowley E, Linsdell P. Characterization of basolateral K+ channels underlying anion secretion in the human airway cell line Calu-3. J Physiol. 2002;538:747-57 pubmed
    ..Using the K+ channel blockers clofilium and clotrimazole, we found basal I(sc) to be sensitive to clofilium, with a small clotrimazole-sensitive component...
  36. Chiap P, Hubert P, Crommen J. Strategy for the development of automated methods involving dialysis and trace enrichment as on-line sample preparation for the determination of basic drugs in plasma by liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2002;948:151-61 pubmed
    ..of this method development strategy, an automated procedure based on the coupling of dialysis with trace enrichment has been developed for the LC determination of antifungal agents (clotrimazole, econazole and miconazole) in plasma.
  37. Schmidt M, Barker S, Essmann M, Larsen B. Effect of commonly used herbicides on the virulence factor CDR1 in Candida albicans. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2008;27:2346-51 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that none of the tested herbicides mimics the worrisome action of hormones, which increase virulence without reducing survival. ..
  38. Basha M, Abd El Alim S, Shamma R, Awad G. Design and optimization of surfactant-based nanovesicles for ocular delivery of Clotrimazole. J Liposome Res. 2013;23:203-10 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study was to develop an efficient ocular nanovesicular carrier providing a controlled delivery of Clotrimazole (CLT); a water insoluble antifungal drug...
  39. Martins R, Péreira E, Lima S, Senna M, Mesquita R, Santos V. Effect of commercial ethanol propolis extract on the in vitro growth of Candida albicans collected from HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative Brazilian patients with oral candidiasis. J Oral Sci. 2002;44:41-8 pubmed
    ..extract (EPE) and compare it to the inhibitory action of the standardized antifungal agents nystatin (NYS), clotrimazole (CL), econazole (EC), and fluconazole (FL). Twelve C...
  40. Betanzos Lara S, Gómez Ruiz C, Barrón Sosa L, Gracia Mora I, Flores Alamo M, Barba Behrens N. Cytotoxic copper(II), cobalt(II), zinc(II), and nickel(II) coordination compounds of clotrimazole. J Inorg Biochem. 2012;114:82-93 pubmed publisher
    Sixteen novel mononuclear Cu(II), Co(II), Zn(II), and Ni(II) complexes of the biologically active ligand clotrimazole (clotri) of the forms [M(clotri)(2)Cl(2)]·nH(2)O (1-4), [M(clotri)(2)Br(2)]·nH(2)O (5-7), [M(clotri)(3)Br(2)] (8), [M(..
  41. Cao M, Lee Y, Feng N, Al Qawasmeh R, Viau S, Gu X, et al. NC381, a novel anticancer agent, arrests the cell cycle in G0-G1 and inhibits lung tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004;308:538-46 pubmed
    Although clotrimazole (CLT), an antifungal drug, inhibits tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis, its clinical application is hampered by significant hepatotoxicity due to the presence of an imidazole moiety...
  42. Hamoudová R, Pospísilová M, Kavalírová A, Solich P, Sícha J. Separation and determination of clotrimazole, methylparaben and propylparaben in pharmaceutical preparation by micellar electrokinetic chromatography. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2006;40:215-9 pubmed
    In this study, micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method was developed for the determination of clotrimazole (CLO), methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP) in a pharmaceutical preparation...
  43. Löhr M, Stenzel W, Plum G, Gross W, Deckert M, Klug N. Whipple disease confined to the central nervous system presenting as a solitary frontal tumor. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2004;101:336-9 pubmed
    ..A review of diagnostic and therapeutic options in suspected cases is presented...
  44. Elmer K, Elston D, Libow L. Trichosporon beigelii infection presenting as white piedra and onychomycosis in the same patient. Cutis. 2002;70:209-11 pubmed
    ..Trichosporon beigelii is a fungal organism that causes white piedra and has occasionally been implicated as a nail pathogen. We describe a patient with both hair and nail changes associated with T. beigelii...
  45. Hladun N, Bondarenko A, Nahorna S, Smyrnova O. [Investigation of the activity of the preparation cerbiden against Candida spp]. Mikrobiol Z. 2002;64:57-61 pubmed
    ..High cerbiden activity against clinical and museum strains of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, sensitive and resistant to nystatin, amphotericin B and clotrimazole was determined.
  46. Backhaus T, Porsbring T, Arrhenius A, Brosche S, Johansson P, Blanck H. Single-substance and mixture toxicity of five pharmaceuticals and personal care products to marine periphyton communities. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2011;30:2030-40 pubmed publisher
    ..of five pharmaceuticals and personal care products (fluoxetine, propranolol, triclosan, zinc-pyrithione, and clotrimazole) to marine microalgal communities (periphyton) was investigated...
  47. Leroy C, Dagenais A, Berthiaume Y, Brochiero E. Molecular identity and function in transepithelial transport of K(ATP) channels in alveolar epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2004;286:L1027-37 pubmed
    ..basolateral application of glibenclamide, an inhibitor of K(ATP) channels, as well as clofilium, charybdotoxin, clotrimazole, and iberiotoxin, inhibitors of KvLQT1 and K(Ca) channels, respectively...
  48. Qiu W, Ren B, Dai H, Zhang L, Zhang Q, Zhou X, et al. Clotrimazole and econazole inhibit Streptococcus mutans biofilm and virulence in vitro. Arch Oral Biol. 2017;73:113-120 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that clotrimazole (CTR) and econazole (ECO) showed antibacterial activities on S. mutans UA159 and S...
  49. Pepin J, Sobela F, Khonde N, Agyarko Poku T, Diakité S, Deslandes S, et al. The syndromic management of vaginal discharge using single-dose treatments: a randomized controlled trial in West Africa. Bull World Health Organ. 2006;84:729-38 pubmed
    ..To evaluate whether single-dose treatments are as effective as standard therapy in the syndromic management of vaginal discharge...
  50. Gemma S, Kukreja G, Campiani G, Butini S, Bernetti M, Joshi B, et al. Development of piperazine-tethered heterodimers as potent antimalarials against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum strains. Synthesis and molecular modeling. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007;17:3535-9 pubmed
    ..presented high activity in vitro against chloroquine-resistant strains, more potent than chloroquine and clotrimazole. Computational studies revealed that the activity is likely due to the ability of the compounds to assume a ..
  51. Srinivasan M, Upadhyay M, Priyadarsini B, Mahalakshmi R, Whitcher J. Corneal ulceration in south-east Asia III: prevention of fungal keratitis at the village level in south India using topical antibiotics. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006;90:1472-5 pubmed
    ..To determine whether topical antifungal prophylaxis distributed by paid village health workers (VHWs) in south India is necessary after corneal abrasion to prevent fungal keratitis in a population where half of the ulcers are fungal...
  52. Nguyen T, Poole D, Harvey J, Stebbing M, Furness J. Investigation of PKC isoform-specific translocation and targeting of the current of the late afterhyperpolarizing potential of myenteric AH neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;21:905-13 pubmed
    ..also reduced a background outward current that was present after the I(AHP) current had been blocked by clotrimazole. Both phorbol dibutyrate and ingenol caused translocation of the novel PKC, PKCepsilon, in these neurons...
  53. Adinolfi B, Carpi S, Romanini A, Da Pozzo E, Castagna M, Costa B, et al. Analysis of the Antitumor Activity of Clotrimazole on A375 Human Melanoma Cells. Anticancer Res. 2015;35:3781-6 pubmed
    The current study was designed to characterize the anticancer effects of clotrimazole on human cutaneous melanoma cells. The v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 V600E mutant melanoma cell line A375 was used as an in vitro model...