leukostasis

Summary

Summary: Abnormal intravascular leukocyte aggregation and clumping often seen in leukemia patients. The brain and lungs are the two most commonly affected organs. This acute syndrome requires aggressive cytoreductive modalities including chemotherapy and/or leukophoresis. It is differentiated from LEUKEMIC INFILTRATION which is a neoplastic process where leukemic cells invade organs.

Top Publications

  1. Porcu P, Cripe L, Ng E, Bhatia S, Danielson C, Orazi A, et al. Hyperleukocytic leukemias and leukostasis: a review of pathophysiology, clinical presentation and management. Leuk Lymphoma. 2000;39:1-18 pubmed
    ..The pathophysiological process leading to these complications is called leukostasis but the biological mechanisms underlying its development and progression remain unclear...
  2. Stucki A, Rivier A, Gikic M, Monai N, Schapira M, Spertini O. Endothelial cell activation by myeloblasts: molecular mechanisms of leukostasis and leukemic cell dissemination. Blood. 2001;97:2121-9 pubmed
    b>Leukostasis and tissue infiltration by leukemic cells are poorly understood life-threatening complications of acute leukemia...
  3. Ishida S, Usui T, Yamashiro K, Kaji Y, Ahmed E, Carrasquillo K, et al. VEGF164 is proinflammatory in the diabetic retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:2155-62 pubmed
    ..the differential potency of two major VEGF isoforms, VEGF(120) and VEGF(164), for inducing leukocyte stasis (leukostasis) within the retinal vasculature and blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown and to determine whether endogenous ..
  4. Tamura H, Miyamoto K, Kiryu J, Miyahara S, Katsuta H, Hirose F, et al. Intravitreal injection of corticosteroid attenuates leukostasis and vascular leakage in experimental diabetic retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:1440-4 pubmed
    ..The hypothesis for the current study was that intravitreal corticosteroids may improve diabetic retinal edema by amelioration of blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown, by inhibiting leukocyte stasis (leukostasis).
  5. Shen W, Lai C, Graham C, Binz N, Lai Y, Eade J, et al. Long-term global retinal microvascular changes in a transgenic vascular endothelial growth factor mouse model. Diabetologia. 2006;49:1690-701 pubmed
    ..Induction of many features characteristic of diabetic retinopathy in trVEGF029 enables mechanisms leading to the disease state to be examined, and provides a relevant animal model for testing novel therapeutics. ..
  6. Serra A, Waddell J, Manivannan A, Xu H, Cotter M, Forrester J. CD11b+ bone marrow-derived monocytes are the major leukocyte subset responsible for retinal capillary leukostasis in experimental diabetes in mouse and express high levels of CCR5 in the circulation. Am J Pathol. 2012;181:719-27 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the phenotype of cells involved in leukostasis in the early stages of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice by direct observation and by adoptive transfer of calcein-AM-labeled bone marrow-derived leukocytes from ..
  7. Chen P, Scicli G, Guo M, Fenstermacher J, Dahl D, Edwards P, et al. Role of angiotensin II in retinal leukostasis in the diabetic rat. Exp Eye Res. 2006;83:1041-51 pubmed
    To study if the endogenous renin-angiotensin system affects diabetic retinal leukostasis, rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were treated with an ACE inhibitor (ramipril), an angiotensin II AT(1) receptor antagonist (losartan) and ..
  8. Ellemor D, Baird R, Awad M, Boyd R, Rood J, Emmins J. Use of genetically manipulated strains of Clostridium perfringens reveals that both alpha-toxin and theta-toxin are required for vascular leukostasis to occur in experimental gas gangrene. Infect Immun. 1999;67:4902-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, both alpha-toxin and theta-toxin are necessary for the characteristic vascular leukostasis observed in clostridial myonecrosis.
  9. Kaji Y, Usui T, Ishida S, Yamashiro K, Moore T, Moore J, et al. Inhibition of diabetic leukostasis and blood-retinal barrier breakdown with a soluble form of a receptor for advanced glycation end products. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:858-65 pubmed
    ..In the present study, the role of an AGE receptor, RAGE, was investigated in the development of diabetic retinopathy in vivo...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Yamagishi S, Matsui T, Nakamura K, Takeuchi M, Imaizumi T. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) prevents diabetes- or advanced glycation end products (AGE)-elicited retinal leukostasis. Microvasc Res. 2006;72:86-90 pubmed
    ..Leukocyte adhesion to retinal capillary endothelium (leukostasis) is a critical event in early diabetic retinopathy, whose process is mainly mediated by intercellular adhesion ..
  2. Li G, Tang J, Du Y, Lee C, Kern T. Beneficial effects of a novel RAGE inhibitor on early diabetic retinopathy and tactile allodynia. Mol Vis. 2011;17:3156-65 pubmed
    ..Tactile allodynia (light touch) was measured on a paw of each animal at 2 months. Leukostasis, expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), accumulation of albumin in the neural retina, ..
  3. Du Y, Tang J, Li G, Li G, Berti Mattera L, Lee C, et al. Effects of p38 MAPK inhibition on early stages of diabetic retinopathy and sensory nerve function. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:2158-64 pubmed publisher
    ..rats exhibited significant increases in retinal superoxide, nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and leukostasis within retinal microvessels...
  4. Vinores S, Xiao W, Shen J, Campochiaro P. TNF-alpha is critical for ischemia-induced leukostasis, but not retinal neovascularization nor VEGF-induced leakage. J Neuroimmunol. 2007;182:73-9 pubmed
    ..It has been postulated that VEGF-induced leukostasis, breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier, and ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization may be mediated, at ..
  5. Leal E, Manivannan A, Hosoya K, Terasaki T, Cunha Vaz J, Ambrósio A, et al. Inducible nitric oxide synthase isoform is a key mediator of leukostasis and blood-retinal barrier breakdown in diabetic retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:5257-65 pubmed
    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in leukostasis and blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR), but it is unclear which NO synthase (NOS) isoforms are primarily involved...
  6. Huang H, Gandhi J, Zhong X, Wei Y, Gong J, Duh E, et al. TNFalpha is required for late BRB breakdown in diabetic retinopathy, and its inhibition prevents leukostasis and protects vessels and neurons from apoptosis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:1336-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The BRB was assessed at 1, 1.5, 3, and 6 months. Leukostasis was assessed using FITC-conjugated ConA to label leukocytes...
  7. Noda K, Nakao S, Zandi S, Engelstädter V, Mashima Y, Hafezi Moghadam A. Vascular adhesion protein-1 regulates leukocyte transmigration rate in the retina during diabetes. Exp Eye Res. 2009;89:774-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal the critical contribution of VAP-1 to leukocyte transmigration, with little impact on firm leukocyte adhesion in the retinas of diabetic animals. VAP-1 inhibition might be beneficial in the treatment of DR. ..
  8. Smith M, Singleton T, Balaraman S, Jaiyesimi I, O Malley B, Al Saadi A, et al. Case report: mantle cell lymphoma, prolymphocytoid variant, with leukostasis syndrome. Mod Pathol. 2004;17:879-83 pubmed
    A 76-year-old man presented with leukostasis syndrome, including oculodynia, blurred vision, and visual field defects, due to mantle cell lymphoma, prolymphocytoid variant, with marked leukocytosis, 1227 x 10(9)/l...
  9. Matsuoka M, Ogata N, Minamino K, Matsumura M. Leukostasis and pigment epithelium-derived factor in rat models of diabetic retinopathy. Mol Vis. 2007;13:1058-65 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to determine whether leukostasis is present in the retina, to evaluate the levels of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) and intracellular ..
  10. Wagner J, Harkema J, Roth R. Pulmonary leukostasis and the inhibition of airway neutrophil recruitment are early events in the endotoxemic rat. Shock. 2002;17:151-8 pubmed
    ..v. LPS to inhibit pulmonary PMN recruitment or to cause pulmonary leukostasis. In summary, our results show that the inhibitory effects of i.v...
  11. Ali A, Mirrakhimov A, Abboud C, Cashen A. Leukostasis in adult acute hyperleukocytic leukemia: a clinician's digest. Hematol Oncol. 2016;34:69-78 pubmed publisher
    b>Leukostasis is a poorly understood and life-threatening complication of acute hyperleukocytic leukemia. The incidence of hyperleukocytosis and leukostasis differs among various subtypes of leukemias...
  12. Wilkinson Berka J, Tan G, Jaworski K, Miller A. Identification of a retinal aldosterone system and the protective effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism on retinal vascular pathology. Circ Res. 2009;104:124-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The MR and aldosterone modulated retinal inflammation, with leukostasis and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA and protein in OIR being reduced by spironolactone and increased by ..
  13. Tang J, Du Y, Lee C, Talahalli R, Eells J, Kern T. Low-intensity far-red light inhibits early lesions that contribute to diabetic retinopathy: in vivo and in vitro. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:3681-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Diabetes significantly increased both leukostasis and expression of ICAM-1, and PBM essentially prevented both of these abnormalities...
  14. Shen W, Gao Y, Lu B, Zhang Q, Hu Y, Chen Y. Negatively regulating TLR4/NF-?B signaling via PPAR? in endotoxin-induced uveitis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1842:1109-20 pubmed publisher
    ..recovered retinal function and decreased the production of inflammatory cytokines, retinal vascular leukostasis, and inflammatory cell infiltration into the posterior section of the eyes during EIU...
  15. Azghari A, Boukhbrine M, Tijani Y, Bouziane Z, Idrissi R, Lekehal B, et al. [Acute lower limb ischemia revealing acute leukemia. Case report and review of the literature]. J Mal Vasc. 2010;35:43-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Occlusion of the left popliteal artery due to a leucostasis was noted and successfully treated with emergency surgical thromboembolectomy and chemotherapy. ..
  16. Lee K, Hu Y, Ding L, Chen Y, Takahashi Y, Mott R, et al. Therapeutic potential of a monoclonal antibody blocking the Wnt pathway in diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes. 2012;61:2948-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, Mab2F1 blocked the overexpression of the inflammatory/angiogenic factors, attenuated leukostasis, and reduced retinal vascular leakage in both early and late stages of streptozotocin-induced diabetes...
  17. Muranaka K, Yanagi Y, Tamaki Y, Usui T, Kubota N, Iriyama A, et al. Effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and its ligand on blood-retinal barrier in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic model. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:4547-52 pubmed
    ..peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and its ligand, rosiglitazone, affect retinal leukostasis and the associated vascular leakage using an experimental diabetic model...
  18. Deng G, Moran E, Cheng R, Matlock G, Zhou K, Moran D, et al. Therapeutic Effects of a Novel Agonist of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha for the Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:5030-5042 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to identify a novel PPAR? agonist and to evaluate its beneficial effects on DR...
  19. Zhang B, Hu Y, Ma J. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of SERPINA3K in the retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:3943-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Intravitreal injection of SERPINA3K significantly reduced retinal vascular leakage and leukostasis in the OIR model...
  20. You Z, Xiong B, Zhang Y, Shi L, Shi K. Forskolin attenuates retinal inflammation in diabetic mice. Mol Med Rep. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Glucose concentration was additionally calculated. A leukostasis assay was utilized to compare microvasculature pathological alterations...
  21. Capitão M, Soares R. Angiogenesis and Inflammation Crosstalk in Diabetic Retinopathy. J Cell Biochem. 2016;117:2443-53 pubmed publisher
    ..AGE), activation of protein kinase C (PKC), activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), and leukostasis. Chronic and sustained hyperglycemia works as a trigger to the early alterations that culminate in vascular ..
  22. Thornton K, Levis M. Images in clinical medicine. FLT3 Mutation and acute myelogenous leukemia with leukostasis. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:1639 pubmed
  23. Veljkovic D, Kuzmanovic M, Micic D, Šerbić Nonković O. Leukapheresis in management hyperleucocytosis induced complications in two pediatric patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia. Transfus Apher Sci. 2012;46:263-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Leukapheresis is safe and effective therapeutic option for patients with complications of hyperleucocytosis. If started in a timely manner, permanent organ damage or death could be avoided. ..
  24. Pouliot M, Talbot S, Sénécal J, Dotigny F, Vaucher E, Couture R. Ocular application of the kinin B1 receptor antagonist LF22-0542 inhibits retinal inflammation and oxidative stress in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33864 pubmed publisher
    ..The impact was determined on retinal vascular permeability (Evans blue exudation), leukostasis (leukocyte infiltration using Fluorescein-isothiocyanate (FITC)-coupled Concanavalin A lectin), retinal mRNA ..
  25. Zhu X, Wang K, Zhang K, Tan X, Wu Z, Sun S, et al. Tetramethylpyrazine Protects Retinal Capillary Endothelial Cells (TR-iBRB2) against IL-1β-Induced Nitrative/Oxidative Stress. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;16:21775-90 pubmed publisher
    ..TMP was likely to be mediated through the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and leukostasis as well as suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial dysfunction and MAPKs ..
  26. Huang H, Vasilakis P, Zhong X, Shen J, Geronatsiou K, Papadaki H, et al. Parstatin suppresses ocular neovascularization and inflammation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:5825-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Retinal leukostasis in mice was assessed after perfusion with FITC-conjugated concanavalin A...
  27. Azoulay E, Canet E, Raffoux E, Lengliné E, Lemiale V, Vincent F, et al. Dexamethasone in patients with acute lung injury from acute monocytic leukaemia. Eur Respir J. 2012;39:648-53 pubmed publisher
    ..to evaluate dexamethasone in patients with ALI/ARDS caused by acute monocytic leukaemia (AML FAB-M5) via either leukostasis or leukaemic infiltration...
  28. Ye E, Liu L, Jiang Y, Jan J, Gaddipati S, Suvas S, et al. miR-15a/16 reduces retinal leukostasis through decreased pro-inflammatory signaling. J Neuroinflammation. 2016;13:305 pubmed
    ..is a significant risk factor for diabetic retinopathy and induces increased inflammatory responses and retinal leukostasis, as well as vascular damage...
  29. Sugawara R, Hikichi T, Kitaya N, Mori F, Nagaoka T, Yoshida A, et al. Peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst, FP15, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, PJ34, inhibit leukocyte entrapment in the retinal microcirculation of diabetic rats. Curr Eye Res. 2004;29:11-6 pubmed
    ..The current study suggests a role for peroxynitrite production and for PARP activation in the pathogenesis of retinal microvascular leukostasis in early diabetes.
  30. Wang K, Zhu X, Zhang K, Zhou F, Zhu L. Neuroprotective effect of tetramethylpyrazine against all-trans-retinal toxicity in the differentiated Y-79 cells via upregulation of IRBP expression. Exp Cell Res. 2017;359:120-128 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings showed that atRAL could induce cytotoxicity, oxidative/nitrosative stresses, apoptosis and leukostasis in the differentiated Y-79 cells; however, the pre-treatment of TMP significantly attenuated such effects in a ..
  31. Roy S, Kern T, Song B, Stuebe C. Mechanistic Insights into Pathological Changes in the Diabetic Retina: Implications for Targeting Diabetic Retinopathy. Am J Pathol. 2017;187:9-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Inflammation-mediated leukostasis, retinal ischemia, and neovascularization and their contribution to pathological and clinical stages leading to ..
  32. Tendulkar A, Jain P, Gupta A, Sharma N, Navkudkar A, Patle V. Therapeutic leukocyte reduction for acute and chronic myeloid leukemias: A 4-year experience from an oncology center in India. Asian J Transfus Sci. 2017;11:156-161 pubmed publisher
    Hyperleukocytosis (HL) and leukostasis seen in myeloid leukemias are a medical emergency. We present a case series of ten such patients in a 4-year period...
  33. Korkmaz S. The management of hyperleukocytosis in 2017: Do we still need leukapheresis?. Transfus Apher Sci. 2018;57:4-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The term "leukostasis" refers to 'symptomatic hyperleukocytosis' which is a medical emergency that needs prompt recognition and ..
  34. van der Vlugt A, Bos A, Hoekstra M. [Clinical thinking and decision making in practice. A child with tachypnea and dyspnea]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2001;145:625-7 pubmed
    ..The patient died unexpectedly after a few days from massive leukostasis in pulmonary arteries...
  35. Tallman M. Retinoic acid syndrome: a problem of the past?. Leukemia. 2002;16:160-1 pubmed
  36. Mori N, Horie Y, Nimura Y, Wolf R, Granger D. Hepatic microvascular responses to ischemia-reperfusion in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2000;279:G1257-64 pubmed
    ..Plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) levels were used to monitor hepatocellular injury. Microvascular leukostasis as well as increases in NPS and plasma ALT were observed at 60 min after hepatic I/R in both WT and in LDLr(-/-)..
  37. Ortin X, Cid J, Llorente A, Sempere T, Ugarriza A. Cerebrovascular nodules in a patient with leukostasis. Transfusion. 2002;42:965 pubmed
  38. Ma P, Luo Y, Zhu X, Ma H, Hu J, Tang S. Phosphomannopentaose sulfate (PI-88) inhibits retinal leukostasis in diabetic rat. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;380:402-6 pubmed publisher
    Retinal leukostasis, mediated by intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), has been implicated in the pathogenesis of early diabetic retinopathy...
  39. Bertoli S, Picard M, Berard E, Griessinger E, Larrue C, Mouchel P, et al. Dexamethasone in hyperleukocytic acute myeloid leukemia. Haematologica. 2018;103:988-998 pubmed publisher
    ..Because mediators of inflammation contribute to leukostasis and chemoresistance, dexamethasone added to chemotherapy could improve outcomes...
  40. Nguyen X, La Rosée P, Nebe T, Kluter H, Buchheidt D. Rapid treatment of leukostasis in leukemic mantle cell lymphoma using therapeutic leukapheresis: a case report. ScientificWorldJournal. 2011;11:1554-9 pubmed publisher
    We describe a case of severe leukocytosis caused by leukemic mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), complicated by leukostasis with myocardial infarction in which leukapheresis was used in the initial management...
  41. Muller J. [TRALI]. Transfus Clin Biol. 2005;12:230-5 pubmed
  42. Berber I, Erkurt M, Kuku I, Kaya E, Gözükara Bağ H, Nizam I, et al. Leukapheresis treatment in elderly acute leukemia patients with hyperleukocytosis: A single center experience. J Clin Apher. 2016;31:53-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Eighteen patients were 65 years and older. Indications for leukapheresis were determined as symptoms of leukostasis and prophylaxis. Acid citrate dextrose-A, calcium gluconate, and plasma were used during the leukapheresis...
  43. Ellis T, Choudhury R, Kaul K, Chopra M, Kohner E, Tarr J, et al. Diabetic retinopathy and atherosclerosis: is there a link?. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2013;9:146-60 pubmed
    ..The understanding of the link between the two complications could eventually lead to refined management strategies and improved patient outcomes in the expanding diabetes epidemic. ..
  44. Cai Y, Li W, Tu H, Chen N, Zhong Z, Yan P, et al. Curcumolide reduces diabetic retinal vascular leukostasis and leakage partly via inhibition of the p38MAPK/NF-? B signaling. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2017;27:1835-1839 pubmed publisher
    ..Curcumolide alleviated retinal vascular permeability and leukostasis and attenuated the overexpression of TNF-? and ICAM-1 in diabetic retinas...
  45. Masuzawa K, Goto K, Jesmin S, Maeda S, Miyauchi T, Kaji Y, et al. An endothelin type A receptor antagonist reverses upregulated VEGF and ICAM-1 levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat retina. Curr Eye Res. 2006;31:79-89 pubmed
    ..Recently, leukocyte adhesion (leukostasis) is claimed for the occlusion of retinal capillary vascularity, which ultimately assists in the progression of ..
  46. Bretz C, Savage S, Capozzi M, Suarez S, Penn J. NFAT isoforms play distinct roles in TNFα-induced retinal leukostasis. Sci Rep. 2015;5:14963 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to determine the role of individual NFAT isoforms in TNFα-induced retinal leukostasis. To this end, human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMEC) transfected with siRNA targeting individual NFAT ..
  47. Behl T, Kaur I, Kotwani A. Role of leukotrienes in diabetic retinopathy. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2016;122:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..stress and retinal angiogenesis, responsible for exhibition of various characteristic events including leukostasis, macular edema, retinal neovascularization and vitreous hemorrhages, hence, marking the advent of diabetic ..
  48. Muta T, Sawada Y, Moriyama Y, Seike Y, Tokuyama T, Ueda Y, et al. [Chronic myeloid leukemia complicated with cerebellar hemorrhage and acute hydrocephalus successfully treated with imatinib and intensive supportive care]. Rinsho Ketsueki. 2010;51:1769-74 pubmed
    ..She was maintained on imatinib 400 mg/d and demonstrated a major molecular response at 15 months. Physicians need to be aware that brain hemorrhage may develop as an initial symptom of CML patients in CP. ..
  49. Bubała H, Sonta Jakimczyk D, Janik Moszant A, Szczepanski T, Tomaszewska R, Drybańska B, et al. [Leukapheresis in children with chronic myeloid leukemia and pulmonary leukostasis]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2004;17:500-2 pubmed
    ..with chronic myeloid leukemia and hyperleukocytosis above 350 x 10(9)/l causing the symptoms of pulmonary leukostasis. Therapeutic leukapheresis procedures with concomitant chemotherapy were initiated within 12 hours from the ..
  50. Tan D, Hwang W, Goh Y. Therapeutic leukapheresis in hyperleukocytic leukaemias--the experience of a tertiary institution in Singapore. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2005;34:229-34 pubmed
    ..They result from endothelial damage secondary to leukostasis. Leukapheresis, which aims to lower the white blood cell (WBC) count, has been used in certain patients to ..
  51. Zhang J, Xi X, Gao L, Kern T. Captopril inhibits capillary degeneration in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy. Curr Eye Res. 2007;32:883-9 pubmed
    ..The extent of capillary degeneration and leukostasis in the retina were determined...
  52. Thakur A, Scheinman R, Rao V, Kompella U. Pazopanib, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, reduces diabetic retinal vascular leukostasis and leakage. Microvasc Res. 2011;82:346-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Efficacy parameters including the number of adherent leukocytes in the retinal vasculature (leukostasis), blood-retinal FITC-dextran leakage, and vitreous-to-plasma protein ratio were measured...
  53. De Santis G, de Oliveira L, Romano L, Almeida Prado B, Simões B, Rego E, et al. Therapeutic leukapheresis in patients with leukostasis secondary to acute myelogenous leukemia. J Clin Apher. 2011;26:181-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Leukostasis is a relatively uncommon but potentially catastrophic complication of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Prompt leukoreduction is considered imperative to reduce the high mortality rate in this condition...