lymphadenitis

Summary

Summary: Inflammation of the lymph nodes.

Top Publications

  1. Zeharia A, Eidlitz Markus T, Haimi Cohen Y, Samra Z, Kaufman L, Amir J. Management of nontuberculous mycobacteria-induced cervical lymphadenitis with observation alone. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27:920-2 pubmed publisher
    Nontuberculous mycobacteria can cause a chronic localized cervicofacial lymphadenitis in immunocompetent children. The recommended treatment is total excision of the affected lymph node...
  2. Yoshihara T, Imamura T, Yokoi K, Shibata M, Kano G, Osone S, et al. Potential use of procalcitonin concentrations as a diagnostic marker of the PFAPA syndrome. Eur J Pediatr. 2007;166:621-2 pubmed
  3. Kato H, Kanematsu M, Kato Z, Teramoto T, Mizuta K, Aoki M, et al. Necrotic cervical nodes: usefulness of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in the differentiation of suppurative lymphadenitis from malignancy. Eur J Radiol. 2013;82:e28-35 pubmed publisher
    ..was to assess the efficacy of diffusion-weighted (DW) MR imaging for the differentiation between suppurative lymphadenitis and malignancy in necrotic cervical lymph nodes...
  4. Gattorno M, Caorsi R, Meini A, Cattalini M, Federici S, Zulian F, et al. Differentiating PFAPA syndrome from monogenic periodic fevers. Pediatrics. 2009;124:e721-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The Gaslini diagnostic score represents a useful tool to identify patients meeting PFAPA syndrome criteria and at low risk of carrying relevant mutations in genes associated with periodic fevers. ..
  5. Srinivasan R, Gupta N, Shifa R, Malhotra P, Rajwanshi A, Chakrabarti A. Cryptococcal lymphadenitis diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology: a review of 15 cases. Acta Cytol. 2010;54:1-4 pubmed
    ..Retrospective review of 15 cases of cryptococcal lymphadenitis diagnosed on FNAC between 1999 and 2007...
  6. Windsor P. Control of caseous lymphadenitis. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2011;27:193-202 pubmed publisher
    Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, is a significant cause of economic loss to the global sheep industries...
  7. Kusuhara K, Ohga S, Hoshina T, Saito M, Sasaki Y, Ishimura M, et al. Disseminated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin lymphadenitis in a patient with gp91phox- chronic granulomatous disease 25 years after vaccination. Eur J Pediatr. 2009;168:745-7 pubmed publisher
    A boy developed ipsilateral axillary lymphadenitis after Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) inoculation at the age of 5 months...
  8. Seyffert N, Guimaraes A, Pacheco L, Portela R, Bastos B, Dorella F, et al. High seroprevalence of caseous lymphadenitis in Brazilian goat herds revealed by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis secreted proteins-based ELISA. Res Vet Sci. 2010;88:50-5 pubmed publisher
    We conducted a seroepidemiological survey to determine the prevalence of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in goat herds in Minas Gerais state, Brazil...
  9. Santos A, Dias A, Cordeiro A, Cordinhã C, Lemos S, Rocha G, et al. Severe axillary lymphadenitis after BCG vaccination: alert for primary immunodeficiencies. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2010;43:530-7 pubmed publisher
    ..All had severe axillary lymphadenitis. These clinical cases underline the importance of considering the diagnosis of immunodeficiency in a child ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Rebouças M, Portela R, Lima D, Loureiro D, Bastos B, Moura Costa L, et al. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis secreted antigen-induced specific gamma-interferon production by peripheral blood leukocytes: potential diagnostic marker for caseous lymphadenitis in sheep and goats. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2011;23:213-20 pubmed
    ..for the detection of animals infected with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and for determining caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) clinical status was evaluated...
  2. Bastos B, Meyer R, Guimarães J, Ayres M, Guedes M, Moura Costa L, et al. Haptoglobin and fibrinogen concentrations and leukocyte counts in the clinical investigation of caseous lymphadenitis in sheep. Vet Clin Pathol. 2011;40:496-503 pubmed publisher
    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), a disease that affects small ruminants and is responsible for economic losses, including condemnation of carcasses and damaged hides.
  3. Ortega J, Uzal F, Walker R, Kinde H, Diab S, Shahriar F, et al. Zygomycotic lymphadenitis in slaughtered feedlot cattle. Vet Pathol. 2010;47:108-15 pubmed publisher
    During the 12 months of 2006, zygomycotic lymphadenitis was diagnosed in 194 of 198 feedlot steers (0.04% of cattle slaughtered during that period) in a California slaughterhouse as part of bovine tuberculosis surveillance...
  4. Moura Costa L, Bahia R, Carminati R, Vale V, Paule B, Portela R, et al. Evaluation of the humoral and cellular immune response to different antigens of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in Canindé goats and their potential protection against caseous lymphadenitis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2008;126:131-41 pubmed publisher
    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis, a disease that affects goats and sheep, and can cause severe economic losses...
  5. Tasher D, Stein M, Dalal I, Somekh E. Colchicine prophylaxis for frequent periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis episodes. Acta Paediatr. 2008;97:1090-2 pubmed publisher
    ..7 weeks to 8.4 weeks (p < 0.006). Only one patient had an abdominal pain that responded to dose adjustment. Colchicine prophylaxis may be beneficial for frequent PFAPA episodes. ..
  6. Fung H, Martyn C, Shahidi A, Brown S. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa lymphadenitis in an HIV-infected patient. Int J Infect Dis. 2009;13:e27-9 pubmed publisher
    We report a case of lymphadenitis due to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in a man with well-controlled HIV infection...
  7. Bukhari E, Alzahrani M, Alsubaie S, Alrabiaah A, Alzamil F. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin lymphadenitis: a 6-year experience in two Saudi hospitals. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2012;55:202-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the BCG vaccine is usually a safe vaccine, a number of complications with lymphadenitis being the most common complication, can occur...
  8. Cohen Y, Amir J, Ashkenazi S, Eidlitz Markus T, Samra Z, Kaufmann L, et al. Mycobacterium haemophilum and lymphadenitis in immunocompetent children, Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1437-9 pubmed publisher
    ..microbiology laboratory in Israel was searched to determine the prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis in immunocompetent children...
  9. Garavello W, Pignataro L, Gaini L, Torretta S, Somigliana E, Gaini R. Tonsillectomy in children with periodic fever with aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis syndrome. J Pediatr. 2011;159:138-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Available evidence is limited, however, and the precise role of surgery remains to be clarified. We suggest considering this option when symptoms markedly interfere with the child's quality of life and medical treatment has failed. ..
  10. Stojanov S, Lapidus S, Chitkara P, Feder H, Salazar J, Fleisher T, et al. Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) is a disorder of innate immunity and Th1 activation responsive to IL-1 blockade. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:7148-53 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-1 inhibition may thus be beneficial for treatment of PFAPA attacks, with IP-10/CXCL10 serving as a potential biomarker. ..
  11. Lindeboom J, Kuijper E, Prins J, Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet E, Lindeboom R. Tuberculin skin testing is useful in the screening for nontuberculous mycobacterial cervicofacial lymphadenitis in children. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:1547-51 pubmed
    ..We evaluated the diagnostic usefulness of tuberculin skin testing in the screening for nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection in children...
  12. Wong W, Upton A, Thomas M. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in immunocompetent adult patients with Toxoplasma gondii acute lymphadenitis. Scand J Infect Dis. 2013;45:357-61 pubmed publisher
    ..However there have not been any prospective, community-based studies of the neuropsychiatric effects of acute toxoplasmosis in adult immunocompetent patients...
  13. Psarommatis I, Vontas H, Gkoulioni V, Mihail Strantzia A, Bairamis T. Dermatopathic lymphadenitis imitating a deep neck space infection. Am J Otolaryngol. 2009;30:419-22 pubmed publisher
    Dermatopathic lymphadenitis (DL) represents a benign form of reactive lymph node hyperplasia. Symptoms attributed to DL alone are expected to be mild...
  14. Garavello W, Romagnoli M, Gaini R. Effectiveness of adenotonsillectomy in PFAPA syndrome: a randomized study. J Pediatr. 2009;155:250-3 pubmed publisher
    ..7 +/- 1.2 in the surgery group and 8.1 +/- 3.9 in the control group (P < .001). The episodes were less severe in the surgery group. Adenotonsillectomy is an effective treatment strategy for children with PFAPA syndrome. ..
  15. van Wyk A, Marais B, Warren R, Van Wyk S, Wright C. The use of light-emitting diode fluorescence to diagnose mycobacterial lymphadenitis in fine-needle aspirates from children. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2011;15:56-60 pubmed
    ..aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is a simple, safe and effective method for investigating suspected mycobacterial lymphadenitis in children. Fluorescence microscopy can provide rapid mycobacterial confirmation...
  16. Fournier P, El Karkouri K, Robert C, Medigue C, Raoult D. Complete genome sequence of Rickettsia slovaca, the agent of tick-borne lymphadenitis. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:1612 pubmed publisher
    ..The 1.27-Mb genome provides further insights into the acquisition of virulence related to genome reduction in Rickettsia species...
  17. Renko M, Salo E, Putto Laurila A, Saxen H, Mattila P, Luotonen J, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of tonsillectomy in periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis syndrome. J Pediatr. 2007;151:289-92 pubmed
    ..We conclude that although the mechanisms behind this syndrome are unknown, tonsillectomy can be offered as an effective intervention for children with PFAPA. ..
  18. Alrabiaah A, Alsubaie S, Bukhari E, Gad A, Alzamel F. Outbreak of Bacille Calmette-Guérin-related lymphadenitis in Saudi children at a university hospital after a change in the strain of vaccine. Ann Saudi Med. 2012;32:4-8 pubmed
    Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination is part of the expanded program of vaccination in Saudi Arabia. Lymphadenitis is the most common complication of the BCG vaccine...
  19. Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet L, de Haas P, Lindeboom J, Kuijper E, van Soolingen D. Lymphadenitis in children is caused by Mycobacterium avium hominissuis and not related to 'bird tuberculosis'. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008;27:293-9 pubmed publisher
    ..non-Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (nontuberculous mycobacteria) isolates worldwide and frequently causes lymphadenitis in children...
  20. Corti M, Villafañe M, Ambroggi M, Sawicki M, Gancedo E. Soft tissue abscess and lymphadenitis due to Mycobacterium avium complex as an expression of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after a second scheme of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2007;49:267-70 pubmed
    ..a case of a patient with AIDS which, after a first failure of HAART, developed a subcutaneous abscess and supraclavicular lymphadenitis as an expression of IRIS due to Mycobacterium avium complex after starting a second scheme of HAART.
  21. Baird G, Fontaine M. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and its role in ovine caseous lymphadenitis. J Comp Pathol. 2007;137:179-210 pubmed publisher
    Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) of sheep, caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, has been a significant disease in the majority of sheep-rearing regions for over a century...
  22. Feder H, Salazar J. A clinical review of 105 patients with PFAPA (a periodic fever syndrome). Acta Paediatr. 2010;99:178-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Individual febrile episodes usually resolve dramatically with oral prednisilone. The cause of PFAPA is unknown and research is needed to define its etiology. The overall prognosis for children with PFAPA is excellent. ..
  23. Tan D, Yong Y, Tan H, Kamarulzaman A, Tan L, Lim A, et al. Immunological profiles of immune restoration disease presenting as mycobacterial lymphadenitis and cryptococcal meningitis. HIV Med. 2008;9:307-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Cryptococcal and Mtb IRD generally coincide with peaks in the proportion of activated T-cells, pathogen-specific IFNgamma responses and reactive plasma IgG. IRD does not reflect a paucity of regulatory CD4 T-cells. ..
  24. Eckersall P, Lawson F, Bence L, Waterston M, Lang T, Donachie W, et al. Acute phase protein response in an experimental model of ovine caseous lymphadenitis. BMC Vet Res. 2007;3:35 pubmed
    Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a disease of small ruminants caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. The pathogenesis of CLA is a slow process, and produces a chronic rather than an acute disease state...
  25. Morales S, Breitschwerdt E, Washabau R, Matise I, Maggi R, Duncan A. Detection of Bartonella henselae DNA in two dogs with pyogranulomatous lymphadenitis. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007;230:681-5 pubmed
    ..Histologic examination of excisional biopsy specimens from lymph nodes revealed pyogranulomatous lymphadenitis in both dogs...
  26. Tahir M, Sharma S, Sinha S, Das C. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in a patient with cryptococcal lymphadenitis as the first presentation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Postgrad Med. 2007;53:250-2 pubmed
    ..IRIS in a young man with unknown human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status who presented with cryptococcal lymphadenitis as the first manifestation of AIDS...
  27. Song J, Cheong H, Kee S, Lee J, Sohn J, Kim M, et al. Disease spectrum of cervical lymphadenitis: analysis based on ultrasound-guided core-needle gun biopsy. J Infect. 2007;55:310-6 pubmed
    ..We are evaluating the disease spectrum of cervical lymphadenitis in the outpatient setting...
  28. Mustafa T, Wiker H, Mfinanga S, Mørkve O, Sviland L. Immunohistochemistry using a Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex specific antibody for improved diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis. Mod Pathol. 2006;19:1606-14 pubmed
    The clinical and histological criteria used to diagnose lymphadenitis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms have poor specificity. Acid-fast staining and culture has low sensitivity and specificity...
  29. Guimarães A, Carmo F, Heinemann M, Portela R, Meyer R, Lage A, et al. High sero-prevalence of caseous lymphadenitis identified in slaughterhouse samples as a consequence of deficiencies in sheep farm management in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. BMC Vet Res. 2011;7:68 pubmed publisher
    Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, is one of the most important diseases of sheep and goats, causing considerable economic losses for herd owners. We assessed the seroprevalence of infection with C...
  30. Kandemir B, Erayman I, Bitirgen M, Aribas E, Guler S. Tularemia presenting with tonsillopharyngitis and cervical lymphadenitis: report of two cases. Scand J Infect Dis. 2007;39:620-2 pubmed
    ..In this report we describe 2 cases with oropharyngeal tularemia who presented with tonsillopharyngitis and cervical lymphadenitis.
  31. Connor K, Quirie M, Baird G, Donachie W. Characterization of United Kingdom isolates of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:2633-7 pubmed
    Caseous lymphadenitis is a chronic suppurative disease caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and is responsible for serious economic losses to the sheep and goat industry...
  32. Mfinanga S, Morkve O, Kazwala R, Cleaveland S, Sharp M, Kunda J, et al. Mycobacterial adenitis: role of Mycobacterium bovis, non-tuberculous mycobacteria, HIV infection, and risk factors in Arusha, Tanzania. East Afr Med J. 2004;81:171-8 pubmed
    ..tuberculosis (50% and 40% of the cases, respectively). HIV infection and raw animal products are among the risk factors identified for M. bovis and non-tuberculous mycobacterial adenitis. ..
  33. Phillips P, Kwiatkowski M, Copland M, Craib K, Montaner J. Mycobacterial lymphadenitis associated with the initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1999;20:122-8 pubmed
    ..the impact of combination antiretroviral therapy on the clinical and laboratory features of mycobacterial lymphadenitis, we conducted a retrospective chart review of HIV-related mycobacterial lymphadenitis at St...
  34. Haimi Cohen Y, Zeharia A, Mimouni M, Soukhman M, Amir J. Skin indurations in response to tuberculin testing in patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33:1786-8 pubmed
    Mantoux results were examined for 29 children with culture-proven nontuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis, and 4 species were isolated: Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (from 14 patients [48%]), Mycobacterium haemophilum (..
  35. Parikh S, Reiter E, Kenna M, Roberson D. Utility of tonsillectomy in 2 patients with the syndrome of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003;129:670-3 pubmed
    ..Although a larger series of patients is required, our initial experience suggests that tonsillectomy is not always beneficial for patients with PFAPA syndrome. ..
  36. Fontaine M, Baird G, Connor K, Rudge K, Sales J, Donachie W. Vaccination confers significant protection of sheep against infection with a virulent United Kingdom strain of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Vaccine. 2006;24:5986-96 pubmed
    ..a virulent United Kingdom Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolate, an ovine experimental model of caseous lymphadenitis was developed, in which the manifestation of disease was equivalent to the naturally observed infection in ..
  37. Shonubi A, Akiode O, Salami B, Musa A, Ntele L. A preliminary report of fine-needle aspiration biopsy in superficially accessible lesions in children. West Afr J Med. 2004;23:221-3 pubmed
    ..malignant diseases (lymphoma and osteosarcoma); seven had tuberculous lymphadenopathy while four had reactive lymphadenitis. Open biopsies corroborated these findings...
  38. Palca A, Aebi C, Weimann R, Bodmer T. Mycobacterium bohemicum cervical lymphadenitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002;21:982-4 pubmed
    ..Histology revealed granulomatous, partly necrotizing lymphadenitis and a large number of acid-fast bacilli subsequently identified by molecular techniques as Mycobacterium ..
  39. Baskota D, Prasad R, Sinha B, Amatya R. Frequency and effective treatment of ulcers and sinuses in cases of tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2005;15:157-9 pubmed
    To investigate the frequency and effective treatment of ulcers and sinuses in cases of tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis (TCL). Observational cross-sectional study...
  40. Ben Saïd M, Ben Maitigue H, Benzarti M, Messadi L, Rejeb A, Amara A. [Epidemiological and clinical studies of ovine caseous lymphadenitis]. Arch Inst Pasteur Tunis. 2002;79:51-7 pubmed
    A field survey was undertaken, to determine epidemiological, clinical and biological data on Ovine Caseous Lymphadenitis disease in 54 flocks originated from Sfax area in Tunisia. The mean morbidity rate of the cutaneous form was 5.1%...
  41. Arikan O, Koc C, Bozdogan O. Tularemia presenting as tonsillopharyngitis and cervical lymphadenitis: a case report and review of the literature. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2003;260:298-300 pubmed
    ..describe a 57-year-old woman with oropharyngeal tularemia who presented with tonsillopharyngitis and cervical lymphadenitis. Clinical and radiological manifestations and histopathological characteristics of this disease are discussed ..
  42. Binns S, Bailey M, Green L. Postal survey of ovine caseous lymphadenitis in the United Kingdom between 1990 and 1999. Vet Rec. 2002;150:263-8 pubmed
    ..breed societies (A, B and C) were surveyed to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of ovine caseous lymphadenitis in the UK. In total, 264 veterinary surgeons and 510 farmers responded...
  43. Kotb R, Dhote R, Garcia Ricart F, Permal S, Carlotti A, Arfi C, et al. Cutaneous and mediastinal lymphadenitis due to Mycobacterium kansasii. J Infect. 2001;42:277-8 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, no case of Mycobacterium kansasii infection or skin infection associated with additional organ involvement in an immunocompetent patient has been reported...
  44. Reichler I, Hauser B, Schiller I, Dunstan R, Credille K, Binder H, et al. Sebaceous adenitis in the Akita: clinical observations, histopathology and heredity. Vet Dermatol. 2001;12:243-53 pubmed
    ..An autosomal recessive inheritance appears to be possible. Apart from a genetic background, immune-mediated factors possibly influence the onset and course of sebaceous adenitis. ..
  45. Serour F, Gorenstein A, Somekh E. Needle aspiration for suppurative cervical lymphadenitis. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2002;41:471-4 pubmed
    In a 10-year prospective study, we used needle aspiration as the treatment of suppurative cervical lymphadenitis that required drainage procedure in 35 consecutive children aged 4 months to 13 years (mean 2.2 years)...
  46. Khawcharoenporn T, Apisarnthanarak A, Sakonlaya D, Mundy L, Bailey T. Dual infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Pneumocystis jiroveci Lymphadenitis in a Patient with HIV infection: case report and review of the literature. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2006;20:1-5 pubmed
    We report a case of dual Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) and Pneumocystis jiroveci (carinii) (PCP) lymphadenitis in a patient with HIV who had been receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) as systemic prophylaxis for PCP...
  47. Pahlitzsch R, Hammarin A, Widell A. A case of facial cellulitis and necrotizing lymphadenitis due to cowpox virus infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:737-42 pubmed
    ..cellulitis of the face, the clinical course was dominated by several areas of subcutaneous, necrotizing lymphadenitis, from one of which a huge abscess formed that had to be incised...
  48. Galanakis E, Papadakis C, Giannoussi E, Karatzanis A, Bitsori M, Helidonis E. PFAPA syndrome in children evaluated for tonsillectomy. Arch Dis Child. 2002;86:434-5 pubmed
    ..All children had been well between episodes and showed a dramatic postoperative improvement. PFAPA syndrome is not uncommon among children having tonsillectomy. Tonsillectomy is curative in most of these patients. ..
  49. Arseculeratne S, Panabokke R, Atapattu D. Lymphadenitis, trans-epidermal elimination and unusual histopathology in human rhinosporidiosis. Mycopathologia. 2002;153:57-69 pubmed
    ..Histopathological evidence of lymphadenitis in rhinosporidiosis is presented for the first time...
  50. Arsenault J, Girard C, Dubreuil P, Daignault D, Galarneau J, Boisclair J, et al. Prevalence of and carcass condemnation from maedi-visna, paratuberculosis and caseous lymphadenitis in culled sheep from Quebec, Canada. Prev Vet Med. 2003;59:67-81 pubmed
    ..infection, the prevalence of paratuberculosis (PTB), and the prevalence and lesions distribution of caseous lymphadenitis (CL) in culled sheep...
  51. Bruijnesteijn Van Coppenraet E, Lindeboom J, Prins J, Peeters M, Claas E, Kuijper E. Real-time PCR assay using fine-needle aspirates and tissue biopsy specimens for rapid diagnosis of mycobacterial lymphadenitis in children. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:2644-50 pubmed
    A real-time PCR assay was developed to diagnose and identify the causative agents of suspected mycobacterial lymphadenitis. Primers and probes for the real-time PCR were designed on the basis of the internal transcribed spacer sequence, ..
  52. Stojanov S, Hoffmann F, Kéry A, Renner E, Hartl D, Lohse P, et al. Cytokine profile in PFAPA syndrome suggests continuous inflammation and reduced anti-inflammatory response. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2006;17:90-7 pubmed
  53. Lindeboom J, Prins J, Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet E, Lindeboom R, Kuijper E. Cervicofacial lymphadenitis in children caused by Mycobacterium haemophilum. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41:1569-75 pubmed
    Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) lymphadenitis in children is most often caused by Mycobacterium avium. In a prospective, multicenter trial of the optimal treatment, 23...