laryngeal granuloma


Summary: A tumor-like nodule or mass of inflammatory granulation tissue projecting into the lumen of the LARYNX.

Top Publications

  1. Komiya K, Fukuda H, Nemoto K, Yokosuka S, Kawakami T, Hirabayashi Y, et al. [Postintubation granuloma of the larynx]. Masui. 2004;53:72-4 pubmed
    ..We should keep in mind that postintubation granuloma of the larynx might develop after tracheal intubation, and careful airway manipulation is needed to avoid this potential complication. ..
  2. Mortensen M, Woo P. Office steroid injections of the larynx. Laryngoscope. 2006;116:1735-9 pubmed
    ..05). There were no complications. Only two patients could not tolerate office injection. Office steroid injections are a valuable adjunct in management of vocal fold scars, polyps, nodules, and granulomas. ..
  3. Eller R, Marks L, Hawkshaw M, Sataloff R. Vocal process granuloma. Ear Nose Throat J. 2007;86:198 pubmed
  4. Yun K, Lee J, Park J. Intubation granuloma: report of a case. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;66:1263-5 pubmed publisher
  5. Pontes P, De Biase N, Kyrillos L, Pontes A. Importance of glottic configuration in the development of posterior laryngeal granuloma. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2001;110:765-9 pubmed
    Posterior laryngeal granuloma is frequently related to 3 predisposing factors: vocal abuse, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and orotracheal intubation...
  6. Nakayama M, Ford C, Bless D. Teflon vocal fold augmentation: failures and management in 28 cases. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1993;109:493-8 pubmed
    ..Teflon injection should be reserved for those instances in which it is clearly indicated and the surgeon is skilled in the technique of intrafold injection. ..
  7. Yin S, Stucker F, Nathan C. Clinical application of botulinum toxin in otolaryngology, head and neck practice (brief review). J La State Med Soc. 2001;153:92-7 pubmed
  8. Damrose E, Damrose J. Botulinum toxin as adjunctive therapy in refractory laryngeal granuloma. J Laryngol Otol. 2008;122:824-8 pubmed
    ..The optimal treatment dose remains to be determined. Percutaneous botulinum toxin injection is helpful in resolving laryngeal granulomas. ..
  9. Jaroma M, Pakarinen L, Nuutinen J. Treatment of vocal cord granuloma. Acta Otolaryngol. 1989;107:296-9 pubmed
    ..Cryotherapy does not help traditional surgery, while steroid-antibiotics administered postoperatively seem to help the healing process. ..

More Information


  1. Ylitalo R, Lindestad P. A retrospective study of contact granuloma. Laryngoscope. 1999;109:433-6 pubmed
    ..The recurrence rate after surgery was high. Surgery may prolong the recovery time. Subjective symptoms diminished during voice therapy, but we cannot confirm that it was beneficial for the healing process. ..
  2. Ambu V, Narayanan P, Ratnasingam V. Neglected laryngeal foreign body. J Laryngol Otol. 2001;115:740-2 pubmed
    ..This case illustrates one of the sequelae of a neglected laryngeal foreign body, resulting in significant granulation tissue formation in the larynx, and its management. ..
  3. Hillel A, Lin L, Samlan R, Starmer H, Leahy K, Flint P. Inhaled triamcinolone with proton pump inhibitor for treatment of vocal process granulomas: a series of 67 granulomas. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2010;119:325-30 pubmed
    ..The anti-inflammatory action of inhaled triamcinolone combined with antireflux proton pump inhibitors successfully treats most vocal process granulomas with low rates of side effects and recurrence. ..
  4. Chua W, Chidambaram A, Doyle P, Sandler J. Voicing concern: an unusual sequalae of orthognathic surgery. Prog Orthod. 2006;7:220-6 pubmed
    ..Here we briefly describe the orthodontic case and orthognathic surgery. We further explain the presenting symptoms and treatment undertaken for the contact granuloma. ..
  5. Soda A, Rubio H, Salazar M, Ganem J, Berlanga D, Sanchez A. Tuberculosis of the larynx: clinical aspects in 19 patients. Laryngoscope. 1989;99:1147-50 pubmed
    ..Today the spread appears to be mainly via lymphatic and hematogenic routes, as opposed to the direct spread more common previously. The fibrosis caused by the lesions is incapacitating and frequently requires surgical correction. ..
  6. Miko T. Peptic (contact ulcer) granuloma of the larynx. J Clin Pathol. 1989;42:800-4 pubmed
  7. Ward V, Dua S, Morrison G. Oro-facial granulomatosis: a laryngeal presentation. J Laryngol Otol. 2001;115:923-4 pubmed
    ..We report the first case of oro-facial granulomatosis (OFG) presenting in pregnancy with laryngeal manifestations. ..
  8. Ogawa M, Hosokawa K, Iwahashi T, Inohara H. The results of Kaplan-Meier and multivariate analyses of etiological factors related to the outcome of combined pharmacological therapy against laryngeal granuloma. Acta Otolaryngol. 2016;136:1141-1146 pubmed
    ..reflux disease (GERD) is an independent etiological factor predicting retardation of the resolution of laryngeal granuloma. To assess the effects of combined usage of an inhaled corticosteroid plus tranilast and/or a proton pump ..
  9. Verhulst J, Adjoua R, Urtazun H. [Laryngeal and tracheal complications of prolonged intubation]. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord). 1992;113:289-94 pubmed
  10. Wiskirska Woźnica B, Obrebowski A. [Voice disorders in recurrent laryngeal granuloma dependend on GERD]. Otolaryngol Pol. 2006;60:71-3 pubmed
    The voice disorders in a case of recurrent laryngeal granuloma with chronic gastroesophageal reflux was described...
  11. Moukarbel R, Youssef M, Shab N, Hamdan A. Pathology quiz case 1. Teflon granuloma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004;130:1438, 1440 pubmed
  12. el Sharkawy L, Abdallah H, Marzouk S. [Farber disease: a cause of hoarseness of the voice in children]. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord). 2000;121:261-5 pubmed
  13. Kiese Himmel C, Kruse E. [Laryngeal contact granuloma--a psychosomatic disorder?]. Folia Phoniatr Logop. 1994;46:288-97 pubmed
    ..Thus, contact granuloma can be considered as a secondary reaction to a specific combination of personal disposition and social life situation. Lastly a causal model is presented, which can be used as a diagnostic criterion. ..
  14. Shinohara T, Kaneko T, Miyazawa N, Nakatani Y, Nishiyama H, Shoji A, et al. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma with laryngeal and subcutaneous involvement: report of a case successfully treated with glucocorticoids. Intern Med. 2004;43:69-73 pubmed
    ..Although there is no established treatment for PHG, the laryngeal tumor was diminished and all other lesions disappeared with glucocorticoid treatment...
  15. Varvares M, Montgomery W, Hillman R. Teflon granuloma of the larynx: etiology, pathophysiology, and management. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1995;104:511-5 pubmed
    ..Acoustic and aerodynamic analyses reveal significant deficits in vocal function that may persist after procedures used to correct this condition. ..
  16. De Biase N, Pontes P. Blood vessels of vocal folds: a videolaryngoscopic study. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;134:720-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The greatest variations were found in the MSA group, including the presence of tangled blood vessels (which was observed only in this group). ..
  17. Harari P, Blatchford S, Coulthard S, Cassady J. Intubation granuloma of the larynx: successful eradication with low-dose radiotherapy. Head Neck. 1991;13:230-3 pubmed
    ..We recently evaluated a patient who had undergone 6 surgical excisions of a postintubation laryngeal granuloma during a 5-month interval...
  18. Keiser G, Bozentka N, Gold B. Laryngeal granuloma: a complication of prolonged endotracheal intubation. Anesth Prog. 1991;38:232-4 pubmed
    b>Laryngeal granuloma is an uncommon complication arising from irritation of the laryngeal structures. We present a case where bilateral laryngeal granulomas became clinically evident 3 mo after orthognathic surgery...
  19. Aguilar García J, de la Torre Lima J, del Arco Jimenez A, Prada Pardal J. [Laryngeal sarcoidosis: review of a case]. An Med Interna. 2006;23:145 pubmed
  20. McFerran D, Abdullah V, Gallimore A, Pringle M, Croft C. Vocal process granulomata. J Laryngol Otol. 1994;108:216-20 pubmed
    ..This perichondritis, playing either a primary or a secondary role in granuloma development, may explain the annoying tendency of vocal fold granulomata to recur after excision. ..
  21. Torrealba J, Carvalho J, Corliss R, England D. Laryngeal granulomatous infection by Sporothrix schenckii. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;132:339-40 pubmed
  22. Pham Q, Campbell R, Mattioni J, Sataloff R. Botulinum Toxin Injections Into the Lateral Cricoarytenoid Muscles for Vocal Process Granuloma. J Voice. 2018;32:363-366 pubmed publisher
    ..Both cases were initially grade III granuloma that improved to grade I. In-office injection of botulinum toxin A targeting the LCA muscle appears to be a safe and effective treatment modality in refractory laryngeal granuloma.
  23. Roh H, Goh E, Chon K, Wang S. Topical inhalant steroid (budesonide, Pulmicort nasal) therapy in intubation granuloma. J Laryngol Otol. 1999;113:427-32 pubmed
    ..We concluded that intubation granuloma of the larynx could be treated with topical inhalant steroid as the first choice of therapy rather than other medical treatment or surgical intervention. ..
  24. Mans E, Kühn A, Lamprecht Dinnesen A. [Personality markers of patients with vocal cord granuloma]. Laryngorhinootologie. 1993;72:225-30 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words) ..
  25. Hoffman H, Overholt E, Karnell M, McCulloch T. Vocal process granuloma. Head Neck. 2001;23:1061-74 pubmed
    ..Ancillary measures that may be beneficial in specific cases include the use of steroids, antibiotics, membranous vocal fold augmentation, and laryngeal botulinum neurotoxin injection. ..
  26. Luzar B, Gale N, Klopcic U, Fischinger J. Laryngeal granuloma: characteristics of the covering epithelium. J Laryngol Otol. 2000;114:264-7 pubmed
    ..A retrospective clinical and histomorphological analysis was performed on 149 laryngeal granuloma biopsies...
  27. Zamolo G, Gruber F, Manestar D, Segon M, Kolić Z, Jonjic A. Lethal midline granuloma starting as granuloma laryngis. Tumori. 2000;86:98-101 pubmed
    ..Radiotherapy was very effective and led to long-term remission. The different etiological aspects of this syndrome are discussed...
  28. Halum S, Miller P, Early K. Laryngeal granulomas associated with superior laryngeal nerve paresis. J Voice. 2010;24:490-3 pubmed publisher
    The association between superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) paresis and laryngeal granuloma formation has not been described earlier...
  29. O DONNELL J, Williams C, Rosen C, Sonbolian N. Anesthesia for an achondroplastic dwarf with bilateral vocal cord granuloma: use of a Xomed Hunsaker Mon-Jet ventilation tube. CRNA. 1998;9:67-76 pubmed
    ..Further increasing the complexity of the case was the surgical use of an autogenous tissue glue, which required a period of 'airway silence' during the application process. ..
  30. Ylitalo R, Ramel S. Gastroesophagopharyngeal reflux in patients with contact granuloma: a prospective controlled study. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2002;111:178-83 pubmed
    ..006). In this study, pharyngeal acid exposure was significantly more prevalent in patients with contact granuloma than in healthy controls. ..
  31. Verdolini K, Hoffman H, McCoy S. Nonspecific laryngeal granuloma: a case study of a professional singer. J Voice. 1994;8:352-8 pubmed
    A professional singer with laryngeal granuloma underwent surgery following failed response to conservative treatments. Two primary findings emerged...
  32. Wohl D. Traumatic vocal fold avulsion injury in a newborn. J Voice. 1996;10:106-8 pubmed
    ..Eight-week follow-up examination revealed normal vocal fold architecture. At 18 months the patient continues to have a normal voice and normal laryngeal development. ..
  33. Hirano S, Kojima H, Tateya I, Ito J. Fiberoptic laryngeal surgery for vocal process granuloma. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2002;111:789-93 pubmed
    ..Fiberoptic laryngeal surgery facilitates repeated surgical procedures. ..
  34. Fukui S, Kido T, Utsumi T, Sakaguchi Y, Sakakibara T. [Subglottic granuloma with extubating mini-trach II: report of a case]. Kyobu Geka. 2002;55:433-5 pubmed
    ..When we used Mini-trach II, the most important issues are insertion to the cricothyroid membrane, preventing infection, and careful follow-up after removing the Mini-trach II. ..
  35. Hartig G, Myer C, Wiatrak B, Bower C. Giant suprastomal granuloma as a laryngeal mass. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1993;102:701-4 pubmed
    ..Also, the treatment of extensive suprastomal granulomas requires open excision, which differs from the endoscopic approach recommended for smaller granulomas. ..
  36. Nakamura M, Uda A, Kataoka N, Nagasaka K, Tamashige K, Mori D, et al. A Case of Laryngeal Granuloma Likely Caused by Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Disease Following a Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy. Anesth Prog. 2017;64:248-250 pubmed publisher
    b>Laryngeal granuloma is an uncommon complication of prolonged endotracheal intubation. A 25-year-old woman with severe jaw deformity underwent sagittal split ramus osteotomy under general anesthesia...
  37. Farwell D, Belafsky P, Rees C. An endoscopic grading system for vocal process granuloma. J Laryngol Otol. 2008;122:1092-5 pubmed publisher
    ..67). The proposed grading system for vocal process granuloma displayed excellent intra- and inter-observer reliability among residents and experienced laryngologists. ..
  38. Smith M, Kuhl G, Carvalho P, Marostica P. Flexible fiber-optic laryngoscopy in the first hours after extubation for the evaluation of laryngeal lesions due to intubation in the pediatric intensive care unit. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;71:1423-8 pubmed
    ..The subglottic region can also be visualized in most patients. This easily performed exam seems to be useful for the diagnosis of pediatric patients with acute laryngeal lesions due to intubation. ..
  39. Jang M, Basa K, Levi J. Risk factors for laryngeal trauma and granuloma formation in pediatric intubations. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2018;107:45-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In our case, laryngeal granuloma size reduced significantly after starting anti-reflux medications...
  40. Balys R, Manoukian J, Zalai C. Left ventricular hypertrophy with outflow tract obstruction-a complication of dexamethasone treatment for subglottic stenosis. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2005;69:271-3 pubmed
    ..Diagnosis and eventual recovery was confirmed with serial echocardiograms. Knowledge of this serious side effect of dexamethasone will allow otolaryngologists to intervene early and prevent a potentially deadly complication. ..
  41. Zeitels S, Casiano R, Gardner G, Hogikyan N, Koufman J, Rosen C. Management of common voice problems: Committee report. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;126:333-48 pubmed
    ..This information should provide the reader with current insight into critical management issues of the aforementioned disorders. ..
  42. Heman Ackah Y. How I do it: miniplate reconstruction of the lateral thyroid lamina: one-stage restoration of voice after teflon granuloma resection. J Voice. 2005;19:504-9 pubmed
  43. Ylitalo R, Ramel S. Extraesophageal reflux in patients with contact granuloma: a prospective controlled study. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2002;111:441-6 pubmed
    ..006). In this study, pharyngeal acid exposure was significantly more prevalent in patients with contact granuloma than in healthy controls. ..
  44. Drosnes D, Zwillenberg D. Laryngeal granulomatous polyp after short-term intubation of a child. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1990;99:183-6 pubmed
    ..A discussion of the incidence, pathogenesis, and treatment of this and other postintubation laryngeal lesions follows. ..
  45. Torrent E, Pastor J, Fresno L, Vigueras I, Casanova M, Ramis A, et al. Laryngeal Granuloma due to Leishmania spp. Infection in a Dog. J Comp Pathol. 2018;158:6-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This case shows an atypical presentation of leishmaniosis with a focal tumour-like mass in the vocal folds as the only clinical sign. ..
  46. Kiese Himmel C, Pralle L, Kruse E. Psychological profiles of patients with laryngeal contact granulomas. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1998;255:296-301 pubmed
    ..The usefulness of this set of risk variables for predicting a contact granuloma remains to be proved in a prospective study. It is possible that not only the nature but the number of risk factors are the prime determinants of outcome. ..
  47. Svensson G, Schalen L, Fex S. Pathogenesis of idiopathic contact granuloma of the larynx. Results of a prospective clinical study. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 1988;449:123-5 pubmed
    ..The present results of a prospective study on possible etiological factors indicate that oesophageal disturbances are common in patients with contact granuloma but some other pathogenetic factors must also be considered. ..
  48. Brass L, White J. Granulomatous disease of the larynx. J La State Med Soc. 1991;143:11-4 pubmed
    ..Specific causes are most often of an infectious nature and include tuberculosis, syphilis, and fungal infections. Diagnosis and treatment of these entities are also addressed. ..
  49. Guttenplan M, Hendrix R, Townsend M, Balsara G. Laryngeal manifestations of gout. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1991;100:899-902 pubmed
    ..Tophi of the laryngeal soft tissues are exceedingly rare. In this paper we will discuss the pathophysiology and management of this interesting clinical entity. ..
  50. Mans E, Kühn A, Lamprecht Dinnesen A. [Psychosomatic findings in patients with contact granuloma--initial results]. HNO. 1992;40:346-51 pubmed
    ..In the personality structure of the patients, compulsive behavior was diagnosed most frequently while depressive features occurred to a lesser degree. Supportive and expressive psychotherapy was indicated in two thirds of the cases. ..
  51. Devaney K, Rinaldo A, Ferlito A. Vocal process granuloma of the larynx-recognition, differential diagnosis and treatment. Oral Oncol. 2005;41:666-9 pubmed
    ..While it may recur locally (particularly if the original inciting cause persists), vocal process granuloma has no premalignant potential. ..
  52. Hsiung M, Lin Y. Lateral thyrotomy with strap muscle transposition for Teflon granuloma. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2005;262:298-301 pubmed
  53. Krecicki T, Zalesska Krecicka M, Zatonski T, Jankowska R, Skrzydlewska Kaczmarek B. Laryngeal tuberculosis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004;4:57 pubmed