splenic diseases


Summary: Diseases involving the SPLEEN.

Top Publications

  1. Szczepanik A, Meissner A. Partial splenectomy in the management of nonparasitic splenic cysts. World J Surg. 2009;33:852-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Open partial splenectomy is a safe and effective method in the management of nonparasitic splenic cysts. It ensures complete cyst removal, lack of cyst recurrence, and preservation of the spleen functions. ..
  2. Llenas García J, Fernández Ruiz M, Caurcel L, Enguita Valls A, Vila Santos J, Guerra Vales J. Splenic abscess: a review of 22 cases in a single institution. Eur J Intern Med. 2009;20:537-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe the demographics, clinical features, etiology, imaging findings, bacteriologic profile, treatment and outcome in patients presenting splenic abscess in a European tertiary hospital...
  3. Ferraioli G, Brunetti E, Gulizia R, Mariani G, Marone P, Filice C. Management of splenic abscess: report on 16 cases from a single center. Int J Infect Dis. 2009;13:524-30 pubmed publisher
    ..It can be used as a bridge to surgery in patients who are critically ill or have several comorbidities. Percutaneous aspiration may allow complete non-operative healing of splenic abscesses or temporize patients at risk for surgery. ..
  4. Vecchio R, Gelardi V, Intagliata E, Barbaros U, Cacciola R, Cacciola E. How to prevent intraoperative risks and complications in laparoscopic splenectomy. G Chir. 2010;31:55-61 pubmed
    ..In this article, we reviewed the literature on risks and complications during LS, and we point out, based on our personal series and on the experiences reported by other Authors, how to prevent, whenever possible, these complications. ..
  5. Brahimi N, Maubec E, Boccara O, Marinho E, Valeyrie Allanore L, Lecaille C, et al. [Pyoderma gangrenosum with aseptic spleen abscess]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2009;136:46-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Pyoderma gangrenosum is a neutrophilic dermatosis in which systemic involvement is rare. It may be associated with systemic disease. We report a case of pyoderma gangrenosum in the spleen...
  6. Adas G, Karatepe O, Altiok M, Battal M, Bender O, Ozcan D, et al. Diagnostic problems with parasitic and non-parasitic splenic cysts. BMC Surg. 2009;9:9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnosis, management of patients with parasitic and non-parasitic splenic cysts together with their long term follow up progresses...
  7. Joseph F, Younis N, Haydon G, Adams D, Wynne S, Gillet M, et al. Peliosis of the spleen with massive recurrent haemorrhagic ascites, despite splenectomy, and associated with elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004;16:1401-6 pubmed
    ..Management of the patient has been symptomatic and palliative. We have reviewed the various reported associations of peliosis and discussed the possible role of VEGF in this patient's condition. ..
  8. Mourtzoukou E, Pappas G, Peppas G, Falagas M. Vaccination of asplenic or hyposplenic adults. Br J Surg. 2008;95:273-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunocompromised individuals, in particular, have a greater risk of inadequate antibody response. Immunization is partially responsible for the observed reduction in sepsis after splenectomy. ..
  9. Lucey B, Boland G, Maher M, Hahn P, Gervais D, Mueller P. Percutaneous nonvascular splenic intervention: a 10-year review. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2002;179:1591-6 pubmed

More Information


  1. Fahel E, Amaral P, Filho E, Ettinger J, Souza E, Fortes M, et al. Videolaparoscopic approach of the splenic cyst: a case report. JSLS. 2000;4:23-6 pubmed
    ..A review of the literature and use of a videolaparoscopic approach to the treatment of these lesions is presented. ..
  2. McColl R, Hochman D, Sample C. Laparoscopic management of splenic cysts: marsupialization, cavity lining with surgicel and omentopexy to prevent recurrence. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2007;17:455-8 pubmed
    ..Laparoscopic marsupialization of splenic cysts in combination with lining the cyst cavity with Surgicel and omentopexy is a safe, feasible, and efficacious method of management with excellent results at 25-month follow-up. ..
  3. Matsubayashi H, Kuraoka K, Kobayashi Y, Yokota T, Iiri Y, Shichijo K, et al. Ruptured epidermoid cyst and haematoma of spleen: a diagnostic clue of high levels of serum carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and Sialyl Lewis x. Dig Liver Dis. 2001;33:595-9 pubmed
    ..Pathological diagnosis of the round-hypovascular lesion was epidermoid cyst and crescent-hypervascular lesion was haemorrhage (haematoma)...
  4. Jamshidi M, Chang E, Smaroff G, Mehta J, Ghani A. Laparoscopic fenestration and modified marsupialization of posttraumatic splenic cysts using a harmonic scalpel. Surg Endosc. 2001;15:758 pubmed
    ..We successfully performed laparoscopic fenestration and modified marsupialization of these cysts using a harmonic scalpel on two patients with symptomatic splenic psuedocysts. ..
  5. Zia H, Zemon H, Brody F. Laparoscopic splenectomy for isolated sarcoidosis of the spleen. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2005;15:160-2 pubmed
    ..Our patient required a laparoscopic splenectomy for diagnostic purposes and neoplastic exclusion. Once diagnosed, patients require continual follow-up for systemic manifestations and associated complications of sarcoidosis. ..
  6. Lee C, Leu H, Hu T, Liu J. Splenic abscess in southern Taiwan. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2004;37:39-44 pubmed
    ..Due to the rarity of splenic abscess and the increasing number of immunocompromised patients, multicenter study is needed to determine the epidemiological features and optimal management of this disease. ..
  7. Warshauer D, Hall H. Solitary splenic lesions. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2006;27:370-88 pubmed
    ..Percutaneous biopsy may be used for histologic diagnosis when required. ..
  8. Cavazos S, Ratzer E, Fenoglio M. Laparoscopic management of the wandering spleen. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2004;14:227-9 pubmed
    ..Laparoscopic splenopexy has many advantages over open splenopexy or splenectomy, including preserving splenic function, minimal postoperative pain, early discharge from the hospital, and rapid recovery. ..
  9. Andre M, Piette J, Frances C, Wechsler B, Delevaux I, Aumaître O. Retropharyngeal and splenic aseptic abscesses treated with prednisone and cyclophosphamide in a patient with ulcerative colitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2003;48:1193-5 pubmed
  10. Thanos L, Mylona S, Ntai S, Pomoni M, Batakis N. Percutaneous treatment of true splenic cysts: report of two cases. Abdom Imaging. 2005;30:773-6 pubmed
    ..A 19-year-old woman and a 48-year-old man underwent drainage of their epithelial cysts with subsequent instillation of alcohol into the cavities under computed tomographic guidance. ..
  11. Kang M, Saxena A, Gulati M, Suri S. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous catheter drainage of splenic abscess. Pediatr Radiol. 2004;34:271-3 pubmed
    ..Image-guided percutaneous drainage in children can be a safe and effective alternative to surgery. ..
  12. Warshauer D, Lee J. Imaging manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2004;182:15-28 pubmed
  13. Abbott R, Levy A, Aguilera N, Gorospe L, Thompson W. From the archives of the AFIP: primary vascular neoplasms of the spleen: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2004;24:1137-63 pubmed
    ..Splenectomy may be required for definitive evaluation of a splenic mass with atypical features...
  14. Husen Y, Nadeem N, Aslam F, Bhaila I. Primary splenic hydatid cyst: a case report with characteristic imaging appearance. J Pak Med Assoc. 2005;55:219-21 pubmed
    ..Sonography and computed tomography showed the pathognomonic signs of hydatid disease. The patient refused surgical treatment. She was discharged on Albendazole therapy and did not return for a follow up. ..
  15. Mori M, Ishii T, Iida T, Tanaka F, Takikawa H, Okinaga K. Giant epithelial cyst of the accessory spleen. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 2003;10:118-20 pubmed
    ..There was a separate multicystic 16 x 8-cm spleen in the normal position. The CA19-9 serum level returned to normal postoperatively. ..
  16. Ganti A, Sardi A, Gordon J. Laparoscopic treatment of large true cysts of the liver and spleen is ineffective. Am Surg. 2002;68:1012-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that laparoscopic surgery is inadequate in the management of true cysts of the liver and spleen unless complete removal of all cyst wall can be assured. ..
  17. Thanos L, Dailiana T, Papaioannou G, Nikita A, Koutrouvelis H, Kelekis D. Percutaneous CT-guided drainage of splenic abscess. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2002;179:629-32 pubmed
    ..Splenic abscess is an uncommon entity that can be treated percutaneously. CT-guided drainage of splenic abscess seems to be a safe and effective alternative to surgery, allowing preservation of the spleen. ..
  18. Sierra R, Brunner W, Murphy J, Dunne J, Scott D. Laparoscopic marsupialization of a giant posttraumatic splenic cyst. JSLS. 2004;8:384-8 pubmed
    ..Nonparasitic splenic cysts are rare lesions. Laparoscopic marsupialization is safe and effective for giant nonparasitic splenic cysts and should be considered the treatment of choice. ..
  19. Chang K, Chuah S, Changchien C, Tsai T, Lu S, Chiu Y, et al. Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of splenic abscess: a review of 67 cases in a single medical center of Taiwan. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:460-4 pubmed
    ..2+/-3.8) (P<0.001). MSA, GNB infection, and high APACHE II scores are poor prognostic factors. Early surgical intervention should be encouraged when these risk factors are present. ..
  20. Gamblin T, Wall C, Royer G, Dalton M, Ashley D. Delayed splenic rupture: case reports and review of the literature. J Trauma. 2005;59:1231-4 pubmed
  21. Kiriakopoulos A, Tsakayannis D, Papadopoulos S, Linos D. Laparoscopic management of a ruptured giant epidermoid splenic cyst. JSLS. 2005;9:349-51 pubmed
    ..We herein report a unique case of a giant epidermoid splenic cyst that ruptured spontaneously and was successfully treated with the laparoscopic approach...
  22. Dar M, Shah O, Wani N, Khan F, Shah P. Surgical management of splenic hydatidosis. Surg Today. 2002;32:224-9 pubmed
    ..This entity should thus be kept in mind when encountering a splenic cyst especially in areas where the disease is endemic. A splenectomy remains the treatment of choice because it demonstrates low morbidity and mortality rates. ..
  23. Lee S. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of splenic hamartoma. Diagn Cytopathol. 2003;28:82-5 pubmed
    ..A combination of cytologic features and immunopathologic results from the aspirate cytoblock along with the salient clinical information should enable an accurate preoperative diagnosis of splenic hamartoma...
  24. Tsokos M, Erbersdobler A. Pathology of peliosis. Forensic Sci Int. 2005;149:25-33 pubmed
    ..Awareness of peliosis at autopsy as well as an appreciation for the histopathological changes in less characteristic or advanced cases may become an important issue for both the forensic and clinical pathologist. ..
  25. William B, Corazza G. Hyposplenism: a comprehensive review. Part I: basic concepts and causes. Hematology. 2007;12:1-13 pubmed
    ..In splenectomized, and functionally hyposplenic subjects, the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is more effective, because it utilizes a T cell dependent mechanism, and should be the preferred vaccine in these circumstances. ..
  26. Mertens J, Penninckx F, DeWever I, Topal B. Long-term outcome after surgical treatment of nonparasitic splenic cysts. Surg Endosc. 2007;21:206-8 pubmed
    ..Symptomatic splenic cysts should be treated laparoscopically. For patients with recurrent or suspected primary splenic cysts, laparoscopic partial splenectomy is preferable. For other cases, a laparoscopic decapsulation is advocated. ..
  27. Till H, Schaarschmidt K. Partial laparoscopic decapsulation of congenital splenic cysts. A medium-term evaluation proves the efficiency in children. Surg Endosc. 2004;18:626-8 pubmed
    ..Partial laparoscopic decapsulation is an advantageous approach to large splenic cysts in children, because it is effective, preserves splenic tissue, and provides good medium-term results. ..
  28. Palanivelu C, Rangarajan M, Madankumar M, John S. Laparoscopic internal marsupializaton for large nonparasitic splenic cysts: effective organ-preserving technique. World J Surg. 2008;32:20-5 pubmed
    ..Laparoscopic partial cystectomy/marsupialization is an acceptable procedure for the treatment of splenic cysts; and after short to mid-term follow-up, it seems that a reasonable rate of success is possible. ..
  29. Galizia G, Lieto E, Ferraraccio F, Castellano P, De Vita F, Orditura M, et al. A true splenic cyst producing carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and cancer antigens 50 and 125, but not interleukin 10. Dig Surg. 2003;20:71-4 pubmed
    ..In addition, normal serum values of interleukin 10 correctly predicted the benign nature of the lesion. ..
  30. Alkofer B, Lepennec V, Chiche L. [Splenic cysts and tumors: diagnosis and management]. J Chir (Paris). 2005;142:6-13 pubmed
    ..Needle biopsy is contraindicated because of the risk of bleeding. Resection should be as limited as possible in order to avoid the risks of total splenectomy (overwhelming sepsis, thrombosis). ..
  31. Morgenstern L. Nonparasitic splenic cysts: pathogenesis, classification, and treatment. J Am Coll Surg. 2002;194:306-14 pubmed
    ..Cysts that are symptomatic or over 5 cm in diameter should be removed by partial splenectomy or near-total cystectomy "decapsulation," either by the open or laparoscopic approach. ..
  32. Trompetas V, Panagopoulos E, Priovolou Papaevangelou M, Ramantanis G. Giant benign true cyst of the spleen with high serum level of CA 19-9. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2002;14:85-8 pubmed
    ..This is supported by the facts that (1) the inner cellular lining is strongly positive for immunohistochemistry with CA 19-9, and (2) the CA 19-9 serum level returned to normal after resection of the cyst. ..
  33. Smith S, Scott D, Burdick J, Rege R, Jones D. Laparoscopic marsupialization and hemisplenectomy for splenic cysts. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2001;11:243-9 pubmed
    ..Both patients are without further symptoms at 26 and 5 months' follow-up, respectively. Laparoscopic marsupialization and hemisplenectomy are appropriate treatment options for patients with splenic cysts. ..
  34. Warshauer D. Splenic sarcoidosis. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2007;28:21-7 pubmed
    ..The imaging appearance of splenic sarcoidosis can mimic more ominous neoplastic or infectious disease. Biopsy of the spleen or other involved organ may be indicated for definitive diagnosis. ..
  35. Kirshtein B, Lantsberg S, Hatskelzon L, Lantsberg L. Laparoscopic accessory splenectomy using intraoperative gamma probe guidance. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2007;17:205-8 pubmed
    ..The technique is especially useful in cases of a small accessory spleen, by avoiding a major open procedure and contributing to good postoperative results. ..
  36. Sodhi K, Saggar K, Sood B, Sandhu P. Torsion of a wandering spleen: acute abdominal presentation. J Emerg Med. 2003;25:133-7 pubmed
    ..Early intervention is necessary to reduce the risk of splenic infarction and other complications. An awareness of the condition together with use of appropriate medical imaging can lead to the correct diagnosis. ..
  37. Hansen M, Moller A. Splenic cysts. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2004;14:316-22 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the titer of Echinococcus and other biomarkers can be measured. Surgeons should make every possible effort to preserve splenic tissue and spleen-saving techniques with laparoscopic techniques are recommended. ..
  38. Di Carlo I, Fasone M, Toro A. Epidermoid cyst of the spleen in the laparoscopic era. Dig Surg. 2005;22:53-4 pubmed
  39. Gharaibeh K. Laparoscopic excision of splenic hydatid cyst. Postgrad Med J. 2001;77:195-6 pubmed
    ..Recently hand assisted laparoscopic total splenectomy for splenic hydatid cyst has been reported. A case is described of splenic hydatid cyst in a 45 year old man that was excised laparoscopically; the related literature is reviewed. ..
  40. Carbonell A, Kercher K, Matthews B, Joels C, Sing R, Heniford B. Laparoscopic splenectomy for splenic abscess. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2004;14:289-91 pubmed
    ..Despite the difficulty of the operation, the laparoscopic approach appears to be a safe and effective treatment of splenic abscess. ..
  41. Uccheddu A, Pisanu A, Cois A, Montisci A. Laparoscopic management of non-parasitic splenic cysts. Chir Ital. 2003;55:55-60 pubmed
    ..When conservative treatment such as partial splenectomy or decapsulation may jeopardize the good outcome of the operation, the management of nonparasitic splenic cysts can be successfully achieved by total laparoscopic splenectomy. ..
  42. Madia C, Lumachi F, Veroux M, Fiamingo P, Gringeri E, Brolese A, et al. Giant splenic epithelial cyst with elevated serum markers CEA and CA 19-9 levels: an incidental association?. Anticancer Res. 2003;23:773-6 pubmed
    ..The lowering of the serum levels of the two markers after the cyst removal is witness of the direct relationship between the increment of the serum tumor markers and the presence of the epidermoid cyst. ..
  43. Tagaya N, Oda N, Furihata M, Nemoto T, Suzuki N, Kubota K. Experience with laparoscopic management of solitary symptomatic splenic cysts. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2002;12:279-82 pubmed
    ..6 days (range, 5-7) for the patients who underwent unroofing. Laparoscopic management of splenic cysts is technically feasible and safe and has the advantages of reduced postoperative pain, shortened convalescence, and improved cosmesis. ..
  44. Rosin D, Brasesco O, Rosenthal R. [Laparoscopic splenectomy: new techniques and indications]. Chirurg. 2001;72:368-77 pubmed
    ..In this article we review the current indications for laparoscopic splenectomy, as well as the techniques to accomplish this procedure. ..
  45. Tung C, Chen F, Lo C. Splenic abscess: an easily overlooked disease?. Am Surg. 2006;72:322-5 pubmed
    ..Splenic abscess should be considered in a patient with fever, left upper abdominal pain, and leukocytosis. Splenectomy appears to have better treatment outcome than percutaneous drainage or intravenous antibiotics alone. ..
  46. Yu R, Zhang S, Hua J. Imaging findings of splenic hamartoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2004;10:2613-5 pubmed
    ..Splenic hamartoma has some specific radiological features. However, the diagnosis of this disease must be based on clinical features and confirmed by pathology. ..
  47. Vazquez J, Montero M, Díaz F, Muguerza R, Páramo C, Rodríguez Costa A. Acute torsion of the spleen: diagnosis and management. Pediatr Surg Int. 2004;20:153-4 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis of acute splenic torsion was made by means of color and power Doppler ultrasound. Management of this rare surgical emergency is discussed. ..
  48. Katkhouda N, Mavor E. Laparoscopic splenectomy. Surg Clin North Am. 2000;80:1285-97 pubmed
    ..Laparoscopic splenectomy for selected hematologic disorders should replace open splenectomy as the technique of choice and prompt earlier consideration of surgery when it is indicated. ..
  49. Awamleh A, Perez Ordonez B. Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation of the spleen. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2007;131:974-8 pubmed
    ..SANT has a benign clinical course with splenectomy being curative. ..
  50. Atmatzidis K, Papaziogas B, Mirelis C, Pavlidis T, Papaziogas T. Splenectomy versus spleen-preserving surgery for splenic echinococcosis. Dig Surg. 2003;20:527-31 pubmed
    ..In the present series it was possible to preserve the spleen in 8 (42%) of 19 patients, without significant increase of recurrent echinococcosis. ..
  51. Ho C. Splenic cysts: a new approach to partial splenectomy. Surg Endosc. 2002;16:717 pubmed
    ..Minimally invasive surgery provides an alternative to conventional surgical procedures, with a short hospital stay and without the added morbidity of laparotomy. ..
  52. Ozsoy M, Oncul O, Pekkafali Z, Pahsa A, Yenen O. Splenic complications in malaria: report of two cases from Turkey. J Med Microbiol. 2004;53:1255-8 pubmed
    ..Two cases of P. vivax malaria with splenic complications are reported here. One of them showed signs and symptoms of acute abdominal pain, then splenic rupture occurred. ..
  53. Teng X, Yu X, Wang G, Xu L, Lai M. Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation of the spleen. Anal Quant Cytol Histol. 2008;30:125-32 pubmed
    ..Some lining cells were focally CD68 positive. SANT is a rare lesion. Based on morphologic and immunohistochemical features, it may be a variant of splenic hamartoma. ..