immunoblastic lymphadenopathy


Summary: A disorder characterized by proliferation of arborizing small vessels, prominent immunoblastic proliferations and amorphous acidophilic interstitial material. Clinical manifestations include fever, sweats, weight loss, generalized lymphadenopathy and frequently hepatosplenomegaly.

Top Publications

  1. Lee S, Rudiger T, Odenwald T, Roth S, Starostik P, Muller Hermelink H. Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma is derived from mature T-helper cells with varying expression and loss of detectable CD4. Int J Cancer. 2003;103:12-20 pubmed
    ..Clinicopathologic correlation suggests AILT to be a well defined homogeneous entity with poor prognosis. Currently no prognostic factors can be derived. ..
  2. Grogg K, Attygalle A, Macon W, Remstein E, Kurtin P, Dogan A. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma: a neoplasm of germinal-center T-helper cells?. Blood. 2005;106:1501-2 pubmed
  3. Pizzolo G, Vinante F, Agostini C, Zambello R, Trentin L, Masciarelli M, et al. Immunologic abnormalities in angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy. Cancer. 1987;60:2412-8 pubmed
    ..However, no evidence of HTLV-III infection could be demonstrated in our patients with AILD. ..
  4. Hawley R, Cankovic M, Zarbo R. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma with supervening Epstein-Barr virus-associated large B-cell lymphoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2006;130:1707-11 pubmed
  5. Kawano R, Ohshima K, Wakamatsu S, Suzumiya J, Kikuchi M, Tamura K. Epstein-Barr virus genome level, T-cell clonality and the prognosis of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. Haematologica. 2005;90:1192-6 pubmed
    ..AILT remains a heterogeneous disease with clinical behavior that varies irrespective of the genomic parameters investigated. ..
  6. Mourad N, Mounier N, Briere J, Raffoux E, Delmer A, Feller A, et al. Clinical, biologic, and pathologic features in 157 patients with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma treated within the Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte (GELA) trials. Blood. 2008;111:4463-70 pubmed publisher
    ..It portends a poor prognosis even when treated intensively. However, AITL is not always lethal with 30% of patients alive at 7 years. ..
  7. Smith J, Hodges E, Quin C, McCarthy K, Wright D. Frequent T and B cell oligoclones in histologically and immunophenotypically characterized angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy. Am J Pathol. 2000;156:661-9 pubmed
  8. Ellyard J, Chia T, Rodriguez Pinilla S, Martin J, Hu X, Navarro Gonzalez M, et al. Heterozygosity for Roquinsan leads to angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma-like tumors in mice. Blood. 2012;120:812-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Roquin(san/+) mice emerge as a useful model to investigate the molecular pathogenesis of AITL and for preclinical testing of therapies aimed at targeting dysregulated T(FH) cells or their consequences. ..
  9. Krenacs L, Schaerli P, Kis G, Bagdi E. Phenotype of neoplastic cells in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma is consistent with activated follicular B helper T cells. Blood. 2006;108:1110-1 pubmed

More Information


  1. Togashi M, Wakui H, Kodama K, Kameoka Y, Komatsuda A, Nimura T, et al. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and membranous nephropathy: a still unreported association. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2010;14:288-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Glomerular manifestations have rarely been reported in association with AITL. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of nephrotic syndrome due to MN associated with AITL. ..
  2. Oka K, Nagayama R, Yatabe Y, Iijima S, Mori N. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma with autoimmune thrombocytopenia: a report of two cases. Pathol Res Pract. 2010;206:270-5 pubmed publisher
    ..AILT with autoimmune thrombocytopenia (AIT) is very rare, and all the reported cases were Japanese ones. ..
  3. Cairns R, Iqbal J, Lemonnier F, Kucuk C, de Leval L, Jais J, et al. IDH2 mutations are frequent in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. Blood. 2012;119:1901-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the second common genetic lesion identified in AITL after TET2 and extends the number of neoplastic diseases where IDH1 and IDH2 mutations may play a role. ..
  4. Yang Q, Pei X, Tian X, Li Y, Li Z. Secondary cutaneous Epstein-Barr virus-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in a patient with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma: a case report and review of literature. Diagn Pathol. 2012;7:7 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest the patients with AITL should perform lymph node and skin biopsies regularly in the course of the disease to detect the progression of secondary lymphomas. ..
  5. De Samblanx H, Verhoef G, Zachee P, Vandenberghe P. A male with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and proliferative glomerulonephritis. Ann Hematol. 2004;83:455-9 pubmed
    ..In both, immunoglobulin-containing dense deposits within glomeruli were observed, which was not the case in our patient, where only some mesangial colorization of the IgM in the glomeruli was seen. ..
  6. Dogan A, Attygalle A, Kyriakou C. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. Br J Haematol. 2003;121:681-91 pubmed
  7. Park S, Noguera M, Briere J, Feuillard J, Cayuela J, Sigaux F, et al. Successful rituximab treatment of an EBV-related lymphoproliferative disease arising after autologous transplantation for angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. Hematol J. 2002;3:317-20 pubmed
    ..This case is discussed in the context of severe immunodepression. Monoclonal anti-CD20 antibodies might restore a balance between T-cell immunosurveillance and EBV proliferation in B-cells, ..
  8. Dorfman D, Brown J, Shahsafaei A, Freeman G. Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is a marker of germinal center-associated T cells and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2006;30:802-10 pubmed
  9. Nakashima M, Suzuki K, Okada M, Takada K, Kobayashi H, Hama Y. Successful coil embolization of a ruptured hepatic aneurysm in a patient with polyarteritis nodosa accompanied by angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma. Clin Rheumatol. 2007;26:1362-4 pubmed
    ..He received immunosuppressive treatment with transient response, although he relapsed 4 months later. To our knowledge, this is the first case of which PN was associated with AITL...
  10. Marafioti T, Paterson J, Ballabio E, Chott A, Natkunam Y, Rodriguez Justo M, et al. The inducible T-cell co-stimulator molecule is expressed on subsets of T cells and is a new marker of lymphomas of T follicular helper cell-derivation. Haematologica. 2010;95:432-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide further evidence that the histological spectrum of T(FH)-derived lymphomas is broader than previously assumed. ..
  11. Skugor N, Perić Z, Vrhovac R, Radić Kristo D, Kardum Skelin I, Jaksic B. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in patient after treatment of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. Coll Antropol. 2010;34:241-5 pubmed
  12. Attygalle A, Al Jehani R, Diss T, Munson P, Liu H, Du M, et al. Neoplastic T cells in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma express CD10. Blood. 2002;99:627-33 pubmed
    ..The presence of these cells distinguishes AITL from other PTLs. This finding provides an objective criterion for accurate and early diagnosis of AITL. ..
  13. Lachenal F, Berger F, Ghesquieres H, Biron P, Hot A, Callet Bauchu E, et al. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma: clinical and laboratory features at diagnosis in 77 patients. Medicine (Baltimore). 2007;86:282-92 pubmed
    ..The current study underlines the diversity of presenting manifestations of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. ..
  14. Delfau Larue M, de Leval L, Joly B, Plonquet A, Challine D, Parrens M, et al. Targeting intratumoral B cells with rituximab in addition to CHOP in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. A clinicobiological study of the GELA. Haematologica. 2012;97:1594-602 pubmed publisher
    ..A strong relationship, not previously described, between circulating Epstein-Barr virus and circulating tumor cells is highlighted. ..
  15. Laforga J, Gasent J, Vaquero M. Potential misdiagnosis of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma with Hodgkin's lymphoma: a case report. Acta Cytol. 2010;54:840-4 pubmed
    ..However, some cases display binucleated or mononucleated cells with prominent nucleoli and many eosinophils, which may induce a potential misdiagnosis with Hodgkin's lymphoma. ..
  16. Sellier S, Levesque H, Courville P, Joly P. [Cyclophosphamide-induced neutrophilic disease in a patient with angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy and myelodysplastic syndrome]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2006;133:459-62 pubmed
    ..This case illustrates the wide range of clinical and histological lesions found in neutrophilic disorders, a number of which may coexist in a single patient. ..
  17. Chen W, Kesler M, Karandikar N, McKenna R, Kroft S. Flow cytometric features of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2006;70:142-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicate the potential utility of flow cytometry in the diagnosis and follow-up of AILT. ..
  18. Awaya N, Adachi A, Mori T, Kamata H, Nakahara J, Yokoyama K, et al. Fulminant Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder with hemophagocytosis following autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for relapsed angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. Leuk Res. 2006;30:1059-62 pubmed
    ..The patient's AILT remained in complete remission. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of fulminant EBV-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) following autologous HSCT. ..
  19. Suehiro S, Shiratsuchi M, Suehiro Y, Oshima K, Shiokawa S, Nishimura J. [Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma (AITL) with autoimmune thrombocytopenia]. Rinsho Ketsueki. 2002;43:841-5 pubmed
    ..Our case showed a minor response of autoimmune thrombocytopenia to splenic irradiation. Therapeutic intervention for hypersplenism should be considered if thrombocytopenia is not improved by chemotherapy alone. ..
  20. Yoshida A, Kawano Y, Kato K, Yoshida S, Yoshikawa H, Muta T, et al. Apoptosis in perforated cornea of a patient with graft-versus-host disease. Can J Ophthalmol. 2006;41:472-5 pubmed
    ..Some of the epithelial cells and keratocytes were TUNEL positive. The presence of apoptotic cells in our case suggests that apoptosis may be involved in the perforation of the cornea in patients with GVHD. ..
  21. White A, Katz B, Silbert J. Association of Epstein-Barr virus with an angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy-like lymphoproliferative syndrome. Yale J Biol Med. 1989;62:263-9 pubmed
    ..Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA was demonstrated in tissue from an involved lymph node. These data suggest an association of EBV with a lymphoproliferative process that resembles angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia. ..
  22. Hiraga Y, Kou J, Shimomura S. [A case of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma arising in the cervical region]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho. 2013;116:1114-9 pubmed
    ..e. CHOP have been playing the fundamental role in the therapeutic paradigm, but because of the poorer survival of 20-50% at the 5-year point, AITL is classified as a high-grade malignancy. ..
  23. Miyazaki K, Masuya M, Yamaguchi M, Isaka S, Nakase K, Kobayashi T, et al. [Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma occurring four months after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation with high-dose chemotherapy for follicular lymphoma]. Rinsho Ketsueki. 2005;46:1065-70 pubmed
    ..Clinical and histopathological findings showed that the FL and AILT in this case were not concomitant. It is thought that in this case, the AILT developed as a post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder after auto-PBSCT for the FL. ..
  24. Jung K, Lim M, Kwon S, Joo K, Yi H, Choi S, et al. Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma in an ankylosing spondylitis patient treated with etanercept. Mod Rheumatol. 2013;23:817-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Further study is needed in order to investigate whether or not using a TNF-? blocker such as etanercept increases the risk of lymphoma, especially for cases associated with Epstein-Barr virus. ..
  25. Geissinger E, Bonzheim I, Krenacs L, Roth S, Reimer P, Wilhelm M, et al. Nodal peripheral T-cell lymphomas correspond to distinct mature T-cell populations. J Pathol. 2006;210:172-80 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, AILT and ALCL tumour cells correspond to different subsets of effector cells, while a subset of PTCL-NOS correlates with a non-effector T-cell population. ..
  26. Kojima M, Nakamura S, Oyama T, Motoori T, Itoh H, Yoshida K, et al. Autoimmune disease-associated lymphadenopathy with histological appearance of T-zone dysplasia with hyperplastic follicles. A clinicopathological analysis of nine cases. Pathol Res Pract. 2001;197:237-44 pubmed
    ..To avoid overdiagnosis and overtreatment, we emphasize the need to turn attention to these clinical and laboratory findings as well as to the morphological features. ..
  27. Khokhar F, Payne W, Talwalkar S, Jorgensen J, Bueso Ramos C, Medeiros L, et al. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma in bone marrow: a morphologic and immunophenotypic study. Hum Pathol. 2010;41:79-87 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, programed death-1 immunohistochemical staining and double labeling using antibodies specific for BCL-6 and CD3 were helpful in appreciating the follicular T-helper cell immunophenotype of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. ..
  28. Ferry J. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. Adv Anat Pathol. 2002;9:273-9 pubmed
    ..More recent studies have delineated the immunophenotypic and genetic features of this unusual lymphoma, and have tentatively identified the cell of origin of this neoplasm. ..
  29. Kluin P, Feller A, Gaulard P, Jaffe E, Meijer C, Muller Hermelink H, et al. Peripheral T/NK-cell lymphoma: a report of the IXth Workshop of the European Association for Haematopathology. Histopathology. 2001;38:250-70 pubmed
    ..No distinct phenotype could be attributed to these cases. Most peripheral T/NK cell lymphomas could be categorized as distinct entities as described in the recently proposed WHO classification for lymphoid neoplasms. ..
  30. Schlegelberger B, Zhang Y, Weber Matthiesen K, Grote W. Detection of aberrant clones in nearly all cases of angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia-type T-cell lymphoma by combined interphase and metaphase cytogenetics. Blood. 1994;84:2640-8 pubmed
    ..This high frequency of oligoclonal proliferations may be caused by increased genetic instability and an immune defect resulting in impaired elimination of aberrant cells. ..
  31. Jones B, Vun Y, Sabah M, Egan C. Toxic epidermal necrolysis secondary to angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. Australas J Dermatol. 2005;46:187-91 pubmed
    ..At the time of diagnosis his condition deteriorated rapidly and he died soon after. ..
  32. Huang Y, Moreau A, Dupuis J, Streubel B, Petit B, Le Gouill S, et al. Peripheral T-cell lymphomas with a follicular growth pattern are derived from follicular helper T cells (TFH) and may show overlapping features with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009;33:682-90 pubmed publisher
  33. Shida S, Takahashi N, Fujishima N, Kameoka Y, Nara M, Fujishima M, et al. False-positive human immunodeficiency virus antibody test and autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a patient with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. Intern Med. 2011;50:2383-7 pubmed
    ..Autoimmunity associated with AITL is the likely cause of the cross-reaction with HIV and the AIHA. It is important to recognize that the cross-reaction with HIV can be a potential complication in AITL as well as AIHA. ..
  34. Ohgami R, Zhao S, Ohgami J, Leavitt M, Zehnder J, West R, et al. TdT+ T-lymphoblastic populations are increased in Castleman disease, in Castleman disease in association with follicular dendritic cell tumors, and in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2012;36:1619-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies not only present several detailed cases of indolent T-lymphoblastic proliferations, but also correlate these populations with specific hematologic diseases. ..
  35. Brown H, Macon W, Kurtin P, Gibson L. Cutaneous involvement by angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma with remarkable heterogeneous Epstein-Barr virus expression. J Cutan Pathol. 2001;28:432-8 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this case is the most extensive and heterogeneous expression of EBV in cutaneous AILD T-NHL to date. ..
  36. Basu D, Bundele M. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma obscured by concomitant florid epithelioid cell granulomatous reaction--a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2005;48:500-2 pubmed
    ..We draw attention to this unusual phenomenon because of its practical implications. ..
  37. Yamagata T, Okamoto Y, Yamagata Y, Nakanishi M, Matsunaga K, Minakata Y, et al. Angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinaemia accompanied by pleural effusion. Respirology. 2005;10:124-7 pubmed
    ..Cytologically, atypical plasma cells, and T-cell predominant lymphocytes were also present. These findings are likely to be characteristic of pleural effusions associated with AILD and may prove to be a useful marker for diagnosis. ..
  38. Ishii Y, Itabashi M, Numata A, Yamamoto W, Motohashi K, Hagihara M, et al. Cytomegalovirus Pneumonia after Anti-CC-chemokine Receptor 4 Monoclonal Antibody (Mogamulizumab) Therapy in an Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma Patient. Intern Med. 2016;55:673-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Because mogamulizumab therapy causes immunosuppression, if CMV pneumonia is suspected, then rapid treatment should be initiated. ..
  39. Lachenal F. [Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma]. Presse Med. 2007;36:1655-62 pubmed
    ..Autologous stem cell transplantation is proposed to the youngest. Immunosuppressive drugs may be appropriate for elderly or relapsing patients. The overall 5-year survival rate is 30%. ..
  40. Merchant S, Amin M, Viswanatha D. Morphologic and immunophenotypic analysis of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma: Emphasis on phenotypic aberrancies for early diagnosis. Am J Clin Pathol. 2006;126:29-38 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that unique morphologic alterations and subsets of phenotypically aberrant T cells are present consistently in nearly all cases of AILT, including morphologically less definitive biopsy specimens. ..
  41. Muta T, Yamano Y. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma associated with an antibody to human immunodeficiency virus protein. Int J Hematol. 2003;78:160-2 pubmed
    ..Physicians should pay close attention to serologic tests to determine whether the patient truly is a viral carrier. ..
  42. Xie J, Zhou X. Infectious mononucleosis-like lesions, a rare manifestation of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma. 2010;51:944-6 pubmed publisher
  43. Mitsuhashi K, Shiseki M, Ishiyama M, Kondo T, Kazama H, Yasunami T, et al. [Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma with marked polyclonal plasmacytosis in peripheral blood and bone marrow mimicking plasma cell leukemia]. Rinsho Ketsueki. 2011;52:563-9 pubmed
    ..Although pathological mechanisms of plasmacytosis in AITL patients have not been fully elucidated, it is suggested that IL-6 and IL-10 were involved in its pathogenesis in the present case. ..
  44. Lee P, Lin C, Chuang S. Immunophenotyping of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas by multiparameter flow cytometry. Pathol Res Pract. 2003;199:539-45 pubmed
    ..To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate CD10-expressing T-cells in AITL by FCM. ..
  45. Ree H, Kadin M, Kikuchi M, Ko Y, Go J, Suzumiya J, et al. Angioimmunoblastic lymphoma (AILD-type T-cell lymphoma) with hyperplastic germinal centers. Am J Surg Pathol. 1998;22:643-55 pubmed
    ..We conclude that hyperplastic germinal centers with ill-defined borders and frequent interfollicular tingible-body macrophages occur in a histologic variant of AITL that is necessary to recognize for early diagnosis and treatment. ..
  46. Khodayari B, Daly M, Bobinski M, Farwell D, Shelton D, Chen A. Observation versus neck dissection for positron-emission tomography-negative lymphadenopathy after chemoradiotherapy. Laryngoscope. 2014;124:902-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Omission of neck dissection appears to be reasonable for patients with residual lymphadenopathy but negative PET after chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer. 4. ..
  47. Sakata Yanagimoto M, Enami T, Yoshida K, Shiraishi Y, Ishii R, Miyake Y, et al. Somatic RHOA mutation in angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma. Nat Genet. 2014;46:171-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that impaired RHOA function in cooperation with preceding loss of TET2 function contributes to AITL-specific pathogenesis. ..
  48. Lin H, Liu C, Hong Y, Pai J, Yang C, Yu Y, et al. Clinical features and prognostic factors of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma in Taiwan: a single-institution experience. Leuk Lymphoma. 2010;51:2208-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Taiwanese patients with AITL were usually elderly. Despite the prognosis being generally poor, patients with AITL should be treated with the goal of achieving CR, regardless of anthracycline- or non-anthracycline-based chemotherapy. ..
  49. Ren Y, Hong L, Nong L, Zhang S, Li T. [Clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and molecular analysis in 15 cases of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas]. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2008;40:352-7 pubmed
    ..AITL display great complexity and diversity clinicopathologically. Only when we recognize such diversity, can we reasonably apply and properly evaluate immunochemical markers and molecular techniques, and thus give a correct diagnosis. ..
  50. Kraus T, Twist C, Tan B. Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma: an unusual presentation of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder in a pediatric patient. Acta Haematol. 2014;131:95-101 pubmed publisher
    ..We present an unusual case of monomorphic T cell PTLD with features of angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma in an 8-year-old heart transplant patient, presenting with cranial nerve palsy. ..
  51. Ghezzo F, Romano S, Gorzegno G, Anfossi G, Lacivita A, Emanuelli G. [Cryptococcosis in a female patient with angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy and dysproteinemia]. Ann Ital Med Int. 1992;7:111-3 pubmed
    ..Cryptococcosis was diagnosed by cutaneous biopsy. Antimycotic therapy together with corticosteroid withdrawal cured the cutaneous lesions and improved her psychiatric symptoms. ..
  52. Takamatsu Y, Ishizu M, Ichinose I, Ogata K, Onoue M, Kumagawa M, et al. Intravenous cyclosporine and tacrolimus caused anaphylaxis but oral cyclosporine capsules were tolerated in an allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipient. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2001;28:421-3 pubmed
    ..Our present case indicates that oral capsule of Sandimmun is a safe alternative to prevent GVHD in such a case of anaphylactic reaction against intravenous formulation. ..
  53. Kakkanaiah V, Nagarkatti M, Bluestone J, Nagarkatti P. CD4-CD8- thymocytes from MRL-lpr/lpr mice exhibit abnormal proportions of alpha beta- and gamma delta-TCR+ cells and demonstrate defective responsiveness when activated through the TCR. Cell Immunol. 1991;137:269-82 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that migration of such cells continuously to the periphery may result in severe lymphadenopathy seen in old MRL-lpr/lpr mice. ..