Summary: Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.

Top Publications

  1. Shklovskaya E, Fazekas de St Groth B. Severely impaired clonal deletion of CD4+ T cells in low-dose irradiated mice: role of T cell antigen receptor and IL-7 receptor signals. J Immunol. 2006;177:8320-30 pubmed
    ..To test whether tolerance is modified under conditions of transient lymphopenia, we tracked the response of 5C.C7 TCR-transgenic CD4+ T cells to i.v...
  2. Guimond M, Veenstra R, Grindler D, Zhang H, Cui Y, Murphy R, et al. Interleukin 7 signaling in dendritic cells regulates the homeostatic proliferation and niche size of CD4+ T cells. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:149-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that systemic IL-7 concentrations increased during lymphopenia because of diminished use of IL-7 but that IL-7 signaling on IL-7 receptor-alpha-positive (IL-7Ralpha(+)) ..
  3. Nagai S, Abouljoud M, Kazimi M, Brown K, Moonka D, Yoshida A. Peritransplant lymphopenia is a novel prognostic factor in recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after liver transplantation. Transplantation. 2014;97:694-701 pubmed publisher
    ..055) (increased risk per 100/?L down). On multivariate Cox regression analysis, peritransplant persistent lymphopenia (<1000/?L before LT and <500/?L at 2 weeks and 1 month after LT) was an independent risk factor for ..
  4. Layman R, Ruppert A, Lynn M, Mrozek E, Ramaswamy B, Lustberg M, et al. Severe and prolonged lymphopenia observed in patients treated with bendamustine and erlotinib for metastatic triple negative breast cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2013;71:1183-90 pubmed publisher
    ..One patient had DLT on dose level 2. However, cumulative toxicities were observed, including grade 3/4 lymphopenia in 91 % (95 % CI 0.59-0.998) with progressively decreased CD4 counts and grade ?3 infections in 36 % (95 % CI 0...
  5. Askenasy E, Askenasy N, Askenasy J. Does lymphopenia preclude restoration of immune homeostasis? The particular case of type 1 diabetes. Autoimmun Rev. 2010;9:687-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, resetting of immune activity is impaired by lymphopenia-induced proliferation of residual diabetogenic clones and delayed recovery of suppressor cells...
  6. Kodumudi K, Weber A, Sarnaik A, Pilon Thomas S. Blockade of myeloid-derived suppressor cells after induction of lymphopenia improves adoptive T cell therapy in a murine model of melanoma. J Immunol. 2012;189:5147-54 pubmed publisher
    ..rate and suppressive activity of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs and CD11b(+)Gr1(+) MDSC following TBI-induced lymphopenia was measured in B16 melanoma tumor-bearing mice...
  7. Pilon Thomas S, Kuhn L, Ellwanger S, Janssen W, Royster E, Marzban S, et al. Efficacy of adoptive cell transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes after lymphopenia induction for metastatic melanoma. J Immunother. 2012;35:615-20 pubmed
    ..Adoptive therapy with infiltrating lymphocytes is labor intensive but feasible and has a high response rate in treated patients. ..
  8. Baba J, Watanabe S, Saida Y, Tanaka T, Miyabayashi T, Koshio J, et al. Depletion of radio-resistant regulatory T cells enhances antitumor immunity during recovery from lymphopenia. Blood. 2012;120:2417-27 pubmed
    ..The generation and therapeutic efficacy of antitumor effector T cells (T(E)s) are enhanced during recovery from lymphopenia. Although the effects of lymphodepletion on naive T cells (T(N)s) and T(E)s have been studied extensively, the ..
  9. Namendys Silva S, Pérez Jiménez C, Cornejo Juárez P, Vilar Compte D, Volkow P. Prolonged lymphopenia in a patient with lymphoma and severe Pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 virus infection. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2011;5:167-9 pubmed publisher
    ..developed respiratory failure despite oseltamivir therapy; he presented a prolonged clinical course with severe lymphopenia and deteriorated every time oseltamivir was stopped while lymphopenia persisted...

More Information


  1. Sampson J, Schmittling R, Archer G, Congdon K, Nair S, Reap E, et al. A pilot study of IL-2R? blockade during lymphopenia depletes regulatory T-cells and correlates with enhanced immunity in patients with glioblastoma. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31046 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine if changes in the cytokine milieu during lymphopenia may engender differential signaling requirements that would enable unarmed anti-IL-2R? monoclonal antibody (..
  2. Gonzalez Cabrera P, Cahalan S, Nguyen N, Sarkisyan G, Leaf N, Cameron M, et al. S1P(1) receptor modulation with cyclical recovery from lymphopenia ameliorates mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Mol Pharmacol. 2012;81:166-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Fingolimod, a nonselective sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonist that induces sustained lymphopenia and accumulates in the CNS, represents a new treatment modality for MS...
  3. Al Aska A, Al Anazi A, Al Subaei S, al Hedaithy M, Barry M, Somily A, et al. CD4+ T-lymphopenia in HIV negative tuberculous patients at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Eur J Med Res. 2011;16:285-8 pubmed
    ..CD4 lymphopenia is a well-defined risk factor for the development of active tuberculosis in patients infected with Human ..
  4. Aoki T, Nishiyama T, Imahashi N, Kitamura K. Lymphopenia following the completion of first-line therapy predicts early relapse in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Ann Hematol. 2012;91:375-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The prognostic value of lymphopenia following the completion of first-line therapy and the relationship between lymphopenia and early relapse are ..
  5. Dou J, Wu Y, Wang J, Zhao F, Chu L, Liu C, et al. Eliciting protective immune responses against murine myeloma challenge in lymphopenia mice through adoptive transfer of tumor antigen-specific lymphocytes and immunization of tumor vaccine secreting mIL-21. Cancer Gene Ther. 2010;17:675-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the adoptive transfer of tumor antigen-specific lymphocytes into mice immunized with mIL-21-Sp2/0 induced protective immune responses against myeloma challenge. ..
  6. Cheng Z, Wang X, Dhall D, Zhao L, Bresee C, Doherty T, et al. Splenic lymphopenia in the endothelin receptor B-null mouse: implications for Hirschsprung associated enterocolitis. Pediatr Surg Int. 2011;27:145-50 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to describe and characterize a novel small spleen phenotype with splenic lymphopenia in the Ednrb-null (Ednrb-/-) mouse with aganglionosis known to also develop enterocolitis...
  7. Dang R, Sasaki N, Nishino T, Nakanishi M, Torigoe D, Agui T. Lymphopenia in Ednrb-deficient rat was strongly modified by genetic background. Biomed Res. 2012;33:249-53 pubmed
    ..In addition, the Ednrb null mice show abnormal splenic microarchitecture with lymphopenia. In this study, we examined whether similar phenotypes are reproduced in three Ednrb-null rat strains that we ..
  8. Kim Y, Kim J, Kim S, Jung H, Kim S, Kim W, et al. Lymphopenia is an important prognostic factor in peripheral T-cell lymphoma (NOS) treated with anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. J Hematol Oncol. 2011;4:34 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate whether lymphopenia at diagnosis would have an adverse effect on survival in patients with PTCL-NOS treated with anthracycline-..
  9. Ceze N, Thibault G, Goujon G, Viguier J, Watier H, Dorval E, et al. Pre-treatment lymphopenia as a prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2011;68:1305-13 pubmed publisher
    b>Lymphopenia is a predictor of the efficacy and hematological toxicity of chemotherapy in various advanced cancers. There is little data about this relationship in colorectal cancer...
  10. de Jager C, van Wijk P, Mathoera R, de Jongh Leuvenink J, van der Poll T, Wever P. Lymphocytopenia and neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio predict bacteremia better than conventional infection markers in an emergency care unit. Crit Care. 2010;14:R192 pubmed publisher
    ..Attention to these markers is easy to integrate in daily practice and without extra costs. ..
  11. Neyns B, Tosoni A, Hwu W, Reardon D. Dose-dense temozolomide regimens: antitumor activity, toxicity, and immunomodulatory effects. Cancer. 2010;116:2868-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies exploring the clinical implications of lymphodepletion are warranted. ..
  12. Porrata L, Rsitow K, Inwards D, Ansell S, Micallef I, Johnston P, et al. Lymphopenia assessed during routine follow-up after immunochemotherapy (R-CHOP) is a risk factor for predicting relapse in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Leukemia. 2010;24:1343-9 pubmed publisher
    ..96 x 10(9)/l (N=46) (P<0.0001). This study suggests that lymphopenia measured by ALC can be used as a marker to assess risk of DLBCL relapse during routine follow-up after standard ..
  13. Sampson J, Aldape K, Archer G, Coan A, Desjardins A, Friedman A, et al. Greater chemotherapy-induced lymphopenia enhances tumor-specific immune responses that eliminate EGFRvIII-expressing tumor cells in patients with glioblastoma. Neuro Oncol. 2011;13:324-33 pubmed publisher
    ..All patients receiving STD TMZ exhibited at least a transient grade 2 lymphopenia, whereas those receiving DI TMZ exhibited a sustained grade 3 lymphopenia (<500 cells/?L)...
  14. Inoue S, Suzuki Utsunomiya K, Okada Y, Taira T, Iida Y, Miura N, et al. Reduction of immunocompetent T cells followed by prolonged lymphopenia in severe sepsis in the elderly. Crit Care Med. 2013;41:810-9 pubmed publisher
    ..89%, p < 0.01). We found that lymphopenia was prolonged for at least 21 days in elderly nonsurvivors of sepsis, while the number of lymphocytes recovered ..
  15. Al Rifai A, Prasad N, Shuttleworth E, McBurney H, Pushpakom S, Robinson A, et al. Natural history of azathioprine-associated lymphopenia in inflammatory bowel disease patients: a prospective observational study. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;23:153-8 pubmed publisher
    Azathioprine (AZA) is commonly used in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Lymphopenia is a recognized effect of this treatment, but lymphopenia-related complications in IBD patients have not been widely reported...
  16. Fock R, Blatt S, Beutler B, Pereira J, Tsujita M, de Barros F, et al. Study of lymphocyte subpopulations in bone marrow in a model of protein-energy malnutrition. Nutrition. 2010;26:1021-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Malnourished animals presented anemia, reticulocytopenia, and leukopenia with lymphopenia. The bone marrow was hypocellular, and flow cytometric analyses of bone marrow cells showed cells that were ..
  17. Sweiss N, Salloum R, Gandhi S, Ghandi S, Alegre M, Sawaqed R, et al. Significant CD4, CD8, and CD19 lymphopenia in peripheral blood of sarcoidosis patients correlates with severe disease manifestations. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9088 pubmed publisher
    ..a cohort of sarcoidosis patients to determine the prevalence, severity, and clinical features associated with lymphopenia in major lymphocyte subsets...
  18. Nfon C, Toka F, Kenney M, Pacheco J, Golde W. Loss of plasmacytoid dendritic cell function coincides with lymphopenia and viremia during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection. Viral Immunol. 2010;23:29-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously reported that FMDV infection induces a transient lymphopenia and interruption of T-lymphocyte responses to mitogenic stimuli...
  19. Sharon N, Talnir R, Lavid O, Rubinstein U, Niven M, First Y, et al. Transient lymphopenia and neutropenia: pediatric influenza A/H1N1 infection in a primary hospital in Israel. Isr Med Assoc J. 2011;13:408-12 pubmed
    ..Pneumonia occurred in 30% of children in both groups. Laboratory findings included early lymphopenia and later neutropenia in theA/H1N1-infected patients...
  20. Thiant S, Yakoub Agha I, Magro L, Trauet J, Coiteux V, Jouet J, et al. Plasma levels of IL-7 and IL-15 in the first month after myeloablative BMT are predictive biomarkers of both acute GVHD and relapse. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2010;45:1546-52 pubmed publisher
    ..93; P=0.035). Plasma IL-7 and IL-15 levels in the early post transplantation period are therefore biomarkers that can help predict subsequent development of acute GVHD and malignancy relapse. ..
  21. Osborne L, Patton D, Seo J, Abraham N. Elevated IL-7 availability does not account for T cell proliferation in moderate lymphopenia. J Immunol. 2011;186:1981-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Lymphopenia-induced proliferation (LIP) is a proliferative program initiated in response to T cell insufficiency caused by acute or chronic immunodepletion...
  22. Zhang N, Bevan M. TGF-? signaling to T cells inhibits autoimmunity during lymphopenia-driven proliferation. Nat Immunol. 2012;13:667-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that TGF-? signaling controls the self-reactivity of peripheral T cells but that in the absence of TGF-? signals, an added trigger such as lymphopenia is needed to drive overt autoimmune disease.
  23. Mackall C, Fry T, Gress R. Harnessing the biology of IL-7 for therapeutic application. Nat Rev Immunol. 2011;11:330-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This Review summarizes the biology of IL-7 and the results of its clinical use that are available so far to provide a perspective on the opportunities for clinical application of this cytokine. ..
  24. Mitchell D, Cui X, Schmittling R, Sanchez Perez L, Snyder D, Congdon K, et al. Monoclonal antibody blockade of IL-2 receptor ? during lymphopenia selectively depletes regulatory T cells in mice and humans. Blood. 2011;118:3003-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that the lymphopenia induced by the chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide (TMZ) enhances vaccine-driven immune responses and ..
  25. Castillo J, Morales D, Quinones P, Cotrina E, Desposorio C, Beltran B. Lymphopenia as a prognostic factor in patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified. Leuk Lymphoma. 2010;51:1822-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of our study was to retrospectively evaluate the presence of lymphopenia, defined as a lymphocyte count of<1000 cells/mm³, as a prognostic factor for survival in patients with ..
  26. Winstead C, Reilly C, Moon J, Jenkins M, Hamilton S, Jameson S, et al. CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells optimize diversity of the conventional T cell repertoire during reconstitution from lymphopenia. J Immunol. 2010;184:4749-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In states of lymphopenia, T cells are driven to proliferate to restore the T cell population size...
  27. Miyao T, Floess S, Setoguchi R, Luche H, Fehling H, Waldmann H, et al. Plasticity of Foxp3(+) T cells reflects promiscuous Foxp3 expression in conventional T cells but not reprogramming of regulatory T cells. Immunity. 2012;36:262-75 pubmed publisher
    ..This study establishes that Treg cells constitute a stable cell lineage, whose committed state in a changing environment is ensured by DNA demethylation of the Foxp3 locus irrespectively of ongoing Foxp3 expression. ..
  28. Gelfand M, Cleveland K, Brewer S. Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in a patient with fludarabine-treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia and CD4-lymphopenia. Am J Med Sci. 2010;340:80-1 pubmed publisher
    ..Prolonged CD4 lymphopenia may develop in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who receive fludarabine...
  29. Oo M, Chang S, Thangada S, Wu M, Rezaul K, BLAHO V, et al. Engagement of S1P?-degradative mechanisms leads to vascular leak in mice. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:2290-300 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor inhibitor FTY720 (also known as Fingolimod), which induces lymphopenia and prevents neuroinflammation, was adopted as a disease-modifying therapeutic in multiple sclerosis...
  30. Yovino S, Kleinberg L, Grossman S, Narayanan M, Ford E. The etiology of treatment-related lymphopenia in patients with malignant gliomas: modeling radiation dose to circulating lymphocytes explains clinical observations and suggests methods of modifying the impact of radiation on immune cells. Cancer Invest. 2013;31:140-4 pubmed publisher
    Severe treatment-related lymphopenia (TRL) occurs in 40% of patients with high grade gliomas (HGG) receiving glucocorticoids, temozolomide, and radiation...
  31. Campian J, Ye X, Brock M, Grossman S. Treatment-related lymphopenia in patients with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer. Cancer Invest. 2013;31:183-8 pubmed publisher
    This study sought to estimate the severity, etiology, and clinical importance of treatment-related lymphopenia in patients with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer...
  32. Buckley R. The long quest for neonatal screening for severe combined immunodeficiency. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129:597-604; quiz 605-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, implementation of screening required development of an assay for T-cell lymphopenia that could be performed on dried bloodspots routinely collected from newborn infants for the past 48 years...
  33. Cao B, Li X, Mao Y, Wang J, Lu H, Chen Y, et al. Clinical features of the initial cases of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in China. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:2507-17 pubmed publisher
    ..5%). The incidence of diarrhea was 2.8%, and the incidence of nausea and vomiting was 1.9%. Lymphopenia, which was common in both adults (68.1%) and children (92...
  34. Cretel E, Veen I, Pierres A, Binan Y, Robert P, Loundou A, et al. [Immune profile of elderly patients admitted in a geriatric short care unit]. Rev Med Interne. 2011;32:275-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We found a prevalence of 86% of immunological abnormalities, with lymphopenia among 41% of the patients (<1500/mm(3)) and abnormal lymphocytes phenotypes among 95% of the oldest patients ..
  35. Bégin P, Patey N, Mueller P, Rasquin A, Sirard A, Klein C, et al. Inflammatory bowel disease and T cell lymphopenia in G6PC3 deficiency. J Clin Immunol. 2013;33:520-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigate the findings of T cell lymphopenia and inflammatory bowel disease in a child with G6PC3 deficiency due to compound heterozygous mutations in ..
  36. Parker R, Dutrieux J, Beq S, Lemercier B, Rozlan S, Fabre Mersseman V, et al. Interleukin-7 treatment counteracts IFN-? therapy-induced lymphopenia and stimulates SIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in SIV-infected rhesus macaques. Blood. 2010;116:5589-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite good effectiveness, this cytokine is associated with major side effects, including significant lymphopenia, that limits its use for HIV/HCV-coinfected patients...
  37. Thangada S, Khanna K, Blaho V, Oo M, Im D, Guo C, et al. Cell-surface residence of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 on lymphocytes determines lymphocyte egress kinetics. J Exp Med. 2010;207:1475-83 pubmed publisher
    ..of this G protein-coupled receptor correlates with inhibition of lymphocyte egress and results in lymphopenia. However, it is unclear if S1P(1) internalization is necessary for this effect...
  38. Verbsky J, Thakar M, ROUTES J. The Wisconsin approach to newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129:622-7 pubmed publisher
    ..excision circle (TREC) assay began in Wisconsin in 2008; 5 infants with SCID or other forms of severe T-cell lymphopenia (TCL) have been detected, and no infants with SCID have been missed...
  39. Sensken S, Bode C, Nagarajan M, Peest U, Pabst O, Gräler M. Redistribution of sphingosine 1-phosphate by sphingosine kinase 2 contributes to lymphopenia. J Immunol. 2010;184:4133-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of the S1P-lyase prevents lymphocyte egress and causes lymphopenia because of increased S1P levels in lymphoid tissues...
  40. Johnson L, Jameson S. Self-specific CD8+ T cells maintain a semi-naive state following lymphopenia-induced proliferation. J Immunol. 2010;184:5604-11 pubmed publisher
    Upon transfer into T cell-deficient hosts, naive CD8(+) T cells typically undergo lymphopenia-induced proliferation (LIP, also called homeostatic proliferation) and develop the phenotypic and functional characteristics of memory CD8(+) T ..
  41. Coelho F, Pradella Hallinan M, Pedrazzoli M, Soares C, Fernandes G, Murray B, et al. Low CD40L levels and relative lymphopenia in narcoleptic patients. Hum Immunol. 2011;72:817-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Narcoleptic patients had lower levels of CD40L. Total lymphocytes; CD3, and TCD4 were lower than in the control group. Our findings highlight the important role of CD40L in narcolepsy...
  42. Ignatowska Jankowska B, Jankowski M, Glac W, Swiergel A. Cannabidiol-induced lymphopenia does not involve NKT and NK cells. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;60 Suppl 3:99-103 pubmed
  43. Joo S, Xie W, Xiong X, Xu B, Zhao H. Ischemic postconditioning protects against focal cerebral ischemia by inhibiting brain inflammation while attenuating peripheral lymphopenia in mice. Neuroscience. 2013;243:149-57 pubmed publisher
    ..IPostC model in mice and investigates how IPostC affects infiltration of leukocytes in the ischemic brain and lymphopenia associated with stroke-induced immunodepression. A total of 125 mice were used...
  44. Lavergne V, Beauséjour Y, Pichette G, Ghannoum M, Su S. Lymphopenia as a novel marker of Clostridium difficile infection recurrence. J Infect. 2013;66:129-35 pubmed publisher
    ..26 for each decade), female gender (HR=1.56), and lymphopenia at completion of CDI treatment (HR=2.18), while a positive C. difficile antitoxin serology was protective (HR=0...
  45. Sauce D, Larsen M, Fastenackels S, Roux A, Gorochov G, Katlama C, et al. Lymphopenia-driven homeostatic regulation of naive T cells in elderly and thymectomized young adults. J Immunol. 2012;189:5541-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings support the establishment of homeostatic regulation of naive T cell proliferation in humans. This regulation is particularly active in lymphopenic hosts, such as elderly and thymectomized patients. ..
  46. Correa Rocha R, Perez A, Lorente R, Ferrando Martinez S, Leal M, Gurbindo D, et al. Preterm neonates show marked leukopenia and lymphopenia that are associated with increased regulatory T-cell values and diminished IL-7. Pediatr Res. 2012;71:590-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the risk of neonatal death in preterm infants is much greater than in full-term neonates and is frequently associated with infections...
  47. Shevtsova Z, Garrido M, Weishaupt J, Saftig P, Bahr M, Luhder F, et al. CNS-expressed cathepsin D prevents lymphopenia in a murine model of congenital neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:271-9 pubmed publisher
    ..CtsD-deficient mice show severe visceral lesions like lymphopenia in addition to their central nervous system (CNS) phenotype of ceroid accumulation, microglia activation, and ..
  48. Yilmaz Demirdag Y, Wilson B, Lowery Nordberg M, Bocchini J, Bahna S. Interleukin-2 treatment for persistent cryptococcal meningitis in a child with idiopathic CD4(+) T lymphocytopenia. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2008;29:421-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This case is the first reported pediatric idiopathic CD4(+) T-lymphocytopenia case with cryptococcal meningitis that was successfully treated by the addition of rIL-2 therapy to antifungal therapy. ..
  49. Levy Y, Lacabaratz C, Weiss L, Viard J, Goujard C, Lelievre J, et al. Enhanced T cell recovery in HIV-1-infected adults through IL-7 treatment. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:997-1007 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, patients may benefit from intermittent therapy with IL-7 in combination with c-ART. ..
  50. Hart A, Skinner J, Winship P, Faria N, Kulinskaya E, Webster D, et al. Circulating levels of cobalt and chromium from metal-on-metal hip replacement are associated with CD8+ T-cell lymphopenia. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2009;91:835-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Laboratory-defined T-cell lymphopenia was present in 13 patients (15%) (CD8(+) lymphopenia) and 11 patients (13%) (CD3(+) lymphopenia) with ..
  51. Vogel P, Donoviel M, Read R, Hansen G, Hazlewood J, Anderson S, et al. Incomplete inhibition of sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase modulates immune system function yet prevents early lethality and non-lymphoid lesions. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4112 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis showed that all S1PL-deficient genetic models in this study displayed lymphopenia, with sequestration of mature T cells in the thymus and lymph nodes...
  52. Lee P, Ciccone E, Read S, Asher A, Pitts R, Douek D, et al. Evidence for translocation of microbial products in patients with idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:1664-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a potential association of translocation of microbial products with perturbed CD4 T cell homeostasis in individuals with CD4 lymphopenic states other than HIV infection. ..
  53. Le Campion A, Gagnerault M, Auffray C, Becourt C, Poitrasson Rivière M, Lallemand E, et al. Lymphopenia-induced spontaneous T-cell proliferation as a cofactor for autoimmune disease development. Blood. 2009;114:1784-93 pubmed publisher
    b>Lymphopenia is thought to be a major cause of tolerance breakdown. In a lymphopenic environment, self-recognition events induce some T cells to expand strongly (a mechanism known as spontaneous proliferation)...
  54. Krupica T, Fry T, Mackall C. Autoimmunity during lymphopenia: a two-hit model. Clin Immunol. 2006;120:121-8 pubmed
    ..During lymphopenia, however, some mechanisms that normally serve to maintain host tolerance are temporarily suspended...
  55. Weber C, Krueger A, Münk A, Bode C, Van Veldhoven P, Gräler M. Discontinued postnatal thymocyte development in sphingosine 1-phosphate-lyase-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2009;183:4292-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that potentially therapeutic immunosuppression by SGPL1 inhibition should benefit from monitoring ceramides to prevent their increase to apoptosis- inducing levels. ..
  56. Sun J, Ma A, Lanier L. Cutting edge: IL-15-independent NK cell response to mouse cytomegalovirus infection. J Immunol. 2009;183:2911-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings demonstrate a previously unrecognized independence of NK cells on IL-15 or other common gamma signaling cytokines during their response against viral infection. ..
  57. Unsinger J, Kazama H, McDonough J, Hotchkiss R, Ferguson T. Differential lymphopenia-induced homeostatic proliferation for CD4+ and CD8+ T cells following septic injury. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;85:382-90 pubmed publisher
    ..As lymphopenia can induce nonantigen-driven homeostatic proliferation (HP), we examined this process during sepsis...
  58. Huang H, Chiang Y, Hung S, Li C, Yen J. An IL-7 splicing-defect lymphopenia mouse model revealed by genome-wide mutagenesis. J Biomed Sci. 2007;14:169-81 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that this mutant mouse line provides an alternative animal model for the study of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in humans. ..
  59. Boyman O, Ramsey C, Kim D, Sprent J, Surh C. IL-7/anti-IL-7 mAb complexes restore T cell development and induce homeostatic T Cell expansion without lymphopenia. J Immunol. 2008;180:7265-75 pubmed
    ..The strong stimulatory activity of IL-7/mAb complexes could be useful for treatment of immunodeficiency and cancer. ..
  60. Amit A, Sudish K, Pople I. Primary calvarial cryptococcal osteomyelitis in a patient with idiopathic lymphopenia. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2008;150:713-4 pubmed publisher
    An example of primary calvarial cryptococcal osteomyelitis in a patient with idiopathic lymphopenia is presented. The patient was a suboptimally immunocompetent host with an isolated skull involvement without any systemic infection...
  61. Le Saout C, Mennechet S, Taylor N, Hernandez J. Memory-like CD8+ and CD4+ T cells cooperate to break peripheral tolerance under lymphopenic conditions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:19414-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that lymphopenia-driven proliferation and differentiation of potentially autoreactive CD8(+) T cells into memory-like cells is ..
  62. Rossberg S, Schwarz K, Meisel C, Holzhauer S, Kuhl J, Ebell W, et al. Delayed onset of (severe) combined immunodeficiency (S)CID (T-B+NK+): complete IL-7 receptor deficiency in a 22 months old girl. Klin Padiatr. 2009;221:339-43 pubmed publisher
    ..On admission to our department at 22 months the patient presented with severe T cell lymphopenia. PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECI pneumonia was diagnosed from broncho-alveolar lavage fluid...
  63. Bosco N, Agenes F, Rolink A, Ceredig R. Peripheral T cell lymphopenia and concomitant enrichment in naturally arising regulatory T cells: the case of the pre-Talpha gene-deleted mouse. J Immunol. 2006;177:5014-23 pubmed
    ..Thus, the pTalpha(-/-) mouse serves as a model system with which to study the consequences of chronic decreased thymic T cell production on the physiology of the peripheral T cell compartment. ..
  64. Duarte J, Zelenay S, Bergman M, Martins A, Demengeot J. Natural Treg cells spontaneously differentiate into pathogenic helper cells in lymphopenic conditions. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:948-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings that Treg convert into pathogenic Th cells in absence of IL-2 provide new clues to the success of Treg-based immune therapies. ..
  65. Kamphuis E, Junt T, Waibler Z, Forster R, Kalinke U. Type I interferons directly regulate lymphocyte recirculation and cause transient blood lymphopenia. Blood. 2006;108:3253-61 pubmed
    Early viral infection is often associated with lymphopenia, a transient reduction of blood lymphocyte counts long before the onset of clinical symptoms...