lymphatic vessels

Summary

Summary: Tubular vessels that are involved in the transport of LYMPH and LYMPHOCYTES.

Top Publications

  1. Tammela T, Alitalo K. Lymphangiogenesis: Molecular mechanisms and future promise. Cell. 2010;140:460-76 pubmed publisher
    The growth of lymphatic vessels (lymphangiogenesis) is actively involved in a number of pathological processes including tissue inflammation and tumor dissemination but is insufficient in patients suffering from lymphedema, a ..
  2. Liao S, Cheng G, Conner D, Huang Y, Kucherlapati R, Munn L, et al. Impaired lymphatic contraction associated with immunosuppression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:18784-9 pubmed publisher
    ..an effective immune response, antigen and antigen-presenting cells travel to the lymph nodes via collecting lymphatic vessels. However, our understanding of the regulation of collecting lymphatic vessel function and lymph transport is ..
  3. Albuquerque R, Hayashi T, Cho W, Kleinman M, Dridi S, Takeda A, et al. Alternatively spliced vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 is an essential endogenous inhibitor of lymphatic vessel growth. Nat Med. 2009;15:1023-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Naturally occurring sVegfr-2 thus acts as a molecular uncoupler of blood and lymphatic vessels; modulation of sVegfr-2 might have therapeutic effects in treating lymphatic vascular malformations, ..
  4. Wilting J, Becker J, Buttler K, Weich H. Lymphatics and inflammation. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16:4581-92 pubmed
    ..Therefore, blood vessels have been in the focus of inflammation research for quite some time, whereas lymphatic vessels have been neglected...
  5. Scallan J, Davis M. Genetic removal of basal nitric oxide enhances contractile activity in isolated murine collecting lymphatic vessels. J Physiol. 2013;591:2139-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested both hypotheses directly by isolating and cannulating collecting lymphatic vessels from genetically modified mice for ex vivo study...
  6. Yamashita M, Mouri T, Niisato M, Kowada K, Kobayashi H, Chiba R, et al. Heterogeneous characteristics of lymphatic microvasculatures associated with pulmonary sarcoid granulomas. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2013;10:90-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Currently, limited information is available about lymphangiogenesis in pulmonary sarcoidosis...
  7. Lim H, Thiam C, Yeo K, Bisoendial R, Hii C, McGrath K, et al. Lymphatic vessels are essential for the removal of cholesterol from peripheral tissues by SR-BI-mediated transport of HDL. Cell Metab. 2013;17:671-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, obstruction of lymphatic vessels in wild-type mice significantly impairs RCT...
  8. Planas Paz L, Lammert E. Mechanosensing in developing lymphatic vessels. Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol. 2014;214:23-40 pubmed publisher
    ..It is composed of a network of lymphatic capillaries that drain into collecting lymphatic vessels and ultimately bring fluid back to the blood circulation...
  9. Zhao Y, Ni X, Li Y, Dai M, Yuan Z, Zhu Y, et al. Peritumoral lymphangiogenesis induced by vascular endothelial growth factor C and D promotes lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients. World J Surg Oncol. 2012;10:165 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications101 found, 100 shown here

  1. Bazigou E, Makinen T. Flow control in our vessels: vascular valves make sure there is no way back. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2013;70:1055-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In the lymphatic vessels, lack of luminal valves causes reflux of lymph and can lead to lymphedema, while dysfunction of venous ..
  2. Li J, Ju Y, Bouta E, Xing L, Wood R, Kuzin I, et al. Efficacy of B cell depletion therapy for murine joint arthritis flare is associated with increased lymphatic flow. Arthritis Rheum. 2013;65:130-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to examine whether the efficacy of B cell depletion therapy is associated with restoration of lymphatic drainage due to removal of obstructing nodal B cells...
  3. Lu Q, DelProposto Z, Hu A, Tran C, Liu N, Li Y, et al. MR lymphography of lymphatic vessels in lower extremity with gynecologic oncology-related lymphedema. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50319 pubmed publisher
    ..To characterize lymphatic vessel morphology in lower extremity lymphedema using MR lymphography at 3T...
  4. Li L, Mori S, Sakamoto M, Takahashi S, Kodama T. Mouse model of lymph node metastasis via afferent lymphatic vessels for development of imaging modalities. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55797 pubmed publisher
    ..these challenges, this study has developed a mouse model of inter-lymph-node metastasis via afferent lymphatic vessels for use in the development of imaging modalities...
  5. Raica M, Cimpean A, Ceausu R, Ribatti D, Gaje P. Interplay between mast cells and lymphatic vessels in different molecular types of breast cancer. Anticancer Res. 2013;33:957-63 pubmed
    ..classification of breast tumors by immunohistochemistry was followed by the detection of mast cells and lymphatic vessels on the same slide by immunohistochemical double-stain method, using the lymphatic endothelial cell marker D2-..
  6. Martel C, Li W, Fulp B, Platt A, Gautier E, Westerterp M, et al. Lymphatic vasculature mediates macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in mice. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:1571-9 pubmed publisher
    ..track RCT following injection of [3H]-cholesterol-loaded macrophages upstream of blocked or absent lymphatic vessels. Macrophage RCT was markedly impaired in both models, even at sites with a leaky vasculature...
  7. Iolyeva M, Aebischer D, Proulx S, Willrodt A, Ecoiffier T, Häner S, et al. Interleukin-7 is produced by afferent lymphatic vessels and supports lymphatic drainage. Blood. 2013;122:2271-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas in IL-7R?(-/-) mice, dermal lymphatic vessels (LVs) were abnormally organized and lymphatic drainage was compromised, transgenic overexpression of IL-7 in ..
  8. Sleeman J, Thiele W. Tumor metastasis and the lymphatic vasculature. Int J Cancer. 2009;125:2747-56 pubmed publisher
    Tumor-associated lymphatic vessels act as a conduit by which disseminating tumor cells access regional lymph nodes and form metastases there...
  9. Xu Y, Yuan L, Mak J, Pardanaud L, Caunt M, Kasman I, et al. Neuropilin-2 mediates VEGF-C-induced lymphatic sprouting together with VEGFR3. J Cell Biol. 2010;188:115-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, interaction between Nrp2 and VEGFR3 mediates proper lymphatic vessel sprouting in response to VEGF-C. ..
  10. Avraham T, Daluvoy S, Zampell J, Yan A, Haviv Y, Rockson S, et al. Blockade of transforming growth factor-beta1 accelerates lymphatic regeneration during wound repair. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:3202-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of these strategies may represent a novel means of preventing lymphedema after lymph node resection. ..
  11. Yamamoto T, Narushima M, Kikuchi K, Yoshimatsu H, Todokoro T, Mihara M, et al. Lambda-shaped anastomosis with intravascular stenting method for safe and effective lymphaticovenular anastomosis. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;127:1987-92 pubmed publisher
    ..A positive correlation between the number of lymphaticovenular anastomoses performed and therapeutic efficacy has been reported, and in performing these anastomoses, the establishment of as many bypasses as possible is important...
  12. Tanaka H, Zaima N, Sasaki T, Yamamoto N, Sano M, Konno H, et al. Loss of lymphatic vessels and regional lipid accumulation is associated with great saphenous vein incompetence. J Vasc Surg. 2012;55:1440-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Triglyceride was found only in VV adventitia. The number of lymphatic vessels, as measured by staining with D2-40, a lymphatic vessel-specific marker, was significantly lower in the VV ..
  13. Chen C, Bertozzi C, Zou Z, Yuan L, Lee J, Lu M, et al. Blood flow reprograms lymphatic vessels to blood vessels. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:2006-17 pubmed publisher
    ..protein of 76 kDa (SLP76) resulted in a vascular malformation that directed blood flow through mesenteric lymphatic vessels after birth in mice...
  14. Deguchi T, Fujimori K, Kawasaki T, Maruyama K, Yuba S. In vivo visualization of the lymphatic vessels in pFLT4-EGFP transgenic medaka. Genesis. 2012;50:625-34 pubmed publisher
    Feline McDonough Sarcoma (FMS)-like tyrosine kinase 4 (FLT4) is a marker for lymphatic vessels and some high endothelial venules in human adult tissues...
  15. Lim H, Rutkowski J, Helft J, Reddy S, Swartz M, Randolph G, et al. Hypercholesterolemic mice exhibit lymphatic vessel dysfunction and degeneration. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:1328-37 pubmed publisher
    b>Lymphatic vessels are essential for lipid absorption and transport...
  16. Yao L, Baluk P, Feng J, McDonald D. Steroid-resistant lymphatic remodeling in chronically inflamed mouse airways. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:1525-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that lymphatic remodeling that persists after the initial inflammatory response has resolved may influence subsequent inflammatory episodes in clinical situations. ..
  17. Böhmer R, Neuhaus B, Bühren S, Zhang D, Stehling M, Böck B, et al. Regulation of developmental lymphangiogenesis by Syk(+) leukocytes. Dev Cell. 2010;18:437-49 pubmed publisher
    b>Lymphatic vessels are essential for tissue homeostasis and immune surveillance and contribute to pathological conditions...
  18. Hou W, Liua I, Huang S, Huang J. CRSBP-1/LYVE-1 ligands stimulate contraction of the CRSBP-1-associated ER network in lymphatic endothelial cells. FEBS Lett. 2012;586:1480-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that ligand-stimulated ER contraction is associated with ligand-stimulated contraction in LECs. ..
  19. Jurisic G, Iolyeva M, Proulx S, Halin C, Detmar M. Thymus cell antigen 1 (Thy1, CD90) is expressed by lymphatic vessels and mediates cell adhesion to lymphatic endothelium. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316:2982-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Thy1 was also strongly expressed by tumor-associated lymphatic vessels, as evaluated in a B16 melanoma footpad model in mice...
  20. Gjini E, Hekking L, Küchler A, Saharinen P, Wienholds E, Post J, et al. Zebrafish Tie-2 shares a redundant role with Tie-1 in heart development and regulates vessel integrity. Dis Model Mech. 2011;4:57-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study introduces an additional vertebrate model to study in vivo the function of Tie-2 in development and disease. ..
  21. Thangaswamy S, Bridenbaugh E, Gashev A. Evidence of increased oxidative stress in aged mesenteric lymphatic vessels. Lymphat Res Biol. 2012;10:53-62 pubmed publisher
  22. Attout T, Hoerauf A, Denece G, Debrah A, Marfo Debrekyei Y, Boussinesq M, et al. Lymphatic vascularisation and involvement of Lyve-1+ macrophages in the human onchocerca nodule. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8234 pubmed publisher
    ..of macrophages were found to be positive for Lyve-1 and some were integrated into the endothelium of the lymphatic vessels, revealing their plasticity in the nodular micro-environment...
  23. Zhou F, Chang Z, Zhang L, Hong Y, Shen B, Wang B, et al. Akt/Protein kinase B is required for lymphatic network formation, remodeling, and valve development. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:2124-33 pubmed publisher
    ..There was an uncharacteristic enlargement of collecting lymphatic vessels, and further analysis showed that smooth muscle cell coverage of collecting lymphatic vessels became much ..
  24. Wang Y, Oliver G. Current views on the function of the lymphatic vasculature in health and disease. Genes Dev. 2010;24:2115-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we summarize the functional roles of the lymphatic vasculature in health and disease. ..
  25. Nakao S, Zandi S, Hata Y, Kawahara S, Arita R, Schering A, et al. Blood vessel endothelial VEGFR-2 delays lymphangiogenesis: an endogenous trapping mechanism links lymph- and angiogenesis. Blood. 2011;117:1081-90 pubmed publisher
    Angio- and lymphangiogenesis are inherently related processes. However, how blood and lymphatic vessels regulate each other is unknown...
  26. Lu Q, Bui D, Liu N, Xu J, Zhao X, Zhang X. Magnetic resonance lymphography at 3T: a promising noninvasive approach to characterise inguinal lymphatic vessel leakage. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2012;43:106-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence or absence of inguinal LVL and the responsible lymphatic vessels were determined using the above imaging modalities and confirmed by surgical procedure...
  27. Meinecke A, Nagy N, Lago G, Kirmse S, Klose R, Schrödter K, et al. Aberrant mural cell recruitment to lymphatic vessels and impaired lymphatic drainage in a murine model of pulmonary fibrosis. Blood. 2012;119:5931-42 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Lymphatic vessels have been implicated with the development of pulmonary fibrosis, but the role of the lymphatic vasculature ..
  28. Volchek M, Girling J, Lash G, Cann L, Kumar B, Robson S, et al. Lymphatics in the human endometrium disappear during decidualization. Hum Reprod. 2010;25:2455-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to describe the distribution of lymphatic vessels in human decidua, with particular focus on the lymphatics that surround remodelling spiral arteries during ..
  29. Sawane M, Kidoya H, Muramatsu F, Takakura N, Kajiya K. Apelin attenuates UVB-induced edema and inflammation by promoting vessel function. Am J Pathol. 2011;179:2691-7 pubmed publisher
    ..endothelial cells mediates APJ regulation of blood vessel caliber size; however, the function of apelin in lymphatic vessels is unclear...
  30. Mackenzie C, Huntington M, Wanji S, Lovato R, Eversole R, Geary T. The association of adult Onchocerca volvulus with lymphatic vessels. J Parasitol. 2010;96:219-21 pubmed publisher
    ..of onchocercal nodule tissues containing adult Onchocerca volvulus using immuno-markers for blood and lymphatic vessels (vWF, D2-40, podoplanin, Prox-1, and Lyve1) shows a distinct pattern of distribution of these vessels within ..
  31. Wang X, Fang J, Tang R, Chen X. Different significance between intratumoral and peritumoral lymphatic vessel density in gastric cancer: a retrospective study of 123 cases. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:299 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased P-LVD, but not I-LVD, was significantly associated with VEGF-C/-D/VEGFR-3 system, and could be an independent risk factor for lymph node metastasis and a prognostic factor in gastric cancer. ..
  32. Dixon J. Lymphatic lipid transport: sewer or subway?. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2010;21:480-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This review highlights these recent findings, and suggests future directions for understanding the interplay between lymphatic and lipid biology in health and disease. ..
  33. Gordon E, Rao S, Pollard J, Nutt S, Lang R, Harvey N. Macrophages define dermal lymphatic vessel calibre during development by regulating lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation. Development. 2010;137:3899-910 pubmed publisher
    ..via the ability to transdifferentiate into lymphatic endothelial cells and be incorporated into growing lymphatic vessels; and (2) providing a crucial source of pro-lymphangiogenic growth factors and proteases...
  34. Ichise T, Yoshida N, Ichise H. H-, N- and Kras cooperatively regulate lymphatic vessel growth by modulating VEGFR3 expression in lymphatic endothelial cells in mice. Development. 2010;137:1003-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate a cooperative function of the three Ras proteins in normal development, and also provide a novel aspect of VEGFR3 signalling modulated by Ras in lymphangiogenesis. ..
  35. Huggenberger R, Siddiqui S, Brander D, Ullmann S, Zimmermann K, Antsiferova M, et al. An important role of lymphatic vessel activation in limiting acute inflammation. Blood. 2011;117:4667-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These mice have an expanded network of cutaneous lymphatic vessels. Transgenic delivery of the lymphangiogenic factors VEGF-C and the VEGFR-3 specific ligand mouse VEGF-D ..
  36. McDonald D, Yao L, Baluk P. Dynamics of airway blood vessels and lymphatics: lessons from development and inflammation. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2011;8:504-7 pubmed publisher
    Blood vessels and lymphatic vessels in the respiratory tract play key roles in inflammation...
  37. Manetti M, Milia A, Guiducci S, Romano E, Matucci Cerinic M, Ibba Manneschi L. Progressive loss of lymphatic vessels in skin of patients with systemic sclerosis. J Rheumatol. 2011;38:297-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim was to evaluate dermal lymphatic vessels in patients with SSc according to different phases of skin involvement...
  38. Sadeghpour M, Antaya R, Lazova R, Ko C. Dilated lymphatic vessels in tufted angioma: a potential source of diagnostic confusion. Am J Dermatopathol. 2012;34:400-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of lymphatic vessels suggestive of lymphangioma can occasionally be the predominant finding and cause diagnostic confusion...
  39. Anagnostou V, Tiniakos D, Fotinou M, Achimastos A, Syrigos K. Multiplexed analysis of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis factors predicts outcome for non-small cell lung cancer patients. Virchows Arch. 2011;458:331-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Angiogenic and lymphangiogenic biomarkers studied define subgroups of patients at high risk and may be useful for prognostic stratification of NSCLC patients especially those with early stage disease. ..
  40. Lee K, Park D, Choe G, Kim H, Kim W, Lee H. Increased intratumoral lymphatic vessel density correlates with lymph node metastasis in early gastric carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010;17:73-80 pubmed publisher
    ..022). Intratumoral LVD may be a useful, independent predictor for lymph node metastasis, especially in combination with previously established predictors in EGC. ..
  41. Larrieu Lahargue F, Welm A, Thomas K, Li D. Netrin-4 activates endothelial integrin {alpha}6{beta}1. Circ Res. 2011;109:770-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The ?6?1 integrin is a netrin-4 receptor in lymphatic endothelium and consequently represents a potential target to inhibit netrin-4-induced metastatic dissemination. ..
  42. Tal O, Lim H, Gurevich I, Milo I, Shipony Z, Ng L, et al. DC mobilization from the skin requires docking to immobilized CCL21 on lymphatic endothelium and intralymphatic crawling. J Exp Med. 2011;208:2141-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Intralymphatic crawling, in which DCs combine active adhesion-based migration and directional cues from lymph flow, represents a new step in DC mobilization which may be amenable to regulation. ..
  43. Hermans K, Claes F, Vandevelde W, Zheng W, Geudens I, Orsenigo F, et al. Role of synectin in lymphatic development in zebrafish and frogs. Blood. 2010;116:3356-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a novel role for synectin in lymphatic development...
  44. Zhang H, Hu X, Tse J, Tilahun F, Qiu M, Chen L. Spontaneous lymphatic vessel formation and regression in the murine cornea. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:334-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The data demonstrated, for the first time, that mouse cornea was endowed with a significant number of lymphatic vessels that underwent spontaneous formation and regression during a critical period after birth, which was not ..
  45. Kataru R, Kim H, Jang C, Choi D, Koh B, Kim M, et al. T lymphocytes negatively regulate lymph node lymphatic vessel formation. Immunity. 2011;34:96-107 pubmed publisher
    Lymph node lymphatic vessels (LNLVs) serve as a conduit to drain antigens from peripheral tissues to within the lymph nodes...
  46. Quarta L, Corrado A, D Onofrio F, Maruotti N, Cantatore F. Two cases of distal extremity swelling with pitting oedema in psoriatic arthritis: the different pathological mechanisms. Rheumatol Int. 2010;30:1367-70 pubmed publisher
    ..mechanisms: on one hand, the involvement of tenosynovial structures; on the other hand, the involvement of lymphatic vessels, which may be rarely implicated by the inflammatory process...
  47. Gou H, Chen X, Zhu J, Jiang M, Yang Y, Cao D, et al. Expressions of COX-2 and VEGF-C in gastric cancer: correlations with lymphangiogenesis and prognostic implications. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2011;30:14 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aims to test the expression of COX-2 and VEGF-C in human gastric cancer, and to analyze the correlation with lymphatic vessel density (LVD), clinicopathologic features and survival prognosis...
  48. Yuen D, Pytowski B, Chen L. Combined blockade of VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 inhibits inflammatory lymphangiogenesis in early and middle stages. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:2593-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a time window for therapeutic intervention of corneal LG and whether a combined blockade of VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 effectively suppresses early-, middle-, or late-stage LG...
  49. Yamamoto T, Narushima M, Doi K, Oshima A, Ogata F, Mihara M, et al. Characteristic indocyanine green lymphography findings in lower extremity lymphedema: the generation of a novel lymphedema severity staging system using dermal backflow patterns. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;127:1979-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to describe, analyze, and classify characteristic indocyanine green lymphography findings to uniformly guide surgical management of lymphedema using this modality...
  50. Zheng Y, Lin H, Ling S. Clinicopathological correlation analysis of (lymph) angiogenesis and corneal graft rejection. Mol Vis. 2011;17:1694-700 pubmed
    ..To investigate the relationship of (lymph) angiogenesis and survival time of human cornea grafts...
  51. Sapoznik S, Cohen B, Tzuman Y, Meir G, Ben Dor S, Harmelin A, et al. Gonadotropin-regulated lymphangiogenesis in ovarian cancer is mediated by LEDGF-induced expression of VEGF-C. Cancer Res. 2009;69:9306-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our data suggest a possible role for elevated gonadotropins in augmenting ovarian tumor lymphangiogenesis in postmenopausal women...
  52. Bertozzi C, Schmaier A, Mericko P, Hess P, Zou Z, Chen M, et al. Platelets regulate lymphatic vascular development through CLEC-2-SLP-76 signaling. Blood. 2010;116:661-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies identify a nonhemostatic pathway in which platelet CLEC-2 receptors bind lymphatic endothelial PDPN and activate SLP-76 signaling to regulate embryonic vascular development...
  53. Hardavella G, Tzortzaki E, Siozopoulou V, Galanis P, Vlachaki E, Avgousti M, et al. Lymphangiogenesis in COPD: another link in the pathogenesis of the disease. Respir Med. 2012;106:687-93 pubmed publisher
    New lymphatic vessels are associated with tissue injury and repair. Recent studies have shown increased lymphatic follicles formation in the lungs of COPD patients...
  54. Zhou J, Zhu X, Chen M, Sun Y, Li F. Water-stable NaLuF4-based upconversion nanophosphors with long-term validity for multimodal lymphatic imaging. Biomaterials. 2012;33:6201-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, Lu-UCNPs could be multimodal agents for CT/MR/UCL imaging, and the concept can be served as a platform technology for the next-generation of probes for multimodal imaging...
  55. Scallan J, Huxley V. In vivo determination of collecting lymphatic vessel permeability to albumin: a role for lymphatics in exchange. J Physiol. 2010;588:243-54 pubmed publisher
    ..and solute homeostasis, we assessed permeability to rat serum albumin (P(RSA)(s)) in mesenteric collecting lymphatic vessels and venules of juvenile male rats...
  56. Francesco B, Corrado C, Giuseppe M, Emanuela B, Chiara B, Francesco P, et al. Prevention of lymphatic injuries in surgery. Microsurgery. 2010;30:261-5 pubmed publisher
  57. Pan W, le Roux C, Levy S, Briggs C. The morphology of the human lymphatic vessels in the head and neck. Clin Anat. 2010;23:654-61 pubmed publisher
    Previously little has been written about the morphology of the human lymphatic vessels since Sappey (Sappey [1874] Anatomie, Physiologie, Pathologie des Vaisseaux Lymphatiques, Paris: Adrien Delahaye) over 100 years ago...
  58. Muniz L, Pacer M, Lira S, Furtado G. A critical role for dendritic cells in the formation of lymphatic vessels within tertiary lymphoid structures. J Immunol. 2011;187:828-34 pubmed publisher
    Ectopic, or tertiary, lymphoid aggregates often form in chronically inflamed areas. Lymphatic vessels, as well as high endothelial venules, form within these lymphoid aggregates, but the mechanisms underlying their development are poorly ..
  59. Braun A, Worbs T, Moschovakis G, Halle S, Hoffmann K, Bölter J, et al. Afferent lymph-derived T cells and DCs use different chemokine receptor CCR7-dependent routes for entry into the lymph node and intranodal migration. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:879-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide insight into the molecular and structural requirements for the entry into lymph nodes and intranodal migration of lymph-derived cells of the immune system...
  60. Uhrin P, Zaujec J, Breuss J, Olcaydu D, Chrenek P, Stockinger H, et al. Novel function for blood platelets and podoplanin in developmental separation of blood and lymphatic circulation. Blood. 2010;115:3997-4005 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, interaction of endothelial podoplanin of the developing lymph sac with circulating platelets from the cardinal vein is critical for separating the lymphatic from the blood vascular system...
  61. Fujita G, Sato S, Kishino M, Iwai S, Nakazawa M, Toyosawa S, et al. Lymphatic vessels and related factors in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary gland. Mod Pathol. 2011;24:885-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, lymphangiogenesis in adenoid cystic carcinoma was evaluated from the number of lymphatic vessels and the expression of lymphangiogenic factors...
  62. Blumgart E, Uren R, Nielsen P, Nash M, Reynolds H. Predicting lymphatic drainage patterns and primary tumour location in patients with breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;130:699-705 pubmed publisher
  63. Martínez Corral I, Olmeda D, Diéguez Hurtado R, Tammela T, Alitalo K, Ortega S. In vivo imaging of lymphatic vessels in development, wound healing, inflammation, and tumor metastasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:6223-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first reporter mouse model for luminescence imaging of lymphangiogenesis. It should provide an important tool for studying the involvement of lymphangiogenesis in pathological processes...
  64. Bazigou E, Xie S, Chen C, Weston A, Miura N, Sorokin L, et al. Integrin-alpha9 is required for fibronectin matrix assembly during lymphatic valve morphogenesis. Dev Cell. 2009;17:175-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal an important role for integrin-alpha9 signaling during lymphatic valve morphogenesis and implicate it as a candidate gene for primary lymphedema caused by valve defects...
  65. Yucel Y, Johnston M, Ly T, Patel M, Drake B, Gümüş E, et al. Identification of lymphatics in the ciliary body of the human eye: a novel "uveolymphatic" outflow pathway. Exp Eye Res. 2009;89:810-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In keeping with the criteria for lymphatic vessels in conjunctiva used as positive control, D2-40 and LYVE-1-positive lymphatic channels in the ciliary body ..
  66. Zhou Q, Wood R, Schwarz E, Wang Y, Xing L. Near-infrared lymphatic imaging demonstrates the dynamics of lymph flow and lymphangiogenesis during the acute versus chronic phases of arthritis in mice. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:1881-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To develop an in vivo imaging method to assess lymphatic draining function in the K/BxN mouse model of inflammatory arthritis...
  67. Gao Y, Liu Z, Gao F, Meng X. High density of peritumoral lymphatic vessels is a potential prognostic marker of endometrial carcinoma: a clinical immunohistochemical method study. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:131 pubmed publisher
    ..whether increased lymphatic vessel density (LVD) is a prognostic factor for nodal metastasis and survival, we studied peritumoral LVD (P-LVD) and intratumoral LVD (I-LVD) in samples from 102 patients with endometrial carcinoma;..
  68. Kanady J, Dellinger M, Munger S, Witte M, Simon A. Connexin37 and Connexin43 deficiencies in mice disrupt lymphatic valve development and result in lymphatic disorders including lymphedema and chylothorax. Dev Biol. 2011;354:253-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that at least three Cxs are expressed in the developing lymphatic vasculature and, when defective, are associated with clinically manifest lymphatic disorders in mice and man...
  69. Li J, Zhou Q, Wood R, Kuzin I, Bottaro A, Ritchlin C, et al. CD23(+)/CD21(hi) B-cell translocation and ipsilateral lymph node collapse is associated with asymmetric arthritic flare in TNF-Tg mice. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011;13:R138 pubmed publisher
  70. Wessel J, Hofmann Rummelt C, Kruse F, Cursiefen C, Heindl L. Invasion of lymphatic vessels into the eye after open globe injuries. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:3717-25 pubmed publisher
    We analyzed whether lymphatic vessels can be detected in eyes enucleated after an open globe injury.
  71. Bellini C, Rutigliani M, Boccardo F, Campisi C, Bellini T, Bonioli E, et al. Are there lymphatic vessels in the placenta?. Lymphology. 2012;45:34-6 pubmed
    ..This exciting area at the intersection of perinatology and lymphology needs further investigation...
  72. Holmqvist A, Gao J, Adell G, Carstensen J, Sun X. The location of lymphangiogenesis is an independent prognostic factor in rectal cancers with or without preoperative radiotherapy. Ann Oncol. 2010;21:512-7 pubmed publisher
  73. Cui Y. Impact of lymphatic vessels on the heart. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010;58:1-7 pubmed publisher
    This review updates the knowledge in the research field of cardiac lymphatic vessels by collecting both scientific evidence and hypotheses, including cardiac lymphatic vessel anatomy and lymph flow, the mechanism of cardiac lymphatic ..
  74. Saharinen P, Helotera H, Miettinen J, Norrmen C, D Amico G, Jeltsch M, et al. Claudin-like protein 24 interacts with the VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 pathways and regulates lymphatic vessel development. Genes Dev. 2010;24:875-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeted disruption of Clp24 in mice led to enlarged lymphatic vessels having an abnormal smooth muscle cell coating...
  75. Yamamoto T, Koshima I, Yoshimatsu H, Narushima M, Miahara M, Iida T. Simultaneous multi-site lymphaticovenular anastomoses for primary lower extremity and genital lymphoedema complicated with severe lymphorrhea. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2011;64:812-5 pubmed publisher
    ..LVA is a minimally invasive surgery, which is effective for the treatment of LEL and GL even in primary cases with severe lymphorrhea. Simultaneous multi-site LVAs can serve as the most effective therapy for lymphoedema...
  76. Tammela T, Saaristo A, Holopainen T, Yla Herttuala S, Andersson L, Virolainen S, et al. Photodynamic ablation of lymphatic vessels and intralymphatic cancer cells prevents metastasis. Sci Transl Med. 2011;3:69ra11 pubmed publisher
    ..Tumor-associated lymphatic vessels are a key conduit for metastatic tumor cells, which typically first colonize the lymph nodes...
  77. Planas Paz L, Strilic B, Goedecke A, Breier G, Fassler R, Lammert E. Mechanoinduction of lymph vessel expansion. EMBO J. 2012;31:788-804 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we propose a new and physiologically relevant mode of VEGFR3 activation, which is based on mechanotransduction and is essential for normal development and fluid homeostasis in a mammalian embryo...
  78. Francois M, Short K, Secker G, Combes A, Schwarz Q, Davidson T, et al. Segmental territories along the cardinal veins generate lymph sacs via a ballooning mechanism during embryonic lymphangiogenesis in mice. Dev Biol. 2012;364:89-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Third, lymphatic vessels emerge by a combination of mechanisms including sprouting from the lymph sacs and direct delamination of ..
  79. Ling S, Liang L, Lin H, Li W, Xu J. Increasing lymphatic microvessel density in primary pterygia. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012;130:735-42 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine lymphatic microvessel density (LMVD) in primary pterygia...
  80. Coskun U, Akyurek N, Dursun A, Yamac D. Peritumoral lymphatic microvessel density associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in gastric carcinoma. J Surg Res. 2010;164:110-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical significance of lymphangiogenesis and its regulation in gastric carcinomas...
  81. Mouta Bellum C, Kirov A, Miceli Libby L, Mancini M, Petrova T, Liaw L, et al. Organ-specific lymphangiectasia, arrested lymphatic sprouting, and maturation defects resulting from gene-targeting of the PI3K regulatory isoforms p85alpha, p55alpha, and p50alpha. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2670-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that Pik3r1 isoforms are required for distinct steps of embryonic lymphangiogenesis in different organ microenvironments, whereas they are largely dispensable for hemangiogenesis...
  82. Wen J, Tang Q, Wu J, Wang Y, Cai W. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia: four case reports and a review of the literature. Dig Dis Sci. 2010;55:3466-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare digestive disease and most articles on this condition are isolated case reports...
  83. Hirai S, Naito M, Terayama H, Ning Q, Miura M, Shirakami G, et al. Difference in abundance of blood and lymphatic capillaries in the murine epididymis. Med Mol Morphol. 2010;43:37-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This observation suggests that the characteristic distribution of blood and lymphatic capillaries in the epididymis contributes to the different roles of each epididymal region...
  84. Arkill K, Moger J, Winlove C. The structure and mechanical properties of collecting lymphatic vessels: an investigation using multimodal nonlinear microscopy. J Anat. 2010;216:547-55 pubmed publisher
    This study employed nonlinear microscopy on fresh, unstained and unfixed collecting lymphatic vessels to determine the wall structure and its relationships to the mechanical properties of the tissue...
  85. Avraham T, Yan A, Zampell J, Daluvoy S, Haimovitz Friedman A, Cordeiro A, et al. Radiation therapy causes loss of dermal lymphatic vessels and interferes with lymphatic function by TGF-beta1-mediated tissue fibrosis. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;299:C589-605 pubmed publisher
    ..Radiation therapy decreases lymphatic reserve by causing depletion of lymphatic vessels and LECs as well as promoting soft tissue fibrosis...
  86. Kelley P, Steele M, Tempero R. Regressed lymphatic vessels develop during corneal repair. Lab Invest. 2011;91:1643-51 pubmed publisher
    The fate of newly synthesized lymphatic vessels induced by inflammation is poorly understood...
  87. Zhuo W, Luo C, Wang X, Song X, Fu Y, Luo Y. Endostatin inhibits tumour lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis via cell surface nucleolin on lymphangiogenic endothelial cells. J Pathol. 2010;222:249-60 pubmed publisher
  88. Brown H, Robker R, Russell D. Development and hormonal regulation of the ovarian lymphatic vasculature. Endocrinology. 2010;151:5446-55 pubmed publisher
  89. Funai K, Sugimura H, Morita T, Shundo Y, Shimizu K, Shiiya N. Lymphatic vessel invasion is a significant prognostic indicator in stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 2011;18:2968-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the prognostic influence of lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI) in stage IA adenocarcinoma patients...
  90. Lin J, Li X, Dong P, Nakashima T. Prognostic value of lymphangiogenesis in supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma. J Laryngol Otol. 2011;125:945-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent evidence suggests that tumour lymphangiogenesis promotes lymphatic metastasis...
  91. Bos F, Caunt M, Peterson Maduro J, Planas Paz L, Kowalski J, Karpanen T, et al. CCBE1 is essential for mammalian lymphatic vascular development and enhances the lymphangiogenic effect of vascular endothelial growth factor-C in vivo. Circ Res. 2011;109:486-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Insight into the molecular role of CCBE1 is completely lacking, and mouse models for the disease do not exist...
  92. Walsh D, Verghese P, Cook G, McWilliams D, Mapp P, Ashraf S, et al. Lymphatic vessels in osteoarthritic human knees. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2012;20:405-12 pubmed publisher
    The distribution and function of lymphatic vessels in normal and diseased human knees are understood incompletely...