Summary: A group of disorders having a benign course but exhibiting clinical and histological features suggestive of malignant lymphoma. Pseudolymphoma is characterized by a benign infiltration of lymphoid cells or histiocytes which microscopically resembles a malignant lymphoma. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 26th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Kulow B, Cualing H, Steele P, VanHorn J, Breneman J, Mutasim D, et al. Progression of cutaneous B-cell pseudolymphoma to cutaneous B-cell lymphoma. J Cutan Med Surg. 2002;6:519-28 pubmed
    Debates regarding nosology and clonality surround the entity known as cutaneous pseudolymphoma and its questionable transformation to frank cutaneous lymphoma...
  2. Meyer S, Vogt T, Obermann E, Landthaler M, Karrer S. Cutaneous pseudolymphoma induced by Cimicifuga racemosa. Dermatology. 2007;214:94-6 pubmed
    ..Histologically, the diagnosis of pseudolymphoma (PL) was confirmed...
  3. Kubota T, Moritani S, Katayama M, Terasaki H. Ocular adnexal IgG4-related lymphoplasmacytic infiltrative disorder. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128:577-84 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells into the ocular adnexa...
  4. Okada T, Mibayashi H, Hasatani K, Hayashi Y, Tsuji S, Kaneko Y, et al. Pseudolymphoma of the liver associated with primary biliary cirrhosis: a case report and review of literature. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15:4587-92 pubmed
    ..A right posterior segmentectomy was performed, and the lesions were microscopically diagnosed as pseudolymphoma. To the best of our knowledge, only 31 other cases of this disease have ever been reported, with a highly ..
  5. Stacy R, Jakobiec F, Schoenfield L, Singh A. Unifocal and multifocal reactive lymphoid hyperplasia vs follicular lymphoma of the ocular adnexa. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010;150:412-426.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..To characterize the differentiating histopathologic and immunophenotypic features of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH) and follicular lymphoma of the ocular adnexa...
  6. Machida T, Takahashi T, Itoh T, Hirayama M, Morita T, Horita S. Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the liver: a case report and review of literature. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:5403-7 pubmed
    A case of a 53-year-old female patient with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH), clinically designated as pseudolymphoma of the liver is described in this article...
  7. Moon H, Park K, Lee J, Son S. A nodular syphilid presenting as a pseudolymphoma: mimicking a cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma. Am J Dermatopathol. 2009;31:846-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The histological features revealed a pseudolymphoma mimicking a cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma...
  8. Rofail M, Lee L, Whitehead K. Conjunctival benign reactive lymphoid hyperplasia associated with myopic scleral thinning. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2005;33:73-5 pubmed
    ..The authors' hypothesis is that choroidal antigens are able to perfuse through thin sclera and act as chronic irritants to the overlying conjunctiva resulting in a lymphoid response and subsequent salmon patch formation...
  9. Kajiwara S, Sakai S, Soeda H, Takahashi N, Okafuji T, Yoshimitsu K, et al. Multifocal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the lung. J Thorac Imaging. 2005;20:239-41 pubmed
    ..hyperplasia (NLH) is one of the pulmonary lymphoproliferative disorders, and was initially described as pseudolymphoma. However, reports focusing on CT findings of NLH of the lung have been rare...

More Information


  1. Kubota T, Moritani S. High incidence of autoimmune disease in Japanese patients with ocular adnexal reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;144:148-9 pubmed
    ..To determine the incidence of autoimmune disease in Japanese patients with ocular adnexal lymphoid proliferations...
  2. Sato K, Ueda Y, Yokoi M, Hayashi K, Kosaka T, Katsuda S. Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the liver in a patient with multiple carcinomas: a case report and brief review. J Clin Pathol. 2006;59:990-2 pubmed
    ..RLH, formerly known as pseudolymphoma, has been reported of the liver in only 14 cases and is considered to be a differential diagnosis of small ..
  3. Dargent J, Debois J, Sass U, Theunis A, Andre J, Simonart T. Unusual T cell pseudolymphoma with features of so-called pseudolymphomatous folliculitis. Dermatology. 2002;204:159-61 pubmed
  4. Holm N, Flaig M, Yazdi A, Sander C. The value of molecular analysis by PCR in the diagnosis of cutaneous lymphocytic infiltrates. J Cutan Pathol. 2002;29:447-52 pubmed the distinction between an early malignant lymphoma and a benign reactive lymphocytic infiltrate (pseudolymphoma)...
  5. Torigian D, Levine M, Gill N, Rubesin S, Fogt F, Schultz C, et al. Lymphoid hyperplasia of the stomach: radiographic findings in five adult patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2001;177:71-5 pubmed
    ..Three of these five patients had associated Helicobacter pylori gastritis. The diagnosis of gastric lymphoid hyperplasia, therefore, can be suggested on the basis of the radiographic findings. ..
  6. van Vloten W, Willemze R. The many faces of lymphocytoma cutis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2003;17:3-6 pubmed
  7. Takahashi H, Sawai H, Matsuo Y, Funahashi H, Satoh M, Okada Y, et al. Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the liver in a patient with colon cancer: report of two cases. BMC Gastroenterol. 2006;6:25 pubmed
    ..But we believe that new factors involved in the onset mechanism of RLH may be identified by carefully monitoring the clinical course of our two patients. ..
  8. Witzig T, Inwards D, Habermann T, Dogan A, Kurtin P, Gross J, et al. Treatment of benign orbital pseudolymphomas with the monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab. Mayo Clin Proc. 2007;82:692-9 pubmed
    ..To report the results of treating patients with orbital pseudolymphomas with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab...
  9. Matsumoto N, Ogawa M, Kawabata M, Tohne R, Hiroi Y, Furuta T, et al. Pseudolymphoma of the liver: Sonographic findings and review of the literature. J Clin Ultrasound. 2007;35:284-8 pubmed
    We report a case of hepatic pseudolymphoma in a 67-year-old woman that was detected during an abdominal sonography screening. The lesion was further evaluated using CT, MRI, angiography, and contrast-enhanced sonography...
  10. Hughes J, Weston S, Bennetts B, Prasad M, Angulo R, Jaworskit R, et al. The application of a PCR technique for the detection of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements in fresh or paraffin-embedded skin tissue. Pathology. 2001;33:222-5 pubmed
    ..Thirty-one cases of cutaneous B cell lymphoma (CBCL), 19 cases of B cell pseudolymphoma (lymphocytoma cutis), 34 cases of benign lymphocytic infiltrates of the skin and one case of cutaneous T cell ..
  11. Zen Y, Fujii T, Nakanuma Y. Hepatic pseudolymphoma: a clinicopathological study of five cases and review of the literature. Mod Pathol. 2010;23:244-50 pubmed publisher
    Hepatic pseudolymphoma is a rare and controversial condition, the clinicopathological characteristics of which have not been well documented...
  12. Leinweber B, Colli C, Chott A, Kerl H, Cerroni L. Differential diagnosis of cutaneous infiltrates of B lymphocytes with follicular growth pattern. Am J Dermatopathol. 2004;26:4-13 pubmed
    ..Diagnosis of cutaneous infiltrates of B lymphocytes with follicular growth pattern should be achieved by integration of clinical data with histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of the lesions. ..
  13. Park H, Jang K, Kim Y, Cho B, Moon W. Histiocyte-rich reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the liver: unusual morphologic features. J Korean Med Sci. 2008;23:156-60 pubmed publisher
    ..lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH) of the liver is a rare entity and has also been termed nodular lymphoid lesion or pseudolymphoma of the liver...
  14. Hagari Y, Hagari S, Kambe N, Kawaguchi T, Nakamoto S, Mihara M. Acral pseudolymphomatous angiokeratoma of children: immunohistochemical and clonal analyses of the infiltrating cells. J Cutan Pathol. 2002;29:313-8 pubmed
    ..Although it was initially thought to be a vascular nevus, it has never been regarded as a pseudolymphoma.
  15. Chedraoui A, Malek J, Tamraz H, Zaynoun S, Kibbi A, Ghosn S. Acral pseudolymphomatous angiokeratoma of children in an elderly man: report of a case and review of the literature. Int J Dermatol. 2010;49:184-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It is currently believed to be a variant of pseudolymphoma rather than angiokeratoma...
  16. Oh D, Kim Y. Lymphoproliferative diseases of the ocular adnexa in Korea. Arch Ophthalmol. 2007;125:1668-73 pubmed
    ..Patients with MALT lymphoma have favorable outcomes compared with patients with other types of lymphoma. ..
  17. Okada M, Funayama M, Tanita M, Kudoh K, Aiba S, Tagami H. Acral angiokeratoma-like pseudolymphoma: one adolescent and two adults. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;45:S209-11 pubmed
    ..Histopathologically, they showed pseudolymphomatous features rather than those of angiokeratoma. Thus, the term should be acral angiokeratoma-like pseudolymphoma would be more appropriate than APACHE originally proposed.
  18. Mannami T, Yoshino T, Oshima K, Takase S, Kondo E, Ohara N, et al. Clinical, histopathological, and immunogenetic analysis of ocular adnexal lymphoproliferative disorders: characterization of malt lymphoma and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Mod Pathol. 2001;14:641-9 pubmed
    ..PCR analysis was useful for differentiation between MALT lymphoma and RLH. Sequence analysis of VH genes showed that an autoimmune mechanism may be involved in the lymphomagenesis of ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma. ..
  19. O Neill J, Fien S, Zeitouni N. ALA-PDT for the treatment of cutaneous pseudolymphoma: a case report. J Drugs Dermatol. 2010;9:688-9 pubmed
    Cutaneous pseudolymphoma (CPL) is a benign skin condition that may cause cosmetic disfigurement, severe itch and, albeit rarely, transformation to malignant lymphoma...
  20. Okubo H, Maekawa H, Ogawa K, Wada R, Sekigawa I, Iida N, et al. Pseudolymphoma of the liver associated with Sjögren's syndrome. Scand J Rheumatol. 2001;30:117-9 pubmed
    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is known to be associated with pseudolymphoma in several organs. We describe a patient with SS complicated by a hepatic pseudolymphoma...
  21. Maehara N, Chijiiwa K, Makino I, Ohuchida J, Kai M, Kondo K, et al. Segmentectomy for reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the liver: Report of a case. Surg Today. 2006;36:1019-23 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemical study revealed polyclonality, confirming a pathological diagnosis of RLH of the liver. We discuss the clinicopathologic characteristics of this unusual disease. ..
  22. Arai E, Shimizu M, Hirose T. A review of 55 cases of cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia: reassessment of the histopathologic findings leading to reclassification of 4 lesions as cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma and 19 as pseudolymphomatous folliculitis. Hum Pathol. 2005;36:505-11 pubmed
    ..cases of nonepidermotropic lymphoproliferative disorder that had previously been diagnosed as "cutaneous pseudolymphoma." In all these cases, the immunohistochemical expressions of CD1a, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD21, CD30, CD43, ..
  23. Tokuda Y, Arakura F, Murata H, Koga H, Kawachi S, Nakazawa K. Acral pseudolymphomatous angiokeratoma of children: a case report with immunohistochemical study of antipodoplanin antigen. Am J Dermatopathol. 2012;34:e128-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggested that APACHE is a type of vascular malformation...
  24. Bergman R. Pseudolymphoma and cutaneous lymphoma: facts and controversies. Clin Dermatol. 2010;28:568-74 pubmed publisher
    Cutaneous pseudolymphoma refers to a heterogenous group of benign reactive T-cell or B-cell lymphoproliferative processes of diverse causes that simulate cutaneous lymphomas clinically and histologically...
  25. Demirci H, Shields C, Karatza E, Shields J. Orbital lymphoproliferative tumors: analysis of clinical features and systemic involvement in 160 cases. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:1626-31, 1631.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the risk for systemic lymphoma (SL) in the patients with orbital lymphoproliferative tumor (OLT)...
  26. Geyer J, Ferry J, Harris N, Young R, Longtine J, Zukerberg L. Florid reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the lower female genital tract (lymphoma-like lesion): a benign condition that frequently harbors clonal immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements. Am J Surg Pathol. 2010;34:161-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Routine microscopic findings and detailed clinical information remain paramount in establishing the correct diagnosis. ..
  27. Ulivieri S, Motolese P, Motolese I, Motolese E, Menicacci F, Gennari P, et al. Benign orbital pseudolymphoma. Case report. G Chir. 2009;30:299-301 pubmed
    ..Historically, treatment has been with oral corticosteroids or localized radiotherapy. We present a case of benign orbital pseudolymphoma.
  28. Amschler K, Schön M, Mempel M, Zutt M. Atypical location of lymphocytoma cutis in a child. Pediatr Dermatol. 2013;30:628-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report a unique case of an atypical location of lymphocytoma cutis in a 3-year-old boy. Histologic and immunohistochemical analysis revealed the correct diagnosis. ..
  29. Mitani N, Nagatani T, Ikezawa Z, Kakemizu N, Yamakawa Y, Aihara M, et al. A case of cutaneous T cell pseudolymphoma in a patient with Helicobacter pylori infection. Dermatology. 2006;213:156-8 pubmed
    ..Based on these clinical, laboratory and histopathological data, a diagnosis of cutaneous T cell pseudolymphoma (CTPL) was made. The patient was anti-H. pylori antibody-positive, and was treated with anti-H...
  30. Kim J, Shin S, Heo S, Jeong Y, Kang H, Choi Y. Imaging findings of localized lymphoid hyperplasia of the pancreas: a case report. Korean J Radiol. 2011;12:510-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Pathology revealed localized lymphoid hyperplasia. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course. He has been alive for 18 months after surgery. ..
  31. Park C, Oh Y. Expression of p63 in reactive hyperplasias and malignant lymphomas. J Korean Med Sci. 2005;20:752-8 pubmed
    ..We could speculate that p63 could act indirectly as an oncogene by inhibiting p53 functions. Stage of differentiation of neoplastic lymphocytes appears to have a correlation with p63 expression in MLs. ..
  32. Zhang J, Wu Y, Kong H, Zhou X, Jin H, Wu X, et al. [Assessment of BIOMED-2 assays for detection of clonal Ig gene rearrangements in mature B-cell lymphomas]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2009;38:739-44 pubmed
    ..BIOMED-2 assay is highly sensitive and specific for the detection of clonal B cell gene rearrangement using routine paraffin embedded formalin fixed specimens. ..
  33. Calzado Villarreal L, Polo Rodríguez I, Ortiz Romero P. [Primary cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders]. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2010;101:119-28 pubmed
    ..It is very important to exclude the presence of a lymphoma of systemic origin with extralymphatic spread, as the prognosis and treatment are different. ..
  34. Sevilla D, Murty V, Sun X, Nandula S, Mansukhani M, Alobeid B, et al. Cytogenetic abnormalities in reactive lymphoid hyperplasia: byproducts of the germinal centre reaction or indicators of lymphoma?. Hematol Oncol. 2011;29:81-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Their occurrence portends low risk for lymphomagenesis, however longer follow-up is prudent to further evaluate the natural history of such cases. ..
  35. Howard M, Dufresne S, Swerdlow S, Cook J. Follicular lymphoma of the spleen: multiparameter analysis of 16 cases. Am J Clin Pathol. 2009;131:656-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Recognition of subtle FL with preserved architecture is important because patients may have overt FL at other sites or the FL may progress to overt nodal disease. ..
  36. Berbis P. [What's new in clinical dermatology]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2008;135 Suppl 7:S317-25 pubmed publisher
  37. Ziemer M, Bauer H, Fluhr J, Kaatz M, Elsner P. Primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma -'crosti lymphoma': what can we learn?. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2008;9:133-6 pubmed
    ..lymphoma with Borrelia infection is known, there are still difficulties in differentiating the condition from pseudolymphoma. Such difficulties can in part be ascribed to the morphologic changes such lymphomas can undergo over time...
  38. Laane E, Tani E, Björklund E, Elmberger G, Everaus H, Skoog L, et al. Flow cytometric immunophenotyping including Bcl-2 detection on fine needle aspirates in the diagnosis of reactive lymphadenopathy and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2005;64:34-42 pubmed
    ..Our FCM panel allowed precise classification of NHL in FNA material in 89.5% of all samples. Bcl-2 staining can be recommended for primary differentiation between reactive hyperplasia and NHL. ..
  39. Yokoi S, Kawagashira Y, Ohyama K, Iijima M, Koike H, Watanabe H, et al. Mononeuritis multiplex with tumefactive cellular infiltration in a patient with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia with increased immunoglobulin G4-positive cells. Hum Pathol. 2014;45:427-30 pubmed publisher
    ..6 mg/kg per day. Although the causal mechanisms of neuropathy should be determined in future studies, peripheral nerve involvement may occur in patients with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia with increased IgG4-positive cells. ..
  40. Liu A, Cole H, Meldrum Aaberg M, Grossniklaus H. Osseous metaplasia of the eyelid: report of 2 cases. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2014;30:e9-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Osseous metaplasia of the eyelid is a rare entity with diverse etiologies ranging from congenital syndromes to trauma, neoplasm, and inflammation. In some cases, a precise etiology cannot be identified. ..
  41. Alyahya A, Alkhalidi H, Alsuhaibani A. Simple epibulbar cartilaginous choristoma. J AAPOS. 2011;15:109-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The lesion was removed with complication, and histopathology confirmed a cartilaginous choristoma. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of a simple epibulbar cartilaginous choristoma. ..
  42. Zaaroura H, Bergman R. Mixed Lichenoid and Follicular T- and B-Cell Lymphoid Reaction to Red Tattoos With Monoclonal T Cells. Am J Dermatopathol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..The histopathology and the immunohistochemical studies were constant with a mixed T- and B-cell pseudolymphoma, the IgH gene rearrangement study was polyclonal, but the T-cell receptor gene rearrangement study was ..
  43. Combes E, Foletti J, Villeret J, Guyot L, Berbis P. [Differential diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma of the face: Dermatologist advice may avoid surgery]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac Chir Orale. 2016;117:335-339 pubmed publisher
    ..mimicking BCC of the face, requiring purely medical treatment: facial granuloma described by Lever, cutaneous pseudolymphoma, sarcoidosis. In front of a non-typical skin nodule CBC, a dermatological expert advice may be quite helpful...
  44. Qiao S, Pei S, Yu Q. [Nodular reactive hyperplasia of monocytoid B-cell in lymph node]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2005;34:753-4 pubmed
  45. Reddy S, Finger P, Chynn E, Iacob C. Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia one month after LASIK surgery. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2006;244:529-31 pubmed
    ..It is important to identify and differentiate these tumours. This report describes the unusual occurrence of a lymphoid conjunctival tumour after LASIK eye surgery. ..
  46. Peretz E, Grunwald M, Cagnano E, Halevy S. Follicular B-cell pseudolymphoma. Australas J Dermatol. 2000;41:48-9 pubmed
    ..The eruption settled with oral antihistamine and topical corticosteroid. These findings support the diagnosis of follicular B-cell pseudolymphoma.
  47. Marucci G, Sgarbanti E, Maestri A, Calandri C, Collina G. Gemcitabine-associated CD8+ CD30+ pseudolymphoma. Br J Dermatol. 2001;145:650-2 pubmed
    ..Although rarely reported, gemcitabine therapy can induce skin lesions. Pathologists should be aware of this possibility in order to avoid a misdiagnosis. ..
  48. Ioannidis A, Rai P, Mulholland B. Conjunctival lymphoid hyperplasia presenting with bilateral panuveitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;139:566-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we advocate periodic follow-up examinations because of the small potential risk of developing ocular or systemic lymphoma in these patients. ..
  49. Bergman R, Khamaysi K, Khamaysi Z, Ben Arie Y. A study of histologic and immunophenotypical staining patterns in cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;65:112-24 pubmed publisher
    ..A classification based on characteristic histologic features and immunophenotypical staining patterns, along with pertinent clinical and molecular data, may enhance the diagnosis of CLH. ..
  50. Breza T, Zheng P, Porcu P, Magro C. Cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma in the setting of fluoxetine therapy: a hypothesis regarding pathogenesis based on in vitro suppression of T-cell-proliferative response. J Cutan Pathol. 2006;33:522-8 pubmed
    ..Fluoxetine may be associated with pseudolymphomata and marginal zone lymphoma. The inhibitory effects on T-lymphocyte function and more specifically T-suppressor function may lead to excessive antigen-driven B-cell proliferation. ..
  51. Kojima M, Motoori T, Iijima M, Ono T, Yoshizumi T, Matsumoto M, et al. Florid monocytoid B-cell hyperplasia resembling nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue type. A histological and immunohistochemical study of four cases. Pathol Res Pract. 2006;202:877-82 pubmed
    ..Recognition of this unusual MBC hyperplasia in reactive lymph node lesions is important to avoid confusion with NMZBLs. ..
  52. Ohtsuka T, Yamazaki S. Acral angiokeratoma-like pseudolymphoma in a 28-year-old Japanese woman. Dermatology. 2003;207:77-8 pubmed
  53. Lampe R, Manens J, Sharp N. Suspected Phenobarbital-Induced Pseudolymphoma in a Dog. J Vet Intern Med. 2017;31:1858-1859 pubmed publisher
    b>Pseudolymphoma is a drug reaction to anti-epileptics that is well recognized in humans; it has been reported in one cat but not dogs...