- Origins of the E. coli strain causing an outbreak of hemolytic-uremic syndrome in Germany
David A Rasko
University of Maryland School of Medicine, Institute for Genome Sciences and Department of Microbiology, Baltimore, USA
N Engl J Med 365:709-17. 2011
..coli strains. Preliminary genetic characterization of the outbreak strain suggested that, unlike most of these strains, it should be classified within the enteroaggregative pathotype of E. coli...
- Characterisation of the Escherichia coli strain associated with an outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome in Germany, 2011: a microbiological study
Institute for Hygiene and the National Consulting Laboratory for Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome, University of Munster, Munster, Germany
Lancet Infect Dis 11:671-6. 2011
..We analysed virulence profiles and relevant phenotypes of outbreak isolates recovered in our laboratory...
- Critically ill patients with 2009 influenza A(H1N1) infection in Canada
Section of Critical Care Medicine, Health Sciences Centre, JJ 399, 700 William Ave, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0Z3 Canada
JAMA 302:1872-9. 2009
..Between March and July 2009, the largest number of confirmed cases of 2009 influenza A(H1N1) infection occurred in North America...
- Epidemic profile of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak in Germany
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany
N Engl J Med 365:1771-80. 2011
..The consumption of sprouts was identified as the most likely vehicle of infection...
- Household transmission of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in the United States
Medical Research Council Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London
N Engl J Med 361:2619-27. 2009
..Risk factors for transmission remain largely uncharacterized. We characterize the risk factors and describe the transmission of the virus within households...
- Prospective genomic characterization of the German enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak by rapid next generation sequencing technology
Institute of Hygiene, University Munster, Munster, Germany
PLoS ONE 6:e22751. 2011
..In conclusion, rapid next-generation technologies facilitated prospective whole genome characterization in the early stages of an outbreak...
- Unifying the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of pathogens
Bryan T Grenfell
Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EJ, UK
Science 303:327-32. 2004
..A central pillar of this model is the Evolutionary Infectivity Profile, which captures the relationship between immune selection and pathogen transmission...
- German outbreak of Escherichia coli O104:H4 associated with sprouts
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany
N Engl J Med 365:1763-70. 2011
..A large outbreak of the hemolytic-uremic syndrome caused by Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 occurred in Germany in May 2011. The source of infection was undetermined...
- H1N1 2009 influenza virus infection during pregnancy in the USA
Denise J Jamieson
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 3717, USA
Lancet 374:451-8. 2009
..We summarised cases of infection with pandemic H1N1 virus in pregnant women identified in the USA during the first month of the present outbreak, and deaths associated with this virus during the first 2 months of the outbreak...
- Antigenic and genetic characteristics of swine-origin 2009 A(H1N1) influenza viruses circulating in humans
Rebecca J Garten
WHO Collaborating Center for Influenza, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
Science 325:197-201. 2009
..Antigenically the viruses are homogeneous and similar to North American swine A(H1N1) viruses but distinct from seasonal human A(H1N1)...
- Superspreading and the effect of individual variation on disease emergence
J O Lloyd-Smith
Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, 140 Mulford Hall, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 3114, USA
Nature 438:355-9. 2005
..Our findings indicate that superspreading is a normal feature of disease spread, and to frame ongoing discussion we propose a rigorous definition for superspreading events and a method to predict their frequency...
- The origin of the Haitian cholera outbreak strain
Chen Shan Chin
Pacific Biosciences, Menlo Park, CA, USA
N Engl J Med 364:33-42. 2011
..Although cholera has been present in Latin America since 1991, it had not been epidemic in Haiti for at least 100 years. Recently, however, there has been a severe outbreak of cholera in Haiti...
- An epidemic of enterovirus 71 infection in Taiwan. Taiwan Enterovirus Epidemic Working Group
National Health Research Institutes, Taipei, Taiwan
N Engl J Med 341:929-35. 1999
..In 1998 an epidemic of enterovirus 71 infection caused hand-foot-and-mouth disease and herpangina in thousands of people in Taiwan, some of whom died...
- The transmissibility and control of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus
Center for Statistics and Quantitative Infectious Diseases, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
Science 326:729-33. 2009
..If a vaccine were available soon enough, vaccination of children, followed by adults, reaching 70% overall coverage, in addition to high-risk and essential workforce groups, could mitigate a severe epidemic...
- Infection with chikungunya virus in Italy: an outbreak in a temperate region
Department of Infectious, Parasitic, and Immunomediated Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy
Lancet 370:1840-6. 2007
..Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), which is transmitted by Aedes spp mosquitoes, has recently caused several outbreaks on islands in the Indian Ocean and on the Indian subcontinent. We report on an outbreak in Italy...
- Epidemic dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever as a public health, social and economic problem in the 21st century
Duane J Gubler
Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, US Dept of Health and Human Services, PO Box 2087, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
Trends Microbiol 10:100-3. 2002
..Dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever is now one of the most important public health problems in tropical developing countries and also has major economic and societal consequences...
- Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus
Eric M Leroy
Centre International de Recherches Medicales de Franceville, BP 769 Franceville, Gabon
Nature 438:575-6. 2005
..We find evidence of asymptomatic infection by Ebola virus in three species of fruit bat, indicating that these animals may be acting as a reservoir for this deadly virus...
- Whole-genome sequencing and social-network analysis of a tuberculosis outbreak
Jennifer L Gardy
British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, Vancouver, BC, Canada
N Engl J Med 364:730-9. 2011
..Traditional contact tracing did not identify a source. We used whole-genome sequencing and social-network analysis in an effort to describe the outbreak dynamics at a higher resolution...
- Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli and haemolytic uraemic syndrome
Phillip I Tarr
Division of Gastroenterology, Edward Mallinckrodt Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8208, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
Lancet 365:1073-86. 2005
..The vascular injury leading to HUS is likely to be well under way by the time infected patients seek medical attention for diarrhoea. The best way to prevent HUS is to prevent primary infection with Shiga-toxin-producing bacteria...
- The severity of pandemic H1N1 influenza in the United States, from April to July 2009: a Bayesian analysis
Anne M Presanis
Medical Research Council Biostatistics Unit, Cambridge, United Kingdom
PLoS Med 6:e1000207. 2009
..We sought to estimate the probabilities that symptomatic infection would lead to hospitalization, ICU admission, and death by combining data from multiple sources...
- An outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease associated with subgenotype C4 of human enterovirus 71 in Shandong, China
National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Xuanwu District, Beijing, PR China
J Clin Virol 44:262-7. 2009
..An outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) included 1149 people in Linyi City, Shandong Province, China, in 2007: three children died...
- A predominantly clonal multi-institutional outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality
Vivian G Loo
Department of Microbiology, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Que, Canada
N Engl J Med 353:2442-9. 2005
..In March 2003, several hospitals in Quebec, Canada, noted a marked increase in the incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea...
- Emergence and pandemic potential of swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus
Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53711, USA
Nature 459:931-9. 2009
- Closure of schools during an influenza pandemic
MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, London, UK
Lancet Infect Dis 9:473-81. 2009
..Implications for the mitigation of the swine-origin influenza A H1N1 pandemic are also discussed...
- Pros and cons of estimating the reproduction number from early epidemic growth rate of influenza A (H1N1) 2009
PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Honcho 4 1 8, Kawaguchi, Saitama, 332 0012, Japan
Theor Biol Med Model 7:1. 2010
..The growth rate at the initial stage of the epidemic in Japan led to estimates for R in the range 2.0 to 2.6, capturing the intensity of the initial outbreak among school-age children in May 2009...
- An emerging recombinant human enterovirus 71 responsible for the 2008 outbreak of hand foot and mouth disease in Fuyang city of China
Key Laboratory for Molecular Virology and Genetic Engineering, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China
Virol J 7:94. 2010
..In conclusion, an emerging recombinant HEV71 was responsible for the HFMD outbreak in Fuyang City of China, 2008...
- Estimates of the prevalence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009, United States, April-July 2009
Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Mailstop A32, Atlanta, GA 30033, USA
Emerg Infect Dis 15:2004-7. 2009
..Correcting for under-ascertainment using a multiplier model, we estimate that 1.8 million-5.7 million cases occurred, including 9,000-21,000 hospitalizations...
- Nipah virus: a recently emergent deadly paramyxovirus
K B Chua
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Malaya Medical Center, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Science 288:1432-5. 2000
..Like Hendra virus, Nipah virus is unusual among the paramyxoviruses in its ability to infect and cause potentially fatal disease in a number of host species, including humans...
- Clinical features of the initial cases of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in China
Beijing Chao Yang Hospital, Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
N Engl J Med 361:2507-17. 2009
..Persons in whom infection was confirmed were hospitalized and quarantined, and some of them were closely observed for the purpose of investigating the nature and duration of the disease...
- Bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses
Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences CAS, Beijing, China
Science 310:676-9. 2005
..The human and civet isolates of SARS-CoV nestle phylogenetically within the spectrum of SL-CoVs, indicating that the virus responsible for the SARS outbreak was a member of this coronavirus group...
- Simulating school closure strategies to mitigate an influenza epidemic
Bruce Y Lee
University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA
J Public Health Manag Pract 16:252-61. 2010
..The ongoing 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic has provided an unparalleled opportunity to test interventions with the most up-to-date simulations...
- Origins and evolutionary genomics of the 2009 swine-origin H1N1 influenza A epidemic
Gavin J D Smith
State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases and Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, 21 Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, China
Nature 459:1122-5. 2009
..Our results highlight the need for systematic surveillance of influenza in swine, and provide evidence that the mixing of new genetic elements in swine can result in the emergence of viruses with pandemic potential in humans...
- Predominant role of bacterial pneumonia as a cause of death in pandemic influenza: implications for pandemic influenza preparedness
David M Morens
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
J Infect Dis 198:962-70. 2008
..Despite the availability of published data on 4 pandemics that have occurred over the past 120 years, there is little modern information on the causes of death associated with influenza pandemics...
- Factors associated with death or hospitalization due to pandemic 2009 influenza A(H1N1) infection in California
Janice K Louie
California Department of Public Health, 850 Marina Bay Pkwy, Richmond, CA 94804, USA
JAMA 302:1896-902. 2009
..Pandemic influenza A(H1N1) emerged rapidly in California in April 2009. Preliminary comparisons with seasonal influenza suggest that pandemic 2009 influenza A(H1N1) disproportionately affects younger ages and causes generally mild disease...
- Newly discovered ebola virus associated with hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Uganda
Jonathan S Towner
Special Pathogens Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
PLoS Pathog 4:e1000212. 2008
- Variation in virulence among clades of Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with disease outbreaks
Shannon D Manning
Microbial Evolution Laboratory, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:4868-73. 2008
..The ability to detect and rapidly genotype O157 strains belonging to such lineages is important and will have a significant impact on both disease diagnosis and treatment guidelines...
- Neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza
Department of Pediatrics, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
N Engl J Med 353:1363-73. 2005
- Epidemic dynamics at the human-animal interface
James O Lloyd-Smith
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Science 326:1362-7. 2009
..Progress in understanding and combating zoonoses requires a new generation of models that addresses a broader set of pathogen life histories and integrates across host species and scientific disciplines...
- Simulation of an SEIR infectious disease model on the dynamic contact network of conference attendees
Centre de Physique Théorique de Marseille, CNRS UMR 6207, Marseille, France
BMC Med 9:87. 2011
..In this study, we aimed to assess the role of data-driven dynamic contact patterns between individuals, and in particular of their temporal aspects, in shaping the spread of a simulated epidemic in the population...
- The role of the airline transportation network in the prediction and predictability of global epidemics
School of Informatics and Center for Biocomplexity, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47401, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:2015-20. 2006
..These measures may be used for the analysis of containment policies and epidemic risk assessment...
- Emergence and pathogenicity of highly virulent Cryptococcus gattii genotypes in the northwest United States
Edmond J Byrnes
Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
PLoS Pathog 6:e1000850. 2010
..Our evidence documents emerging hypervirulent genotypes in the United States that may expand further and provides insight into the possible molecular and geographic origins of the outbreak...
- Estimated epidemiologic parameters and morbidity associated with pandemic H1N1 influenza
Ashleigh R Tuite
Research Institute of the Hospital for Sick Children, and the Dalla Lana School of Public Health, Department of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario
CMAJ 182:131-6. 2010
..We sought to estimate epidemiologic parameters for pandemic H1N1 influenza using data from initial reports of laboratory-confirmed cases...
- Mortality from pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza in England: public health surveillance study
Liam J Donaldson
Department of Health, Richmond House, London SW1A 2NS
BMJ 339:b5213. 2009
..To establish mortality from pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza up to 8 November 2009...
- Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks, United States, 1982-2002
Josefa M Rangel
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Emerg Infect Dis 11:603-9. 2005
..3%) laboratory-related. The food vehicle for 75 (41%) foodborne outbreaks was ground beef, and for 38 (21%) outbreaks, produce...
- Optimizing influenza vaccine distribution
Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, 60 College Street, New Haven, CT 06520 8034, USA
Science 325:1705-8. 2009
..We also found that previous and new recommendations from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention both for the novel swine-origin influenza and, particularly, for seasonal influenza, are suboptimal for all outcome measures...
- Epochal evolution shapes the phylodynamics of interpandemic influenza A (H3N2) in humans
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 2019 Kraus Natural Science Building, University of Michigan, 830 North University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1048, USA
Science 314:1898-903. 2006
..It captures the observed boom-and-bust pattern of viral evolution, with periods of antigenic stasis during which genetic diversity grows, and with episodic contraction of this diversity during cluster transitions...
- Early alterations of the receptor-binding properties of H1, H2, and H3 avian influenza virus hemagglutinins after their introduction into mammals
Department of Virology and Molecular Biology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, Russia
J Virol 74:8502-12. 2000
- Outbreak of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) at a New York City school
Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
N Engl J Med 361:2628-36. 2009
..In April 2009, an outbreak of novel swine-origin influenza A (2009 H1N1 influenza) occurred at a high school in Queens, New York. We describe the outbreak and characterize the clinical and epidemiologic aspects of this novel virus...
- Systematic literature review of role of noroviruses in sporadic gastroenteritis
Manish M Patel
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
Emerg Infect Dis 14:1224-31. 2008
- Global capacity for emerging infectious disease detection
Emily H Chan
Division of Health Sciences and Technology, HealthMap, Children s Hospital Informatics Program, Harvard Massachusetts Institute of Technology Boston, MA 02215, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:21701-6. 2010
..119 per year, 95% CI (1.025; 1.221)] showed improvement in public communication. These findings provide quantitative historical assessment of timeliness in infectious disease detection and public reporting of outbreaks...
- Seasonal transmission potential and activity peaks of the new influenza A(H1N1): a Monte Carlo likelihood analysis based on human mobility
Center for Complex Networks and Systems Research, School of Informatics and Computing, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA
BMC Med 7:45. 2009
- Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States
R S Lanciotti
Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
Science 286:2333-7. 1999
..This North American WN virus was most closely related to a WN virus isolated from a dead goose in Israel in 1998...
- Discovery of swine as a host for the Reston ebolavirus
Roger W Barrette
Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services, United States Department of Agriculture, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, New York, NY 11944, USA
Science 325:204-6. 2009
- Transmission of human infection with Nipah virus
Stephen P Luby
International Centre for Diarrheal Diseases Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Clin Infect Dis 49:1743-8. 2009
..Efforts to prevent transmission should focus on decreasing bat access to date palm sap and reducing family members' and friends' exposure to infected patients' saliva...
- Population genetics of Vibrio cholerae from Nepal in 2010: evidence on the origin of the Haitian outbreak
Rene S Hendriksen
National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
MBio 2:e00157-11. 2011
- Household transmission of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus after a school-based outbreak in New York City, April-May 2009
Anne Marie France
Epidemic Intelligence Service, Office of Workforce and Career Development, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
J Infect Dis 201:984-92. 2010
..Fifty percent of cases occurred within 3 days of onset of illness in the student. These factors have implications for mitigating the impact of pH1N1 transmission...
- Global patterns of influenza a virus in wild birds
Department of Infectious Diseases, Umea University, SE 90187 Umea, Sweden
Science 312:384-8. 2006
- Pandemic 2009 influenza A(H1N1) virus illness among pregnant women in the United States
Alicia M Siston
Epidemic Intelligence Service, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
JAMA 303:1517-25. 2010
..Early data on pandemic 2009 influenza A(H1N1) suggest pregnant women are at increased risk of hospitalization and death...
- Toxin production by an emerging strain of Clostridium difficile associated with outbreaks of severe disease in North America and Europe
Acambis Inc, Cambridge, MA, USA
Lancet 366:1079-84. 2005
..We characterised the dominant strain of this epidemic to determine whether it produces higher amounts of toxins A and B than those produced by non-epidemic strains...
- Molecular epidemiology and evolution of enterovirus 71 strains isolated from 1970 to 1998
B A Brown
Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, U S Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
J Virol 73:9969-75. 1999
..Its worldwide circulation and potential to cause severe disease underscore the need for additional surveillance and improved methods to identify EV71 in human disease...
- Tularemia as a biological weapon: medical and public health management
D T Dennis
Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, PO Box 2087, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
JAMA 285:2763-73. 2001
..The Working Group on Civilian Biodefense has developed consensus-based recommendations for measures to be taken by medical and public health professionals if tularemia is used as a biological weapon against a civilian population...
- Prediction of a Rift Valley fever outbreak
National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center, Biospheric Sciences Branch, Code 614 4, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:955-9. 2009
..To our knowledge, this is the first prospective prediction of a RVF outbreak...
- Influenza: old and new threats
Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
Nat Med 10:S82-7. 2004
- Reassortment of pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza A virus in swine
State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases and Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China
Science 328:1529. 2010
..Continued reassortment of H1N1/2009 with swine influenza viruses could produce variants with transmissibility and altered virulence for humans. Global systematic surveillance of influenza viruses in swine is warranted...
- Estimation of the reproductive number and the serial interval in early phase of the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic in the USA
Laura Forsberg White
Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02118, USA
Influenza Other Respir Viruses 3:267-76. 2009
..Appropriate public health responses to this pandemic depend in part on early estimates of key epidemiological parameters of the virus in defined populations...
- The global emergence/resurgence of arboviral diseases as public health problems
Duane J Gubler
Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, U S Department of Health and Human Services, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
Arch Med Res 33:330-42. 2002
- An overview of the epidemiology of avian influenza
Dennis J Alexander
Virology Department, VLA Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, UK
Vaccine 25:5637-44. 2007
- A rare genotype of Cryptococcus gattii caused the cryptococcosis outbreak on Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada)
S E Kidd
Department of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:17258-63. 2004
..The emergence of this usually tropical pathogen on Vancouver Island highlights the changing distribution of this genotype and emphasizes the importance of an ongoing collaborative effort to monitor the global epidemiology of this yeast...
- Rift Valley fever during rainy seasons, Madagascar, 2008 and 2009
Soa Fy Andriamandimby
Institut Pasteur, Antananarivo, Madagascar
Emerg Infect Dis 16:963-70. 2010
..To better predict and respond to RVF outbreaks in Madagascar, further epidemiologic studies are needed, such as RVFV complete genome analysis, ruminant movement mapping, and surveillance implementation...
- Hemorrhagic fever viruses as biological weapons: medical and public health management
Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies, Johns Hopkins Schools of Medicine and Public Health, 111 Market Pl, Suite 830, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA
JAMA 287:2391-405. 2002
..To develop consensus-based recommendations for measures to be taken by medical and public health professionals if hemorrhagic fever viruses (HFVs) are used as biological weapons against a civilian population...
- Norovirus illness is a global problem: emergence and spread of norovirus GII.4 variants, 2001-2007
J Joukje Siebenga
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
J Infect Dis 200:802-12. 2009
..4. We studied the global patterns of GII.4 epidemiology in relation to its genetic diversity...
- Forecast and control of epidemics in a globalized world
Max Planck Institut für Strömungsforschung, Bunsenstrasse 10, 37073 Gottingen, Germany
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:15124-9. 2004
..The performance of different control strategies is analyzed, and our simulations show that a quick and focused reaction is essential to inhibiting the global spread of epidemics...
- Neurological manifestations of enterovirus 71 infection in children during an outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Western Australia
Department of Microbiology, Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Perth, WA, Australia
Clin Infect Dis 32:236-42. 2001
..This finding is in contrast to reports of previous EV71 epidemics, in which virus-induced damage to gray matter was the most frequent cause of neurological disease...
- Pandemic potential of a strain of influenza A (H1N1): early findings
MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, Faculty of Medicine, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
Science 324:1557-61. 2009
..Transmissibility is therefore substantially higher than that of seasonal flu, and comparable with lower estimates of R0 obtained from previous influenza pandemics...
- Multiple Ebola virus transmission events and rapid decline of central African wildlife
Eric M Leroy
Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, UR034, Centre International de Recherches Medicales de Franceville, BP 769 Franceville, Gabon
Science 303:387-90. 2004
..Surveillance of animal mortality may help to predict and prevent human Ebola outbreaks...
- Genetic analysis of viruses associated with emergence of Rift Valley fever in Saudi Arabia and Yemen, 2000-01
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
Emerg Infect Dis 8:1415-20. 2002
..These results are consistent with the recent introduction of RVFV into the Arabian Peninsula from East Africa...
- Chikungunya, an epidemic arbovirosis
Hopital Tenon, Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Paris, France
Lancet Infect Dis 7:319-27. 2007
..Plausible explanations include increased tourism, chikungunya virus introduction into a naive population, and viral mutation...
- Student behavior during a school closure caused by pandemic influenza A/H1N1
Joel C Miller
Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
PLoS ONE 5:e10425. 2010
..The effectiveness of closing schools to reduce transmission depends largely on student/family behavior during the closure. We sought to improve our understanding of these behaviors...
- Vaccination against pandemic influenza A/H1N1v in England: a real-time economic evaluation
Centre for Infections, Health Protection Agency, United Kingdom
Vaccine 28:2370-84. 2010
..In countries where the epidemic is not so far advanced vaccination of children may be cost-effective. Similar, detailed, real-time modelling and economic studies could help to clarify the situation...
- Synchrony, waves, and spatial hierarchies in the spread of influenza
Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Science 312:447-51. 2006
..A simple epidemiological model, based on the gravity formulation, captures the observed increase of influenza spatial synchrony with transmissibility; high transmission allows influenza to spread rapidly beyond local spatial constraints...
- Network theory and SARS: predicting outbreak diversity
Lauren Ancel Meyers
Section of Integrative Biology and Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C0930, Austin, TX 78712, USA
J Theor Biol 232:71-81. 2005
..We offer quantitative insight into the heterogeneity of SARS outbreaks worldwide, and illustrate the utility of this approach for assessing public health strategies...
- Rift Valley fever epidemic in Saudi Arabia: epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics
Tariq A Madani
Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi
Clin Infect Dis 37:1084-92. 2003
..Patients with leukopenia had significantly a lower mortality rate than did those with a normal or high leukocyte count (2.3% vs. 27.9%; odds ratio, 0.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.63)...
- Severity of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in pregnant women
Andreea A Creanga
Epidemic Intelligence Service Program, Office of Workforce and Career Development, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Atlanta, GA 30341 3717, USA
Obstet Gynecol 115:717-26. 2010
..To examine 2009 H1N1 influenza illness severity and the effect of antiviral treatment on the severity of illness among pregnant women...
- Modelling mitigation strategies for pandemic (H1N1) 2009
Marija Zivkovic Gojovic
Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment Collaborative, University of Toronto, Research Institute of the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON
CMAJ 181:673-80. 2009
..Simulation models can be used to project the effectiveness of mitigation strategies, but the choice of the best scenario may change depending on model assumptions and uncertainties...
- Optimizing infectious disease interventions during an emerging epidemic
Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, 3720 BA Bilthoven, Netherlands
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:923-8. 2010
..highlights the continuous threat to public health posed by a steady stream of new and unexpected infectious disease outbreaks in animals and humans...
- Evolution of new variants of Vibrio cholerae O1
Department of Biology and Chemistry and MERIT, City University of Hong Kong, 83, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR
Trends Microbiol 18:46-54. 2010
..Here, we describe recent advances in our understanding of the epidemiology and evolution of the atypical El Tor strains...
- Epidemic hand, foot and mouth disease caused by human enterovirus 71, Singapore
Kwai Peng Chan
Virology Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore
Emerg Infect Dis 9:78-85. 2003
..A preparedness plan for severe HFMD outbreaks provided for the prompt, coordinated actions needed to control the epidemic...
- Understanding the link between malaria risk and climate
Krijn P Paaijmans
Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Department of Entomology, Chemical Ecology Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:13844-9. 2009
..Such effects of short-term temperature fluctuations have not previously been considered but are central to understanding current malaria transmission and the consequences of climate change...
- Modelling disease outbreaks in realistic urban social networks
Basic and Applied Simulation Science Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS M997, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA
Nature 429:180-4. 2004
..Our results suggest that outbreaks can be contained by a strategy of targeted vaccination combined with early detection without resorting to mass vaccination of a population...
- Avian influenza A virus (H7N7) associated with human conjunctivitis and a fatal case of acute respiratory distress syndrome
Ron A M Fouchier
Department of Virology and National Influenza Center, Erasmus Medical Center, Dr Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:1356-61. 2004
..Because H7N7 viruses have caused disease in mammals, including horses, seals, and humans, on several occasions in the past, they may be unusual in their zoonotic potential and, thus, form a pandemic threat to humans...
- Spatial clustering of malaria and associated risk factors during an epidemic in a highland area of western Kenya
Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
Trop Med Int Health 9:757-66. 2004
..Conditional multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of malaria was higher in children who were underweight, who lived at lower altitudes, and who lived in households where drugs were not kept at home...
- The pathology of influenza virus infections
Jeffery K Taubenberger
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Annu Rev Pathol 3:499-522. 2008
- Genome sequence analyses of two isolates from the recent Escherichia coli outbreak in Germany reveal the emergence of a new pathotype: Entero-Aggregative-Haemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EAHEC)
Göttingen Genomics Laboratory, Department of Genomic and Applied Microbiology, Institute of Microbiology and Genetics, Georg August University Gottingen, Grisebachstr 8, 37077, Gottingen, Germany
Arch Microbiol 193:883-91. 2011
- How generation intervals shape the relationship between growth rates and reproductive numbers
Department of Infectious Diseases Epidemiology, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, PO Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands
Proc Biol Sci 274:599-604. 2007
..Furthermore, we show that by taking the generation interval distribution equal to the observed distribution, it is possible to obtain an empirical estimate of the reproductive number...
- Outbreak of chikungunya on Reunion Island: early clinical and laboratory features in 157 adult patients
Service de Pneumologie et Maladies Infectieuses, Groupe Hospitalier Sud Reunion, Saint Pierre, La Reunion, France
Clin Infect Dis 44:1401-7. 2007
..Chikungunya is a reemerging disease. In 2005-2006, a severe outbreak occurred on Reunion Island in the southwestern part of the Indian Ocean. Other islands in this area were affected during the same period...
- Multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains harbouring classical toxin B
Seon Young Choi
International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea
J Med Microbiol 59:763-9. 2010
- Relatedness of Vibrio cholerae O1/O139 isolates from patients and their household contacts, determined by multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis
Emily A Kendall
International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
J Bacteriol 192:4367-76. 2010
..Our results demonstrate that genetically related V. cholerae strains cluster in local outbreaks but also suggest that multiple distinct strains of V. cholerae O1 may circulate simultaneously within a household...
- Risk factors for severe Rift Valley fever infection in Kenya, 2007
Amwayi S Anyangu
Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation, Nairobi, Kenya
Am J Trop Med Hyg 83:14-21. 2010
..67, 95% CI = 1.07-12.64, PAR% = 47%). Exposures related to animal contact were associated with acute RVF infection, whereas exposures to mosquitoes were not independent risk factors...
- Phylodynamic reconstruction reveals norovirus GII.4 epidemic expansions and their molecular determinants
J Joukje Siebenga
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
PLoS Pathog 6:e1000884. 2010
..The observed pattern of continually emerging novel variants of GII.4, causing elevated numbers of infections, is therefore a cause for concern...
- Person-to-person transmission of Nipah virus in a Bangladeshi community
Emily S Gurley
Program on Infectious Diseases and Vaccine Sciences, ICDDR, B, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Emerg Infect Dis 13:1031-7. 2007
..Capacity for person-to-person transmission increases the potential for wider spread of this highly lethal pathogen and highlights the need for infection control strategies for resource-poor settings...