Summary: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.

Top Publications

  1. Johansson I, Ingelman Sundberg M. Genetic polymorphism and toxicology--with emphasis on cytochrome p450. Toxicol Sci. 2011;120:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we provide an update of the field with emphasis on CYP polymorphism. ..
  2. Vinken M. The adverse outcome pathway concept: a pragmatic tool in toxicology. Toxicology. 2013;312:158-65 pubmed publisher
    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are novel tools in toxicology and human risk assessment with broad potential...
  3. Leist M, Efremova L, Karreman C. Food for thought ... considerations and guidelines for basic test method descriptions in toxicology. ALTEX. 2010;27:309-17 pubmed
    The development and application of new test systems and test methods is central to the progress of in vitro toxicology. In order to live up to the future challenges, it is important to use the vast knowledge of adjoining fields, such as ..
  4. Kensler T, Roebuck B, Wogan G, Groopman J. Aflatoxin: a 50-year odyssey of mechanistic and translational toxicology. Toxicol Sci. 2011;120 Suppl 1:S28-48 pubmed publisher
  5. Elmore S, Berridge B, Boyle M, Cora M, Hoenerhoff M, Kooistra L, et al. Proceedings of the 2012 National Toxicology Program Satellite Symposium. Toxicol Pathol. 2013;41:151-80 pubmed publisher
    The 2012 annual National Toxicology Program (NTP) Satellite Symposium, entitled "Pathology Potpourri," was held in Boston in advance of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology's 31st annual meeting...
  6. Hartung T, van Vliet E, Jaworska J, Bonilla L, Skinner N, Thomas R. Systems toxicology. ALTEX. 2012;29:119-28 pubmed publisher
    ..bringing them together with pathway information determined from biochemistry and molecular biology, a "systems toxicology" approach will enable virtual experiments to be conducted that can improve the prediction of hazard and the ..
  7. Keller D, Juberg D, Catlin N, Farland W, Hess F, Wolf D, et al. Identification and characterization of adverse effects in 21st century toxicology. Toxicol Sci. 2012;126:291-7 pubmed publisher
    The practice of toxicology is changing rapidly, as demonstrated by the response to the 2007 NRC report on "Toxicity Testing in the 21(st) Century...
  8. Ropeik D. Risk perception in toxicology--part I: moving beyond scientific instincts to understand risk perception. Toxicol Sci. 2011;121:1-6 pubmed publisher
    Information from the study of toxins by hard sciences like toxicology is interpreted based on affective, emotional, and instinctive psychologic cues discovered by social science...
  9. Forster R, Ancian P, Fredholm M, Simianer H, Whitelaw B. The minipig as a platform for new technologies in toxicology. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2010;62:227-35 pubmed publisher
    ..minipig as a platform for future developments in genomics, high density biology, transgenic technology, in vitro toxicology and related emerging technologies was reviewed...

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Sand S, Portier C, Krewski D. A signal-to-noise crossover dose as the point of departure for health risk assessment. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:1766-74 pubmed publisher
    The U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) cancer bioassay database provides an opportunity to compare both existing and new approaches to determining points of departure (PoDs) for establishing reference doses (RfDs)...
  2. Kempson I, Lombi E. Hair analysis as a biomonitor for toxicology, disease and health status. Chem Soc Rev. 2011;40:3915-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Many of the considerations are relevant to other areas of interest in hair analysis, such as for drug and isotopic analysis. Inclusion of a table of elemental concentrations in hair should act as a valuable reference (298 references). ..
  3. Grandjean P, Eriksen M, Ellegaard O, Wallin J. The Matthew effect in environmental science publication: a bibliometric analysis of chemical substances in journal articles. Environ Health. 2011;10:96 pubmed publisher
    ..Such bias detracts from the societal needs for documentation on less well known environmental hazards, and it may also impact negatively on the potentials for innovation and discovery in research. ..
  4. Farraj A, Hazari M, Cascio W. The utility of the small rodent electrocardiogram in toxicology. Toxicol Sci. 2011;121:11-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In toxicology, the ECG provides a collection of end points that may be used to assess both the quality and magnitude of ..
  5. Szyf M. The implications of DNA methylation for toxicology: toward toxicomethylomics, the toxicology of DNA methylation. Toxicol Sci. 2011;120:235-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The realization that long-range damage could be caused without changing the DNA sequence has important implications on the way we assess the safety of chemicals, drugs, and food and broadens the scope of definition of toxic agents. ..
  6. Valerio L. In silico toxicology models and databases as FDA Critical Path Initiative toolkits. Hum Genomics. 2011;5:200-7 pubmed
    In silico toxicology methods are practical, evidence-based and high throughput, with varying accuracy...
  7. Blackburn K, Bjerke D, Daston G, Felter S, Mahony C, Naciff J, et al. Case studies to test: A framework for using structural, reactivity, metabolic and physicochemical similarity to evaluate the suitability of analogs for SAR-based toxicological assessments. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2011;60:120-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Future work will be targeted towards expanding read across capabilities. Two examples of a broader category approach are also shown. ..
  8. Lorenzetti S, Altieri I, Arabi S, Balduzzi D, Bechi N, Cordelli E, et al. Innovative non-animal testing strategies for reproductive toxicology: the contribution of Italian partners within the EU project ReProTect. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2011;47:429-44 pubmed
    Reproductive toxicity, with its many targets and mechanisms, is a complex area of toxicology; thus, the screening and identification of reproductive toxicants is a main scientific challenge for the safety assessment of chemicals, ..
  9. van Ravenzwaay B, Herold M, Kamp H, Kapp M, Fabian E, Looser R, et al. Metabolomics: a tool for early detection of toxicological effects and an opportunity for biology based grouping of chemicals-from QSAR to QBAR. Mutat Res. 2012;746:144-50 pubmed publisher
    ..quot;From QSAR to QBAR" (quantitative biological activity relationship). ..
  10. Lee C, Mudaliar M, Haggart D, Wolf C, Miele G, Vass J, et al. Simultaneous non-negative matrix factorization for multiple large scale gene expression datasets in toxicology. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48238 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is of interest in toxicology because, whilst PPARs form potential therapeutic targets for diabetes, it is known that they can induce serious ..
  11. Tice R, Austin C, Kavlock R, Bucher J. Improving the human hazard characterization of chemicals: a Tox21 update. Environ Health Perspect. 2013;121:756-65 pubmed publisher
    In 2008, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Toxicology Program, the U.S...
  12. Authier S, Vargas H, Curtis M, Holbrook M, Pugsley M. Safety pharmacology investigations in toxicology studies: an industry survey. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2013;68:44-51 pubmed publisher define current industry practices as they relate to inclusion of safety pharmacology (SP) endpoints into Toxicology studies. A total of 361 participants from Asia (9.1%), Europe (19.4%) and North America (71...
  13. Dai Y, Jia Y, Chen N, Bian W, Li Q, Ma Y, et al. Zebrafish as a model system to study toxicology. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2014;33:11-7 pubmed publisher
    ..zebrafish as a model system to monitor toxic heavy metals, endocrine disruptors, and organic pollutants for toxicology. The authors address the new direction of developing high-throughput detection of genetically modified ..
  14. Kavlock R, Dix D. Computational toxicology as implemented by the U.S. EPA: providing high throughput decision support tools for screening and assessing chemical exposure, hazard and risk. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2010;13:197-217 pubmed publisher
    Computational toxicology is the application of mathematical and computer models to help assess chemical hazards and risks to human health and the environment...
  15. Roux A, Lison D, Junot C, Heilier J. Applications of liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry-based metabolomics in clinical chemistry and toxicology: A review. Clin Biochem. 2011;44:119-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Although proof-of-concept studies by metabolomics-based approaches in the field of toxicology and clinical chemistry have initially been performed using NMR, the use of liquid chromatography hyphenated to ..
  16. Panagiotou G, Taboureau O. The impact of network biology in pharmacology and toxicology. SAR QSAR Environ Res. 2012;23:221-35 pubmed publisher
  17. Oken E, Choi A, Karagas M, Mariën K, Rheinberger C, Schoeny R, et al. Which fish should I eat? Perspectives influencing fish consumption choices. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:790-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, policy and fishery management interventions will be necessary to ensure long-term availability of fish as an important source of human nutrition. ..
  18. Rovida C, Longo F, Rabbit R. How are reproductive toxicity and developmental toxicity addressed in REACH dossiers?. ALTEX. 2011;28:273-94 pubmed
    ..It is recommended, in the spirit of REACH, to protect human health through an in-depth assessment of the chemicals and simultaneously, to promote the use of in vitro alternatives. ..
  19. Schmidt M, Pei L. Synthetic toxicology: where engineering meets biology and toxicology. Toxicol Sci. 2011;120 Suppl 1:S204-24 pubmed publisher
    ..the most important techniques, tools, and expected applications in SB, we describe the ramifications of SB for toxicology under the label of synthetic toxicology...
  20. Horev Azaria L, Baldi G, Beno D, Bonacchi D, Golla Schindler U, Kirkpatrick J, et al. Predictive toxicology of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles: comparative in-vitro study of different cellular models using methods of knowledge discovery from data. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2013;10:32 pubmed publisher
    ..Cobalt-ferrite nanoparticles (Co-Fe NPs) are attractive for nanotechnology-based therapies. Thus, exploring their effect on viability of seven different cell lines representing different organs of the human body is highly important...
  21. Yanamala N, Kagan V, Shvedova A. Molecular modeling in structural nano-toxicology: interactions of nano-particles with nano-machinery of cells. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2013;65:2070-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A rationale on how nanoparticles of different sizes, shape, structure and chemical properties can affect the organization and functions of nano-machinery of cells is also presented. ..
  22. Shah I, Wambaugh J. Virtual tissues in toxicology. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2010;13:314-28 pubmed publisher
    ..In toxicology, these "virtual" tissues (VT) aim to predict histopathological outcomes from alterations of cellular ..
  23. Restrepo Angulo I, De Vizcaya Ruiz A, Camacho J. Ion channels in toxicology. J Appl Toxicol. 2010;30:497-512 pubmed publisher
    Ion channels play essential roles in human physiology and toxicology. Cardiac contraction, neural transmission, temperature sensing, insulin release, regulation of apoptosis, cellular pH and oxidative stress, as well as detection of ..
  24. Kleinstreuer N, Judson R, Reif D, Sipes N, Singh A, Chandler K, et al. Environmental impact on vascular development predicted by high-throughput screening. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:1596-603 pubmed publisher
    ..We predicted that blood vessel development is a target for environmental chemicals acting as putative vascular disruptor compounds (pVDCs) and identified potential species differences in sensitive vascular developmental pathways. ..
  25. Benigni R, Bossa C. Flexible use of QSAR models in predictive toxicology: a case study on aromatic amines. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2012;53:62-9 pubmed
    Over the last years, predictive toxicology approaches based on Structure-Activity Relationships have emerged as fundamental tools in the regulatory assessments of chemicals, especially in those programs where regulatory constraints and ..
  26. Brooks D, Levine M, O Connor A, French R, Curry S. Toxicology in the ICU: Part 2: specific toxins. Chest. 2011;140:1072-1085 pubmed publisher
    ..The first article discussed the general approach to the toxicology patient, including laboratory testing; the third article will cover natural toxins.
  27. Waring W, McGettigan P. Clinical toxicology and drug regulation: a United Kingdom perspective. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2011;49:452-6 pubmed publisher
    ..three selected examples are presented to illustrate the complex interaction between drug regulation and clinical toxicology. First, the effects of the withdrawal of rofecoxib in 2004 shows that regulatory responses may reduce the ..
  28. Hughes M, Beck B, Chen Y, Lewis A, Thomas D. Arsenic exposure and toxicology: a historical perspective. Toxicol Sci. 2011;123:305-32 pubmed publisher
    ..With advances in technology and the recent development of animal models for arsenic carcinogenicity, understanding of the toxicology of arsenic will continue to improve.
  29. Adami H, Berry S, Breckenridge C, Smith L, Swenberg J, Trichopoulos D, et al. Toxicology and epidemiology: improving the science with a framework for combining toxicological and epidemiological evidence to establish causal inference. Toxicol Sci. 2011;122:223-34 pubmed publisher
    Historically, toxicology has played a significant role in verifying conclusions drawn on the basis of epidemiological findings...
  30. Laustriat D, Gide J, Peschanski M. Human pluripotent stem cells in drug discovery and predictive toxicology. Biochem Soc Trans. 2010;38:1051-7 pubmed publisher
    ..fully equipped for the development of cell-based assays in the fields of drug discovery and predictive toxicology. These cells are characterized by: (i) an unlimited self-renewal capacity, which make them an inexhaustible ..
  31. Geenen S, Taylor P, Snoep J, Wilson I, Kenna J, Westerhoff H. Systems biology tools for toxicology. Arch Toxicol. 2012;86:1251-71 pubmed publisher
    An important goal of toxicology is to understand and predict the adverse effects of drugs and other xenobiotics. For pharmaceuticals, such effects often emerge unexpectedly in man even when absent from trials in vitro and in animals...
  32. Hartung T. From alternative methods to a new toxicology. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2011;77:338-49 pubmed publisher
    Mechanistic toxicology has evolved by relying, to a large extent, on methodologies that substitute or complement traditional animal tests...
  33. Afshari C, Hamadeh H, Bushel P. The evolution of bioinformatics in toxicology: advancing toxicogenomics. Toxicol Sci. 2011;120 Suppl 1:S225-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The field of toxicology has kept pace with advances in molecular study, and the past 50 years recognizes significant growth and ..
  34. Kang K, Trosko J. Stem cells in toxicology: fundamental biology and practical considerations. Toxicol Sci. 2011;120 Suppl 1:S269-89 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, modulation of quantity, as well as the quality, of stem cells should be considered as potential source of a chemical's toxic potential in affecting any stem cell-based pathology, such as cancer. ..
  35. Patlewicz G, Ball N, Booth E, Hulzebos E, Zvinavashe E, Hennes C. Use of category approaches, read-across and (Q)SAR: general considerations. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2013;67:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper was prepared following an ECETOC (European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology) Task Force that had the objective of summarising guidance and tools available, reviewing their practical ..
  36. Bergman A, Andersson A, Becher G, van den Berg M, Blumberg B, Bjerregaard P, et al. Science and policy on endocrine disrupters must not be mixed: a reply to a "common sense" intervention by toxicology journal editors. Environ Health. 2013;12:69 pubmed publisher
    The "common sense" intervention by toxicology journal editors regarding proposed European Union endocrine disrupter regulations ignores scientific evidence and well-established principles of chemical risk assessment...
  37. Donaldson K, Seaton A. A short history of the toxicology of inhaled particles. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2012;9:13 pubmed publisher
    Particle toxicology arose in order to understand the mechanisms of adverse effects of 3 major particle types that had historically exerted the greatest toll of ill-health--quartz, coal and asbestos...
  38. Maynard A, Warheit D, Philbert M. The new toxicology of sophisticated materials: nanotoxicology and beyond. Toxicol Sci. 2011;120 Suppl 1:S109-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Yet over the past 20 years, toxicology research has suggested complex and previously unrecognized associations between material physicochemistry at the ..
  39. Berg N, De Wever B, Fuchs H, Gaca M, Krul C, Roggen E. Toxicology in the 21st century--working our way towards a visionary reality. Toxicol In Vitro. 2011;25:874-81 pubmed publisher
    In November 2009 the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) organized a meeting entitled 'Toxicology in the 21st century--working our way towards a visionary reality'...
  40. Suter L, Schroeder S, Meyer K, Gautier J, Amberg A, Wendt M, et al. EU framework 6 project: predictive toxicology (PredTox)--overview and outcome. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2011;252:73-84 pubmed publisher
    In this publication, we report the outcome of the integrated EU Framework 6 PROJECT: Predictive Toxicology (PredTox), including methodological aspects and overall conclusions...
  41. Bickham J. The four cornerstones of Evolutionary Toxicology. Ecotoxicology. 2011;20:497-502 pubmed publisher
    Evolutionary Toxicology is the study of the effects of chemical pollutants on the genetics of natural populations...
  42. Orrenius S, Nicotera P, Zhivotovsky B. Cell death mechanisms and their implications in toxicology. Toxicol Sci. 2011;119:3-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, the cell death and phagocytosis regulatory networks offer a multitude of targets for toxic chemicals. ..
  43. Van Hummelen P, Sasaki J. State-of-the-art genomics approaches in toxicology. Mutat Res. 2010;705:165-71 pubmed publisher
    ..need to be resolved or improved for efficient incorporation of genomics in drug development and environmental toxicology research include data analysis, data interpretation tools and accessible data repositories...
  44. Marlowe J, Teo S, Chibout S, Pognan F, Moggs J. Mapping the epigenome--impact for toxicology. EXS. 2009;99:259-88 pubmed
  45. Calabrese E. Hormesis: why it is important to toxicology and toxicologists. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2008;27:1451-74 pubmed publisher
  46. Gold L, Manley N, Slone T, Rohrbach L, Garfinkel G. Supplement to the Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB): results of animal bioassays published in the general literature through 1997 and by the National Toxicology Program in 1997-1998. Toxicol Sci. 2005;85:747-808 pubmed
    ..from 185 publications in the general literature updated through 1997, and from 15 Reports of the National Toxicology Program in 1997-1998. The test agents cover a wide variety of uses and chemical classes...
  47. Bradshaw T, Bell D. Relevance of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) for clinical toxicology. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2009;47:632-42 pubmed publisher
    ..AhR-mediated toxicity and physiology are highly relevant to clinical toxicology and drug development.
  48. van Midwoud P, Groothuis G, Merema M, Verpoorte E. Microfluidic biochip for the perifusion of precision-cut rat liver slices for metabolism and toxicology studies. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2010;105:184-94 pubmed publisher
    ..This perifusion system better mimics the in vivo situation, and has the potential to significantly contribute to drug metabolism and toxicology studies of novel chemical entities.
  49. Rudén C, Hansson S. Evidence-based toxicology: "sound science" in new disguise. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2008;14:299-306 pubmed
    The "evidence-based toxicology" proposed by Guzelian et al. departs radically from state-of-the-art toxicology by claiming that risks for humans can only be determined on the basis of human evidence...
  50. Alexander D, Collins C, Coombs D, Gilkison I, Hardy C, Healey G, et al. Association of Inhalation Toxicologists (AIT) working party recommendation for standard delivered dose calculation and expression in non-clinical aerosol inhalation toxicology studies with pharmaceuticals. Inhal Toxicol. 2008;20:1179-89 pubmed
    There are many ways in which the dose can be expressed in inhalation toxicology studies. This can lead to confusion when comparing results from studies performed in different laboratories...
  51. Plant N. Can systems toxicology identify common biomarkers of non-genotoxic carcinogenesis?. Toxicology. 2008;254:164-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to their use in signature generation the role of -omic level approaches to delineating molecular mechanisms of action will also be discussed. ..
  52. Andersen M, Thomas R, Gaido K, Conolly R. Dose-response modeling in reproductive toxicology in the systems biology era. Reprod Toxicol. 2005;19:327-37 pubmed
    ..In addition to outlining a systems approach for dose-response research, this paper discusses initial stages of application of this strategy to examine inhibition of steroidogenesis in testes by phthalate esters. ..
  53. Tan H, Goh S. Toxicology today. Singapore Med J. 2006;47:1016-7 pubmed