lymphatic system

Summary

Summary: A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.

Top Publications

  1. Ellis S. Structure and function of the lymphatic system: an overview. Br J Community Nurs. 2006;11:S4-6 pubmed
    The lymphatic system is often overlooked, but is a vital part both of the circulation and the immune system...
  2. Lohrmann C, Foeldi E, Langer M. Assessment of the lymphatic system in patients with diffuse lymphangiomatosis by magnetic resonance imaging. Eur J Radiol. 2011;80:576-81 pubmed publisher
    To assess the lymphatic system in patients with diffuse lymphangiomatosis by magnetic resonance imaging.
  3. Singh I, Swami R, Khan W, Sistla R. Lymphatic system: a prospective area for advanced targeting of particulate drug carriers. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2014;11:211-29 pubmed publisher
    The lymphatic system has a critical role in the immune system's recognition and response to disease and it is an additional circulatory system throughout the entire body...
  4. Blum K, Hadamitzky C, Gratz K, Pabst R. Effects of autotransplanted lymph node fragments on the lymphatic system in the pig model. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;120:59-66 pubmed publisher
    ..so far, therefore we wanted to show the reintegration of transplanted avascular lymph node fragments in the lymphatic system and positive effects of the transplanted fragments on the restoration of the lymphatic flow in this study...
  5. Xie Y, Bagby T, Cohen M, Forrest M. Drug delivery to the lymphatic system: importance in future cancer diagnosis and therapies. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2009;6:785-92 pubmed publisher
    ..This combination has the potential to both reduce nonspecific organ toxicities and increase the chemotherapeutic dose to the most likely sites of locoregional cancer metastasis...
  6. Pal I, Ramsey J. The role of the lymphatic system in vaccine trafficking and immune response. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2011;63:909-22 pubmed publisher
    ..A thorough understanding of the lymphatic system is essential considering the role it plays in antigen trafficking and all immunological activity...
  7. Margaris K, Black R. Modelling the lymphatic system: challenges and opportunities. J R Soc Interface. 2012;9:601-12 pubmed publisher
    The lymphatic system is a vital part of the circulatory and immune systems, and plays an important role in homeostasis by controlling extracellular fluid volume and in combating infection...
  8. von der Weid P, Rehal S, Ferraz J. Role of the lymphatic system in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2011;27:335-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The lymphatic system is re-emerging as a critical player in inflammatory and immune processes and the purpose of this review is to ..
  9. Davis M, Rahbar E, Gashev A, Zawieja D, Moore J. Determinants of valve gating in collecting lymphatic vessels from rat mesentery. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;301:H48-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, the pressure gradient required for valve opening varied sixfold with vessel distention. Finally, our functional evidence supports the concept that lymphatic muscle tone exerts an indirect effect on valve gating. ..

More Information

Publications68

  1. Sanjula B, Shah F, Javed A, Alka A. Effect of poloxamer 188 on lymphatic uptake of carvedilol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for bioavailability enhancement. J Drug Target. 2009;17:249-56 pubmed publisher
    ..05) than that of carvedilol suspension (1.27 +/- 0.23 microgh/mL). These findings augur well with the possibility of enhancement of the oral bioavailability of drug, via the lymphatic system bypassing hepatic first pass metabolism.
  2. Wu H, Zhou A, Lu C, Wang L. Examination of lymphatic transport of puerarin in unconscious lymph duct-cannulated rats after administration in microemulsion drug delivery systems. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2011;42:348-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The results imply that the pharmaceutical scientist may use microemulsion formulations to optimize lymph-targeting drug delivery systems, by improving the extent of lymphatic transport...
  3. Karnezis T, Shayan R, Caesar C, Roufail S, Harris N, Ardipradja K, et al. VEGF-D promotes tumor metastasis by regulating prostaglandins produced by the collecting lymphatic endothelium. Cancer Cell. 2012;21:181-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Collecting lymphatics therefore play an active and important role in metastasis and may provide a therapeutic target to restrict tumor spread...
  4. Xu F, Stouffer R. Existence of the lymphatic system in the primate corpus luteum. Lymphat Res Biol. 2009;7:159-68 pubmed publisher
    To date, there have been no detailed studies on the lymphatic system in the primate corpus luteum (CL); early reports suggested that the presence of this "secondary circulation" in luteal tissue is species-dependant...
  5. Bessen R, Martinka S, Kelly J, Gonzalez D. Role of the lymphoreticular system in prion neuroinvasion from the oral and nasal mucosa. J Virol. 2009;83:6435-45 pubmed publisher
  6. Chakraborty S, Zawieja S, Wang W, Zawieja D, Muthuchamy M. Lymphatic system: a vital link between metabolic syndrome and inflammation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1207 Suppl 1:E94-102 pubmed publisher
    ..However, despite the overlap of metabolic syndrome pathology with lymphatic function, tangent effects on the lymphatic system have not been extensively documented...
  7. Cuong N, Hsieh M. Molecular targeting of liposomal nano-particles to lymphatic system. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2011;11:147-55 pubmed
    ..The lymphatic system is an important highway to spread the metastasis of most human cancers including breast, colon, and lung, ..
  8. Lohrmann C, Foeldi E, Langer M. MR imaging of the lymphatic system in patients with lipedema and lipo-lymphedema. Microvasc Res. 2009;77:335-9 pubmed publisher
    To assess for the first time the morphology of the lymphatic system in patients with lipedema and lipo-lymphedema of the lower extremities by MR lymphangiography.
  9. Loukas M, Abel N, Tubbs R, Grabska J, Birungi J, Anderson R. The cardiac lymphatic system. Clin Anat. 2011;24:684-91 pubmed publisher
    The lymphatic system, a network of vessels carrying clear interstitial fluid called lymph, is found throughout the human body...
  10. Quere I. [Lymphatic system: Anatomy, histology and physiology]. Presse Med. 2010;39:1269-78 pubmed publisher
    Our knowledge of the anatomy of the lymphatic system may have changed little, if at all, since the first descriptions of this system in the 17th and 18th centuries, but the identification of specific markers of lymphatic endothelial cells ..
  11. von der Weid P, Rainey K. Review article: lymphatic system and associated adipose tissue in the development of inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2010;32:697-711 pubmed publisher
    The lymphatic system plays critical roles in tissue fluid homoeostasis, immune defence and metabolic maintenance...
  12. Seyama K, Kumasaka T, Kurihara M, Mitani K, Sato T. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: a disease involving the lymphatic system. Lymphat Res Biol. 2010;8:21-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of LCCs in chylous effusion together with the characteristic clinical manifestations can therefore be an alternative for a lung biopsy if LAM patients are complicated with chylous effusion...
  13. Lu Q, Xu J, Liu N. Chronic lower extremity lymphedema: a comparative study of high-resolution interstitial MR lymphangiography and heavily T2-weighted MRI. Eur J Radiol. 2010;73:365-73 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the role of heavily T2-weighted image and interstitial MR lymphangiography (MRL) for the visualization of lymphatic vessels in patients with disorders of the lymphatic circulation...
  14. Ali Khan A, Mudassir J, Mohtar N, Darwis Y. Advanced drug delivery to the lymphatic system: lipid-based nanoformulations. Int J Nanomedicine. 2013;8:2733-44 pubmed publisher
    The delivery of drugs and bioactive compounds via the lymphatic system is complex and dependent on the physiological uniqueness of the system...
  15. Choi I, Lee S, Hong Y. The new era of the lymphatic system: no longer secondary to the blood vascular system. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2012;2:a006445 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the blood system has been studied extensively, the lymphatic system has received much less scientific and medical attention because of its elusive morphology and mysterious ..
  16. Zou Z, Enis D, Bui H, Khandros E, Kumar V, Jakus Z, et al. The secreted lymphangiogenic factor CCBE1 is essential for fetal liver erythropoiesis. Blood. 2013;121:3228-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal that CCBE1 plays an essential role in regulating the fetal liver erythropoietic environment and suggest that EBI formation is regulated differently in the fetal liver and bone marrow...
  17. Cueni L, Detmar M. The lymphatic system in health and disease. Lymphat Res Biol. 2008;6:109-22 pubmed publisher
    ..There is growing evidence that the lymphatic system also contributes to a number of diseases, such as lymphedema, cancer metastasis and different inflammatory ..
  18. Quick C, Venugopal A, Gashev A, Zawieja D, Stewart R. Intrinsic pump-conduit behavior of lymphangions. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292:R1510-8 pubmed
    ..This analysis may explain a possible physiological benefit of the observed flow-mediated inhibition of the lymphatic pump at high flow rates...
  19. Bourgeois P. Scintigraphic investigations of the lymphatic system: the influence of injected volume and quantity of labeled colloidal tracer. J Nucl Med. 2007;48:693-5 pubmed
    ..Therefore, volume and quantity should be standardized when quantitative parameters are used for diagnostic purposes. ..
  20. Aukland K. Arnold Heller and the lymph pump. Acta Physiol Scand. 2005;185:171-80 pubmed
    ..Recently it has been shown that passive lymph flow may add to active propulsion. Both mechanisms depend on lymph formation, i.e. the uptake of interstitial fluid by the initial lymph vessels which is still not well understood. ..
  21. Hirano H, Nishigami T, Okimura A, Nakasho K, Uematsu K. Autopsy case of congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasis. Pathol Int. 2004;54:532-6 pubmed
    ..The clinical behavior and prognosis of CPL depend on the extent of pulmonary involvement of the lymphatic dilatations regardless of systemic lymphatic dilations. ..
  22. Shin W, Rockson S. Animal models for the molecular and mechanistic study of lymphatic biology and disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1131:50-74 pubmed publisher
    The development of animal model systems for the study of the lymphatic system has resulted in an explosion of information regarding the mechanisms governing lymphatic development and the diseases associated with lymphatic dysfunction...
  23. Ikeda I, Tsuda K, Suzuki Y, Kobayashi M, Unno T, Tomoyori H, et al. Tea catechins with a galloyl moiety suppress postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia by delaying lymphatic transport of dietary fat in rats. J Nutr. 2005;135:155-9 pubmed
    ..Because postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia is a risk factor for coronary heart disease, our results suggest that catechins with a galloyl moiety may prevent this disease. ..
  24. Brown P. Lymphatic system: unlocking the drains. Nature. 2005;436:456-8 pubmed
  25. Suami H, O Neill J, Pan W, Taylor G. Superficial lymphatic system of the upper torso: preliminary radiographic results in human cadavers. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;121:1231-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite increasing clinical information, the basic anatomy of the superficial lymphatic system of the upper torso has not been fully elucidated.
  26. Barrett T, Choyke P, Kobayashi H. Imaging of the lymphatic system: new horizons. Contrast Media Mol Imaging. 2006;1:230-45 pubmed
    The lymphatic system is a complex network of lymph vessels, lymphatic organs and lymph nodes...
  27. Lane K, Worsley D, McKenzie D. Exercise and the lymphatic system: implications for breast-cancer survivors. Sports Med. 2005;35:461-71 pubmed
    This article summarises the current research on the lymphatic system related to exercise and critically evaluates the implications for exercise performance by breast-cancer survivors...
  28. Matsushima S, Ichiba N, Hayashi D, Fukuda K. Nonenhanced magnetic resonance lymphoductography: visualization of lymphatic system of the trunk on 3-dimensional heavily T2-weighted image with 2-dimensional prospective acquisition and correction. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2007;31:299-302 pubmed
    ..T2-weighted images obtained with 2-dimensional prospective acquisition and correction in visualization of the lymphatic system of the trunk...
  29. DiResta G, Aiken S, Brown H, Bergman P, Hohenhaus A, Ehrhart E, et al. Use of an artificial lymphatic system during carboplatin infusion to improve canine osteosarcoma blood flow and clinical response. Ann Surg Oncol. 2007;14:2411-21 pubmed
    The artificial lymphatic system (ALS), a mechanical system designed to reduce increased interstitial fluid pressure in solid tumors and enhance the delivery of chemotherapy, was evaluated within a randomized clinical trial treating ..
  30. Dahan A, Mendelman A, Amsili S, Ezov N, Hoffman A. The effect of general anesthesia on the intestinal lymphatic transport of lipophilic drugs: comparison between anesthetized and freely moving conscious rat models. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2007;32:367-74 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the anesthetized rat model is suitable for approximating the lymphatic transport. However, the conscious rat model is still required in order to have a more precise and complete measurement of lymphatic transport...
  31. Muthuchamy M, Zawieja D. Molecular regulation of lymphatic contractility. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1131:89-99 pubmed publisher
    The lymphatic system plays critical roles in body fluid and macromolecular homeostasis, lipid absorption, immune function, and metastasis...
  32. Toyoda Ono Y, Yoshimura M, Nakai M, Fukui Y, Asami S, Shibata H, et al. Suppression of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in rats and mice by oolong tea polymerized polyphenols. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007;71:971-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that OTPP is responsible for the suppression of hypertriglyceridemia by ingestion of oolong tea...
  33. von Boetticher H, Hoffmann W. A model and reference data for retrospective dose assessment of organ doses (red bone marrow, lymphatic system) in diagnostic radiography and nuclear medicine, 1946-1995. Health Phys. 2007;92:315-31 pubmed
    ..The model and the results can be readily extended to different countries with different technical advancement and standard of radiologic practice...
  34. Mortimer P, Levick J. Chronic peripheral oedema: the critical role of the lymphatic system. Clin Med (Lond). 2004;4:448-53 pubmed
  35. Shin W, Szuba A, Rockson S. Animal models for the study of lymphatic insufficiency. Lymphat Res Biol. 2003;1:159-69 pubmed
    ..Such models will help to refine the assessment of various therapeutic approaches and their potential applicability to human disease interventions...
  36. Ohhashi T, Mizuno R, Ikomi F, Kawai Y. Current topics of physiology and pharmacology in the lymphatic system. Pharmacol Ther. 2005;105:165-88 pubmed
    ..Finally, we have discussed physiological significance and roles of the lower oxygen tension in lymph, generation of endogenous NO, and activation of K(ATP) in lymph formation, lymph transport, and the functions of lymph nodes...
  37. Shayan R, Achen M, Stacker S. Lymphatic vessels in cancer metastasis: bridging the gaps. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:1729-38 pubmed
    ..groups of clinical researchers and basic scientists have been working to unravel the mysteries of the lymphatic system. This review aims to summarize these contributions, in terms of the history, identification, structure and ..
  38. Chikly B. Manual techniques addressing the lymphatic system: origins and development. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2005;105:457-64 pubmed
  39. Tammela T, Petrova T, Alitalo K. Molecular lymphangiogenesis: new players. Trends Cell Biol. 2005;15:434-41 pubmed
    ..This review provides an overview of the molecular players involved in lymphangiogenesis, with special emphasis on recently discovered molecular mechanisms...
  40. Cao R, Björndahl M, Religa P, Clasper S, Garvin S, Galter D, et al. PDGF-BB induces intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and promotes lymphatic metastasis. Cancer Cell. 2004;6:333-45 pubmed
    Cancer metastases are commonly found in the lymphatic system. Like tumor blood angiogenesis, stimulation of tumor lymphangiogenesis may require the interplay of several tumor-derived growth factors...
  41. Olszewski W. The lymphatic system in body homeostasis: physiological conditions. Lymphat Res Biol. 2003;1:11-21; discussion 21-4 pubmed
    The lymphatic system is an organized network composed of functionally interrelated lymphoid tissue, and transportation pathways of tissue fluid/lymph and lymphoid cells. Its main components are 1...
  42. Achen M, McColl B, Stacker S. Focus on lymphangiogenesis in tumor metastasis. Cancer Cell. 2005;7:121-7 pubmed
  43. Van der Auwera I, Van den Eynden G, Colpaert C, Van Laere S, Van Dam P, Van Marck E, et al. Tumor lymphangiogenesis in inflammatory breast carcinoma: a histomorphometric study. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:7637-42 pubmed
    At the time of diagnosis, metastatic dissemination of tumor cells via the lymphatic system has occurred in nearly all patients with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC)...
  44. McColl B, Paavonen K, Karnezis T, Harris N, Davydova N, Rothacker J, et al. Proprotein convertases promote processing of VEGF-D, a critical step for binding the angiogenic receptor VEGFR-2. FASEB J. 2007;21:1088-98 pubmed
    ..The finding that PCs promote activation of VEGF-D and other proteins with roles in cancer such as matrix metalloproteinases, emphasizes the importance of these enzymes as potential regulators of tumor progression and metastasis...
  45. Lohrmann C, Földi E, Bartholomä J, Langer M. MR imaging of the lymphatic system: distribution and contrast enhancement of gadodiamide after intradermal injection. Lymphology. 2006;39:156-63 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, 3D MIP reconstructions supported the identification of the lymphatic vessels and differentiation from veins due to the different angles of view...
  46. Lind M, Jacobsen J, Holm R, Mullertz A. Intestinal lymphatic transport of halofantrine in rats assessed using a chylomicron flow blocking approach: the influence of polysorbate 60 and 80. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2008;35:211-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The fraction of halofantrine transported to the lymphatic system was determined as the difference between the bioavailability in saline-pretreated rats and cycloheximide-..
  47. Moriguchi P, Sannomiya P, Lara P, Oliveira Filho R, Greco K, Sudo Hayashi L. Lymphatic system changes in diabetes mellitus: role of insulin and hyperglycemia. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2005;21:150-7 pubmed
    Diabetic alterations of blood vessels have been well studied, but much less is known about the lymphatic system, which plays an important role in the transport of particles and defensive responses...
  48. Dahan A, Hoffman A. Evaluation of a chylomicron flow blocking approach to investigate the intestinal lymphatic transport of lipophilic drugs. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2005;24:381-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the chemical blockage of chylomicron flow provides a potential approach for lymphatic transport investigation, and may elucidate processes involving in the absorption of lipophilic compounds...
  49. Vleugel M, Bos R, van der Groep P, Greijer A, Shvarts A, Stel H, et al. Lack of lymphangiogenesis during breast carcinogenesis. J Clin Pathol. 2004;57:746-51 pubmed
    ..This could result from either the failure of tumours to induce lymphangiogenesis, or the collapse of lymph vessels, caused by high interstitial tumour pressure...
  50. Witte M, Jones K, Wilting J, Dictor M, Selg M, McHale N, et al. Structure function relationships in the lymphatic system and implications for cancer biology. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2006;25:159-84 pubmed
    The lymphatic system, composed of lymphatic vessels, lymph, lymph nodes, and lymphocytes, is a distinctive vasculature (discontinuous basement membrane, open endothelial junctions, anchoring filaments, valves, and intrinsic contractility),..
  51. Karpanen T, Heckman C, Keskitalo S, Jeltsch M, Ollila H, Neufeld G, et al. Functional interaction of VEGF-C and VEGF-D with neuropilin receptors. FASEB J. 2006;20:1462-72 pubmed
    ..Our results show that NP2 is directly involved in an active signaling complex with the key regulators of lymphangiogenesis and thus suggest a mechanism by which NP2 functions in the development of the lymphatic vasculature...
  52. Ohtani O, Ohtani Y. Structure and function of rat lymph nodes. Arch Histol Cytol. 2008;71:69-76 pubmed
    ..Fluids and migrating cells may also enter the cortex through gaps in the floor of the subcapsular sinuses...
  53. Cavriani G, Domingos H, Soares A, Trezena A, Ligeiro Oliveira A, Oliveira Filho R, et al. Lymphatic system as a path underlying the spread of lung and gut injury after intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Shock. 2005;23:330-6 pubmed
    We investigated in rats the influence of the lymphatic system and of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) on the lung inflammation resulting from intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) performed by 45-min occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery ..
  54. Ludemann W, Berens von Rautenfeld D, Samii M, Brinker T. Ultrastructure of the cerebrospinal fluid outflow along the optic nerve into the lymphatic system. Childs Nerv Syst. 2005;21:96-103 pubmed
    ..To explain the spontaneous CSF outflow into the orbit, the ultrastructure of the perineural meningeal layers at the distal and the proximal portions of the optic nerve were compared...
  55. Schacht V, Dadras S, Johnson L, Jackson D, Hong Y, Detmar M. Up-regulation of the lymphatic marker podoplanin, a mucin-type transmembrane glycoprotein, in human squamous cell carcinomas and germ cell tumors. Am J Pathol. 2005;166:913-21 pubmed
  56. Grimaldi A, Moriondo A, Sciacca L, Guidali M, Tettamanti G, Negrini D. Functional arrangement of rat diaphragmatic initial lymphatic network. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;291:H876-85 pubmed
  57. Fukunaga M. Expression of D2-40 in lymphatic endothelium of normal tissues and in vascular tumours. Histopathology. 2005;46:396-402 pubmed
    ..D2-40 is a novel monoclonal antibody to a Mr 40 000 O-linked sialoglycoprotein that reacts with a fixation-resistant epitope in lymphatic endothelium...
  58. Scavelli C, Weber E, Agliano M, Cirulli T, Nico B, Vacca A, et al. Lymphatics at the crossroads of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. J Anat. 2004;204:433-49 pubmed
    The lymphatic system is implicated in interstitial fluid balance regulation, immune cell trafficking, oedema and cancer metastasis...
  59. Hirakawa S, Detmar M. New insights into the biology and pathology of the cutaneous lymphatic system. J Dermatol Sci. 2004;35:1-8 pubmed
    The cutaneous lymphatic system plays an important role in the maintenance of tissue fluid homeostasis, in the afferent phase of the immune response, and in the metastatic spread of skin cancers...