hemolytic anemia

Summary

Summary: A condition of inadequate circulating red blood cells (ANEMIA) or insufficient HEMOGLOBIN due to premature destruction of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES).

Top Publications

  1. Kanno H, Utsugisawa T, Aizawa S, Koizumi T, Aisaki K, Hamada T, et al. Transgenic rescue of hemolytic anemia due to red blood cell pyruvate kinase deficiency. Haematologica. 2007;92:731-7 pubmed
    ..R-PK) deficiency is the most common glycolytic enzyme defect associated with hereditary non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia. Cases with the most severe deficiency die in the peri- or neonatal period and no specific therapy exists at ..
  2. Setty B, Betal S, Zhang J, Stuart M. Heme induces endothelial tissue factor expression: potential role in hemostatic activation in patients with hemolytic anemia. J Thromb Haemost. 2008;6:2202-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the possibility that heme, an inflammatory mediator and a product of intravascular hemolysis in patients with hemolytic anemia including sickle cell disease, could modulate hemostasis by an effect on endothelial tissue factor (TF) ..
  3. Alvarez B, Kieller D, Quon A, Robertson M, Casey J. Cardiac hypertrophy in anion exchanger 1-null mutant mice with severe hemolytic anemia. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;292:H1301-12 pubmed
    ..to assess the role of AE1 in heart function through study of AE1-null (AE1(-/-)) mice, which manifest severe hemolytic anemia resulting from erythrocyte fragility...
  4. Rokushima M, Omi K, Araki A, Kyokawa Y, Furukawa N, Itoh F, et al. A toxicogenomic approach revealed hepatic gene expression changes mechanistically linked to drug-induced hemolytic anemia. Toxicol Sci. 2007;95:474-84 pubmed
    A variety of pharmaceutical compounds causes hemolytic anemia as a significant adverse effect and this toxicity restricts the clinical utility of these drugs...
  5. Dearden C, Wade R, Else M, Richards S, Milligan D, Hamblin T, et al. The prognostic significance of a positive direct antiglobulin test in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a beneficial effect of the combination of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide on the incidence of hemolytic anemia. Blood. 2008;111:1820-6 pubmed
    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AHA) is a common complication in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)...
  6. Thompson A, Fellay J, Patel K, Tillmann H, Naggie S, Ge D, et al. Variants in the ITPA gene protect against ribavirin-induced hemolytic anemia and decrease the need for ribavirin dose reduction. Gastroenterology. 2010;139:1181-9 pubmed publisher
    ..that cause inosine triphosphatase (ITPase) deficiency were shown to protect against ribavirin (RBV)-induced hemolytic anemia during early stages of treatment...
  7. Troisi G, Borjesson L, Bexton S, Robinson I. Biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-associated hemolytic anemia in oiled wildlife. Environ Res. 2007;105:324-9 pubmed
    ..PAHs) in crude oil cause a range of adverse effects in oiled seabirds, one of the most common being hemolytic anemia via oxidative attack of erythrocytes by PAH metabolites resulting in hemoglobin leakage and formation of ..
  8. McDade J, Aygun B, Ware R. Brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa) envenomation leading to acute hemolytic anemia in six adolescents. J Pediatr. 2010;156:155-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To highlight this important diagnostic consideration for unexplained hemolysis in areas endemic for brown recluse spiders, we report on 6 adolescents with acute hemolytic anemia from presumed L reclusa bites.
  9. McDade J, Abramova T, Mortier N, Howard T, Ware R. A novel G6PD mutation leading to chronic hemolytic anemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008;51:816-9 pubmed publisher
    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an important cause of hemolytic anemia worldwide. Severely affected patients have chronic hemolysis with exacerbations following oxidative stress...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Rokushima M, Omi K, Imura K, Araki A, Furukawa N, Itoh F, et al. Toxicogenomics of drug-induced hemolytic anemia by analyzing gene expression profiles in the spleen. Toxicol Sci. 2007;100:290-302 pubmed
    b>Hemolytic anemia is a serious adverse effect of therapeutic drugs that is caused by increased destruction of drug-damaged erythrocytes by macrophages in the spleen and liver...
  2. Weber Y, Storch A, Wuttke T, Brockmann K, Kempfle J, Maljevic S, et al. GLUT1 mutations are a cause of paroxysmal exertion-induced dyskinesias and induce hemolytic anemia by a cation leak. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:2157-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Their PED was accompanied by epilepsy, mild developmental delay, reduced CSF glucose levels, hemolytic anemia with echinocytosis, and altered erythrocyte ion concentrations...
  3. Chen H, Khan A, Liu F, Gilligan D, Peters L, Messick J, et al. Combined deletion of mouse dematin-headpiece and beta-adducin exerts a novel effect on the spectrin-actin junctions leading to erythrocyte fragility and hemolytic anemia. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:4124-35 pubmed
    ..Peripheral blood analysis shows evidence of severe hemolytic anemia with reduced number of erythrocytes/hematocrit/hemoglobin and an approximately 12-fold increase in the number ..
  4. Packman C. Hemolytic anemia due to warm autoantibodies. Blood Rev. 2008;22:17-31 pubmed
    The diagnosis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AHA) requires evidence of shortened red blood cell (RBC) survival mediated by autoantibodies directed against autologous RBCs...
  5. Clynes R, Ravetch J. Cytotoxic antibodies trigger inflammation through Fc receptors. Immunity. 1995;3:21-6 pubmed
    ..cytotoxic and immune complex-triggered inflammatory disorders, typified by rheumatic diseases, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia...
  6. White R, Birkenmeier C, Lux S, Barker J. Ankyrin and the hemolytic anemia mutation, nb, map to mouse chromosome 8: presence of the nb allele is associated with a truncated erythrocyte ankyrin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:3117-21 pubmed
    Mice with normoblastosis, nb/nb, have a severe hemolytic anemia. The extreme fragility and shortened lifespan of the mutant erythrocytes result from a defective membrane skeleton...
  7. McMillan D, Bradshaw T, Hinson J, Jollow D. Role of metabolites in propanil-induced hemolytic anemia. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1991;110:70-8 pubmed
    b>Hemolytic anemia and methemoglobinemia induced by exposure to certain arylamines, such as aniline and dapsone, are known to be mediated by their N-hydroxylamine metabolites...
  8. Ristoff E, Augustson C, Geissler J, de Rijk T, Carlsson K, Luo J, et al. A missense mutation in the heavy subunit of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene causes hemolytic anemia. Blood. 2000;95:2193-6 pubmed
    ..Hereditary deficiency of GCS has been reported in 6 patients with hemolytic anemia and low erythrocyte levels of glutathione and gamma-glutamylcysteine...
  9. Valentin C, Birgens H, Craescu C, Brødum Nielsen K, Cohen Solal M. A phosphoglycerate kinase mutant (PGK Herlev; D285V) in a Danish patient with isolated chronic hemolytic anemia: mechanism of mutation and structure-function relationships. Hum Mutat. 1998;12:280-7 pubmed
    ..Such an approach can be generalized to any other protein that has been crystallized and for which x-ray diffraction data are available in a species closely related to man. ..
  10. Fishman A, Hoffman A, Volterra F, Frymus M, Gentilluci M. Intracaval and intracardiac metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell tumor: a rare cause of hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Cancer Invest. 2002;20:996-1001 pubmed
    ..Resection of the intracardiac mass, prompted by rapid tumor progression despite treatment with systemic chemotherapy, demonstrated mature teratoma and resulted in prompt normalization of the patients hematologic profile. ..
  11. McMillan D, Sarvate S, Oatis J, Jollow D. Role of oxidant stress in lawsone-induced hemolytic anemia. Toxicol Sci. 2004;82:647-55 pubmed
    ..Application of henna can induce a severe hemolytic anemia, and lawsone is thought to be the causative agent...
  12. Baronciani L, Beutler E. Analysis of pyruvate kinase-deficiency mutations that produce nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:4324-7 pubmed
    ..In normal subjects, five differences from the published cDNA sequence were documented. ..
  13. Rybicki A, Qiu J, Musto S, Rosen N, Nagel R, Schwartz R. Human erythrocyte protein 4.2 deficiency associated with hemolytic anemia and a homozygous 40glutamic acid-->lysine substitution in the cytoplasmic domain of band 3 (band 3Montefiore). Blood. 1993;81:2155-65 pubmed
    Red blood cell (RBC) protein 4.2 deficiency is often associated with a moderate nonimmune hemolytic anemia, splenomegaly, and osmotically fragile RBCs resembling, but not identical to, hereditary spherocytosis (HS)...
  14. Fujii H, Chen S, Akatsuka J, Miwa S, Yoshida A. Use of cultured lymphoblastoid cells for the study of abnormal enzymes: molecular abnormality of a phosphoglycerate kinase variant associated with hemolytic anemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981;78:2587-90 pubmed
    ..7.2.3; X chromosome-linked) variant, PGKase-Tokyo, is associated with enzyme deficiency, nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia, and neurological disturbances...
  15. Shah A. Acquired hemolytic anemia. Indian J Med Sci. 2004;58:533-6 pubmed
  16. Qin X, Krumrei N, Grubissich L, Dobarro M, Aktas H, Perez G, et al. Deficiency of the mouse complement regulatory protein mCd59b results in spontaneous hemolytic anemia with platelet activation and progressive male infertility. Immunity. 2003;18:217-27 pubmed
    ..Consistently, mCd59b knockout mice present a strong phenotype characterized by hemolytic anemia with increased reticulocytes, anisopoikilocytosis, echinocytosis, schistocytosis, free hemoglobin in plasma, ..
  17. Vulliamy T, D Urso M, Battistuzzi G, Estrada M, Foulkes N, Martini G, et al. Diverse point mutations in the human glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene cause enzyme deficiency and mild or severe hemolytic anemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:5171-5 pubmed
    ..In G6PD Santiago, a de novo mutation (glycine----arginine) is associated with severe chronic hemolytic anemia. The mutations observed show a striking predominance of C----T transitions, with CG doublets involved in four ..
  18. Friedman J, Rebel V, Derby R, Bell K, Huang T, Kuypers F, et al. Absence of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase results in a murine hemolytic anemia responsive to therapy with a catalytic antioxidant. J Exp Med. 2001;193:925-34 pubmed
    ..Such therapy may prove useful in treatment of human disorders such as sideroblastic anemia, which SOD2 deficiency most closely resembles. ..
  19. Marinaki A, Escuredo E, Duley J, Simmonds H, Amici A, Naponelli V, et al. Genetic basis of hemolytic anemia caused by pyrimidine 5' nucleotidase deficiency. Blood. 2001;97:3327-32 pubmed
    Pyrimidine 5' nucleotidase (P5'N-1) deficiency is an autosomal recessive condition causing hemolytic anemia characterized by marked basophilic stippling and the accumulation of high concentrations of pyrimidine nucleotides within the ..
  20. Peters L, Lane P, Andersen S, Gwynn B, Barker J, Beutler E. Downeast anemia (dea), a new mouse model of severe nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia caused by hexokinase (HK(1)) deficiency. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2001;27:850-60 pubmed
    A new spontaneous mutation in the A/J inbred mouse strain, downeast anemia (dea), causes severe hemolytic anemia with extensive tissue iron deposition and marked reticulocytosis. The anemia is present at birth and persists throughout life...
  21. Neubauer B, Lakomek M, Winkler H, Parke M, Hofferbert S, Schröter W. Point mutations in the L-type pyruvate kinase gene of two children with hemolytic anemia caused by pyruvate kinase deficiency. Blood. 1991;77:1871-5 pubmed
    ..In contrast to PK Linz, this amino acid lies outside the deduced substrate binding site and kinetic parameters of PK Beirut are close to normal. Both enzyme variants show a markedly reduced specific activity and thermolability. ..
  22. Arkenau H, Müssig O, Buhr T, Jend H, Porschen R. Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) as paraneoplastic syndrome in metastasized signet ring cell carcinomas: case reports and review of the literature. Z Gastroenterol. 2005;43:719-22 pubmed
    We report on two spontaneous cases of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) as first manifestation due to metastasized signet ring carcinoma, one of gastric and one of unknown origin...
  23. Birkenmeier C, Gifford E, Barker J. Normoblastosis, a murine model for ankyrin-deficient hemolytic anemia, is caused by a hypomorphic mutation in the erythroid ankyrin gene Ank1. Hematol J. 2003;4:445-9 pubmed
  24. Jarolim P, Palek J, Rubin H, Prchal J, Korsgren C, Cohen C. Band 3 Tuscaloosa: Pro327----Arg327 substitution in the cytoplasmic domain of erythrocyte band 3 protein associated with spherocytic hemolytic anemia and partial deficiency of protein 4.2. Blood. 1992;80:523-9 pubmed
    ..Inherited deficiencies of this protein are associated with spherocytic hemolytic anemia, but the molecular basis of this defect is unknown...
  25. Hayette S, Dhermy D, dos Santos M, Bozon M, Drenckhahn D, Alloisio N, et al. A deletional frameshift mutation in protein 4.2 gene (allele 4.2 Lisboa) associated with hereditary hemolytic anemia. Blood. 1995;85:250-6 pubmed
    We studied a 26-year-old Portuguese patient with recessively transmitted hereditary hemolytic anemia. Protein 4.2 was absent from red cell ghosts by Western blotting. Although the 4...
  26. Matsuura S, Igarashi M, Tanizawa Y, Yamada M, Kishi F, Kajii T, et al. Human adenylate kinase deficiency associated with hemolytic anemia. A single base substitution affecting solubility and catalytic activity of the cytosolic adenylate kinase. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:10148-55 pubmed
    Adenylate kinase deficiency in the erythrocyte is a rare genetic disorder associated with hemolytic anemia. To determine the molecular basis of this disorder, we first cloned the normal gene encoding human cytosolic adenylate kinase (AK1) ..
  27. Baronciani L, Zanella A, Bianchi P, Zappa M, Alfinito F, Iolascon A, et al. Study of the molecular defects in glucose phosphate isomerase-deficient patients affected by chronic hemolytic anemia. Blood. 1996;88:2306-10 pubmed
    We have studied four unrelated Italian patients with chronic hemolytic anemia associated with glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) deficiency...
  28. Kanno H, Fujii H, Hirono A, Ishida Y, Ohga S, Fukumoto Y, et al. Molecular analysis of glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency associated with hereditary hemolytic anemia. Blood. 1996;88:2321-5 pubmed
    We report here two new cases of glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) deficiency associated with hemolytic anemia and present the results of molecular analysis of the five Japanese GPI variants...
  29. Dahl N, Pigg M, Ristoff E, Gali R, Carlsson B, Mannervik B, et al. Missense mutations in the human glutathione synthetase gene result in severe metabolic acidosis, 5-oxoprolinuria, hemolytic anemia and neurological dysfunction. Hum Mol Genet. 1997;6:1147-52 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that complete loss of function of both GS alleles is probably lethal. It is postulated that missense mutations will account for the phenotype in the majority of patients with severe GS deficiency. ..
  30. Leo A, Mytilineos J, Voso M, Weber Nordt R, Liebisch P, Lensing C, et al. Passenger lymphocyte syndrome with severe hemolytic anemia due to an anti-Jk(a) after allogeneic PBPC transplantation. Transfusion. 2000;40:632-6 pubmed
    ..In most cases, this syndrome is triggered by ABO system antibodies. This is the first reported case of passenger lymphocyte syndrome after PBPC transplantation that was due to an alloantibody that did not belong to the ABO system. ..
  31. Wagner K, Claudio E, Rucker E, Riedlinger G, Broussard C, Schwartzberg P, et al. Conditional deletion of the Bcl-x gene from erythroid cells results in hemolytic anemia and profound splenomegaly. Development. 2000;127:4949-58 pubmed
    ..Three-month-old animals suffered from severe hemolytic anemia, hyperplasia of immature erythroid cells and profound enlargement of the spleen...
  32. Ghanayem B, Long P, Ward S, Chanas B, Nyska M, Nyska A. Hemolytic anemia, thrombosis, and infarction in male and female F344 rats following gavage exposure to 2-butoxyethanol. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2001;53:97-105 pubmed
    ..BE causes severe hemolytic anemia in male and female rats and mice...
  33. Yamato O, Kasai E, Katsura T, Takahashi S, Shiota T, Tajima M, et al. Heinz body hemolytic anemia with eccentrocytosis from ingestion of Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum) and garlic (Allium sativum) in a dog. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2005;41:68-73 pubmed
    ..Hematological examinations revealed severe Heinz body hemolytic anemia with eccentrocytosis and an increased concentration of methemoglobin, which was thought to result from ..
  34. Hofmann Lehmann R, Meli M, Dreher U, Gönczi E, Deplazes P, Braun U, et al. Concurrent infections with vector-borne pathogens associated with fatal hemolytic anemia in a cattle herd in Switzerland. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:3775-80 pubmed
    ..We concluded that A. marginale was the major cause of the hemolytic anemia, while coinfections with other agents exacerbated the disease...
  35. Beutler E, Moroose R, Kramer L, Gelbart T, Forman L. Gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase deficiency and hemolytic anemia. Blood. 1990;75:271-3 pubmed
    ..enzyme has been found only once previously in humans: it was associated with spinocerebellar degeneration and hemolytic anemia. We report the case of a woman, daughter of fifth cousins, who was gamma-glutamylcysteine-synthetase-..
  36. Maeda M, Yoshida A. Molecular defect of a phosphoglycerate kinase variant (PGK-Matsue) associated with hemolytic anemia: Leu----Pro substitution caused by T/A----C/G transition in exon 3. Blood. 1991;77:1348-52 pubmed
    ..kinase variant (PGK-Matsue) associated with severe enzyme deficiency, congenital nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia, and mental disorders...
  37. Pretsch W, Merkle S, Favor J, Werner T. A mutation affecting the lactate dehydrogenase locus Ldh-1 in the mouse. II. Mechanism of the LDH-A deficiency associated with hemolytic anemia. Genetics. 1993;135:161-70 pubmed
    ..the A subunit of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was used to study the molecular and metabolic basis of severe hemolytic anemia due to LDH-A deficiency in the mouse...
  38. Sills M, Zinkham W. Methylene blue-induced Heinz body hemolytic anemia. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1994;148:306-10 pubmed
    ..Toxic manifestations include hyperbilirubinemia, Heinz body hemolytic anemia, and possibly desquamation of the skin...
  39. Lin Y, Chang H, Sun C, Shih L. Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia as an initial presentation of metastatic cancer of unknown primary origin. South Med J. 1995;88:683-7 pubmed
    Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) is a well-documented but rare complication of disseminated cancer; it usually occurs in the late or terminal stage of cancer...
  40. Sitbon M, Sola B, Evans L, Nishio J, Hayes S, Nathanson K, et al. Hemolytic anemia and erythroleukemia, two distinct pathogenic effects of Friend MuLV: mapping of the effects to different regions of the viral genome. Cell. 1986;47:851-9 pubmed
    ..F-MuLV induced hemolytic anemia with increased levels of erythropoiesis, which was detectable as early as 13 days of age, whereas blocked ..
  41. Freedman A, Afonja O, Chang M, Mostashari F, Blaser M, Perez Perez G, et al. Cutaneous anthrax associated with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and coagulopathy in a 7-month-old infant. JAMA. 2002;287:869-74 pubmed
    ..The infant displayed severe microangiopathic hemolytic anemia with renal involvement, coagulopathy, and hyponatremia...
  42. Wang R, Yang S, Xu M, Huang J, Liu H, Gu W, et al. Exome sequencing confirms molecular diagnoses in 38 Chinese families with hereditary spherocytosis. Sci China Life Sci. 2018;61:947-953 pubmed publisher
    Hereditary spherocytosis (HS), the most common cause of congenital hemolytic anemia, is caused by deficiency of the erythrocyte membrane proteins. Five causative genes (ANK1, SPTB, SPTA1, SLC4A1, and EPB42) have been identified...
  43. Yetgin S, Aytaç Elmas S. Parvovirus-B19 and hematologic disorders. Turk J Haematol. 2010;27:224-33 pubmed publisher
    ..which is common in children, hydrops fetalis, transient pure red cell aplasia in patients with chronic hemolytic anemia, arthralgia - mostly observed in women, and chronic pure red cell aplasia in immunocompromised individuals...
  44. Starek A, Szabla J, Starek Swiechowicz B. Pyrazole and methylpyrazole for the treatment of 2-butoxyethanol poisoning. Acta Pol Pharm. 2007;64:93-100 pubmed
    ..features of human and animal BE intoxications mainly include metabolic acidosis, CNS depression and coma, hemolytic anemia, hematuria, and renal injury...
  45. Jang M, Kim J, Lee K, Kim S, Koo H, Kim H. A Novel de novo Mutation in the G6PD Gene in a Korean Boy with Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency: Case Report. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2015;45:446-8 pubmed
    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked recessive hemolytic anemia caused by a mutation in the G6PD gene on Xq28. Herein, we describe a Korean boy with G6PD deficiency resulting from a novel mutation in G6PD...
  46. Mannucci P, Cugno M. The complex differential diagnosis between thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and the atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome: Laboratory weapons and their impact on treatment choice and monitoring. Thromb Res. 2015;136:851-4 pubmed publisher
    Thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia are the hallmark of the thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)...
  47. Sakamoto Y, Hashimoto K, Okuyama H, Ishii S, Taguchi S, Kagawa H, et al. Repair of mitral periprosthetic leak secondary to severe annular calcification. J Heart Valve Dis. 2007;16:132-5 pubmed
    b>Hemolytic anemia due to a periprosthetic leak is a rare complication of valve replacement that has a poor prognosis...
  48. De Leonardis F, Koronica R, Daniele R, Santoro N. Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura in a Child Treated for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Case Report and Review of Literature. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Although rarely observed in children affected by acute lymphoblastic leukemia, TTP is a potentially fatal illness that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of thrombocytopenia with hemolytic anemia.
  49. Hoa S, Stern E, Denton C, Hudson M. Towards developing criteria for scleroderma renal crisis: A scoping review. Autoimmun Rev. 2017;16:407-415 pubmed publisher
    ..other common items used to define SRC included hypertensive encephalopathy and seizures, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and characteristic changes on kidney biopsy...
  50. Nedelcu E, Desai M, Green J, Bensing K, Turner A, Head D, et al. Acute autoimmune hemolytic anemia due to anti-Ena autoantibody successfully treated with rituximab. Transfusion. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) due to anti-Ena has been previously reported in association with massive intravascular hemolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and fatal outcomes...
  51. Nakatani R, Murata T, Usui T, Moriyoshi K, Komeda T, Masuda Y, et al. Importance of the Average Glucose Level and Estimated Glycated Hemoglobin in a Diabetic Patient with Hereditary Hemolytic Anemia and Liver Cirrhosis. Intern Med. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is a widely used marker of glycemic control but can be affected by hemolytic anemia. Glycated albumin (GA) is also affected in patients with liver cirrhosis...
  52. Brodsky R. Narrative review: paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: the physiology of complement-related hemolytic anemia. Ann Intern Med. 2008;148:587-95 pubmed
  53. Kageyama S, Hirayama H, Moriyasu S, Inaba M, Ito D, Ohta H, et al. Genetic diagnosis of band 3 deficiency and sexing in bovine preimplantation embryos. J Vet Med Sci. 2006;68:319-23 pubmed
    Band 3 deficiency with hereditary spherocytosis and hemolytic anemia in Japanese black cattle, band 3(Bov.Yamagata), is caused by a total lack of band 3 protein with an autosomal dominant inheritance...