Summary: The science of drugs prepared from natural-sources including preparations from PLANTS, animals, and other organisms as well as MINERALS and other substances included in MATERIA MEDICA. The therapeutic usage of plants is PHYTOTHERAPY.

Top Publications

  1. van der Heijden R, Jacobs D, Snoeijer W, Hallard D, Verpoorte R. The Catharanthus alkaloids: pharmacognosy and biotechnology. Curr Med Chem. 2004;11:607-28 pubmed
    ..roseus has already led to a broad scientific spin-off. It is clear that many interesting results can be expected when more genes become available. ..
  2. Douglas Kinghorn A. Pharmacognosy in the 21st century. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2001;53:135-48 pubmed
    The term pharmacognosy as a constituent scientific discipline of pharmacy has been in use for nearly 200 years, and it refers to studies on natural product drugs...
  3. Chadwick L, Pauli G, Farnsworth N. The pharmacognosy of Humulus lupulus L. (hops) with an emphasis on estrogenic properties. Phytomedicine. 2006;13:119-31 pubmed
    ..on symptoms related to menopause. Folkloric, chemical, and biological literature relating primarily to the use of hops for their estrogenic activity, and two human clinical trials, are reviewed. ..
  4. Do Q, Renimel I, Andre P, Lugnier C, Muller C, Bernard P. Reverse pharmacognosy: application of selnergy, a new tool for lead discovery. The example of epsilon-viniferin. Curr Drug Discov Technol. 2005;2:161-7 pubmed
    The aim of reverse pharmacognosy is to find new biological targets for natural compounds by virtual or real screening and identify natural resources that contain the active molecules...
  5. Jones W, Chin Y, Kinghorn A. The role of pharmacognosy in modern medicine and pharmacy. Curr Drug Targets. 2006;7:247-64 pubmed
    ..Several innovative strategies for natural products drug discovery and evaluation of botanical medicines are also reviewed. ..
  6. Do Q, Bernard P. Pharmacognosy and reverse pharmacognosy: a new concept for accelerating natural drug discovery. IDrugs. 2004;7:1017-27 pubmed
    ..In this review we introduce a new approach, termed 'reverse pharmacognosy' (from diverse molecules to plants), which can be coupled with pharmacognosy (from biodiverse plants to ..
  7. Larkins N, Wynn S. Pharmacognosy: phytomedicines and their mechanisms. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2004;34:291-327 pubmed
    ..The same may be seen in plants and plant material. The same may be said of life in general. At the most basic concept, we are talking of electrons and their activities. ..
  8. Do Q, Lamy C, Renimel I, Sauvan N, Andre P, Himbert F, et al. Reverse pharmacognosy: identifying biological properties for plants by means of their molecule constituents: application to meranzin. Planta Med. 2007;73:1235-40 pubmed
    Reverse pharmacognosy aims at finding biological targets for natural compounds by virtual or real screening and identifying natural resources that contain the active molecules...
  9. Epifano F, Fiorito S, Genovese S. Phytochemistry and pharmacognosy of the genus Acronychia. Phytochemistry. 2013;95:12-8 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Wagner H, Ulrich Merzenich G. Synergy research: approaching a new generation of phytopharmaceuticals. Phytomedicine. 2009;16:97-110 pubmed publisher
    ..This new generation of phytopharmaceuticals could lend phytotherapy a new legitimacy and enable their use to treat diseases which have hitherto been treated using synthetic drugs alone. ..
  2. Titanji V, Ngwa A, Ngemenya M. Applications of biotechnology techniques to the study of medicinal plants. Afr J Med Med Sci. 2007;36 Suppl:23-9 pubmed
    ..The new disciplines of Bioinformatics and Genomics can find application in drug discovery from plant-based products. We conclude that biotechnological procedures can enhance and advance the studies of medicinal plants. ..
  3. Wei S, Peng Z. [Survey of Pinellia ternata and its adulterants]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2003;26:828-32 pubmed
    ..ternata and its adulterants from four aspects, including pharmacognostics, chemical component, pharmacology and toxicity. Also some suggestions are presented about the study prospect of P. ternata. ..
  4. Ma X, Pei X, Wang Z. [The system of appellation of origin and geographic indication of orthodox drugs and their protection in China]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003;28:1105-8 pubmed
    ..Implementing system of the protection of GI in Chinese traditional medicine field is very important to extend national elaborate orthodox drugs and raise competitiveness of the goods in international trade. ..
  5. Dian L, Liang N, Gong X, Lv Y, Deng Y. [Determination of 5F in Pteris semipinnata L. from various origins by TLC-scanning]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2006;29:450-1 pubmed
    ..The linear relationship was in range of 0. 504 - 2. 520 microg. The mean recovery was 96. 68% and RSD = 1.24% (n = 5). The method is available with a good reproducibility, and pretreatment is simple and easy to operate. ..
  6. Xu H, Xu P, Lin S, Huang Z, Liu X, Liu X, et al. [Identification on Solanum lyratum by X-ray diffraction Fourier fingerprint and similarity analysis]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2012;35:42-4 pubmed
    ..This method can be used for identifying different medicinal parts of Solanum lyratum. The results of similarity calculation further proves the feasibility of this method. ..
  7. Zhu S. [Pharmacognostical identification of Cistanche tubelosa a confused species of Cistanche deserticola]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2001;24:24-5 pubmed
  8. Wu H, Ai L, Wu H, Lu Y, Yang Y. [Pharmacognostic identification of Centipeda minima]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2009;32:200-2 pubmed
  9. Yang D, Cai S, Wang X, Yang W, Tani T, Yamaji S, et al. [Study on identification of wild and cultirated Radix Scutellariae in different growing years]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005;30:1728-35 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the structure of annual rings in the transection of Radix Scutellariae has been discovered for the first time. ..
  10. Li S, Che Y, Qi X, Kong Q, Fan L, Yu X, et al. [Pharmacognostical study of Cyperus rotundus growing in Wen-River area]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2013;36:736-9 pubmed
    ..This study provides reference for the drug identification and the daodi medicinal material exploitation of Cyperus rotundus. ..
  11. Das S, Rosazza J. Microbial and enzymatic transformations of flavonoids. J Nat Prod. 2006;69:499-508 pubmed
    ..This review recognizes Norman Farnsworth, who through his fascination and hard work in pharmacognosy has fostered the excitement of discovery by numerous students and faculty far and beyond the halls of the ..
  12. Clardy J, Fischbach M, Walsh C. New antibiotics from bacterial natural products. Nat Biotechnol. 2006;24:1541-50 pubmed
  13. Makino T. [Introduction of "clinical pharmacognosy"--integration between pharmacognosy and clinical pharmacy]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2011;131:375-82 pubmed
    ..However, it is very difficult for a clinical pharmacist without a knowledge of pharmacognosy to offer full information, because crude drugs and natural products have very different pharmaceutical ..
  14. Li J, Wang D, Cai B. [A comparative study on HPLC fingerprint of Semen Strychni and the processed]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2009;32:1816-9 pubmed
    ..To establish the fingerprint of Semen Strychni and the processed by HPLC...
  15. Wu S, Jiang W, Lv L, Wu L, Lv C, Shi X, et al. [Study on quality standard of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2009;32:333-5 pubmed
    ..25 microg/mL, r = 0.9992, and the average recovery rate was 103.8%, RSD = 1.85%. This method is convenient, accurate, reliable with good reproducibility, so it can be used to establish quality standard for the medicinal material. ..
  16. Zhu H, Chen J, Chen L, An Z. [Pharmacognostical study of tall monkshood root]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2008;31:30-2 pubmed
    ..These character can provide scientific basis for its quality standard and development. ..
  17. Xiao P. [A review on the study of hubeibeimu]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2002;27:726-8 pubmed
    ..Modern research is in accordance with the traditional experiences of TCM, and Hubeibeimu has been recorded in the latest Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2000 ed.), which is worthy of further development. ..
  18. Biard J. [Marine resources and drugs: fishing for molecules]. Allerg Immunol (Paris). 2002;34:293-6 pubmed
    ..This paper deal with the various steps since the collection of the marine samples up to the marketing of the new molecules. Recent drugs from the seas and the main scientific or industrial partners concerned are also introduced. ..
  19. Kinghorn A. The role of pharmacognosy in modern medicine. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2002;3:77-9 pubmed
    Drugs of natural origin continue to be important for the treatment of many diseases worldwide. Pharmacognosy, a long-established pharmaceutical science, has played a diverse role in the discovery, characterisation, production and ..
  20. Wei D, Guo C, Wu Q, Liu G, Zhang C, Zheng H. [Studies on identification of Gryllotalpa by near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectrometry]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004;29:639-40 pubmed
    ..orientalis. Near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectrometry method can be used in classification and identification of Gryllotalpa. ..
  21. Zhu H, Zhou C, Liao Y, Bai Y. [Pharmacognostic identification of Cryptolepis buchanaii]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004;29:634-6 pubmed
    ..Laticifers were found in the cortex and pith of the stem; much papillary non-glandular hair was found covering the stomata in the sub-cuticle of the leaf. The results can be employed as the basis for identifying the herb. ..
  22. Bystrom L. The potential health effects of Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. fruits: phytochemical, chemotaxonomic and ethnobotanical investigations. Fitoterapia. 2012;83:266-71 pubmed publisher
    ..bijugatus fruits, which may be useful for predicting other medicinal uses, potential drug or food interactions and may benefit people where the fruits are prevalent and healthcare resources are scarce. ..
  23. Grynkiewicz G, Szeja W, Boryski J. Synthetic analogs of natural glycosides in drug discovery and development. Acta Pol Pharm. 2008;65:655-76 pubmed
  24. Rollinger J, Schuster D, Danzl B, Schwaiger S, Markt P, Schmidtke M, et al. In silico target fishing for rationalized ligand discovery exemplified on constituents of Ruta graveolens. Planta Med. 2009;75:195-204 pubmed publisher
    ..GRAVEOLENS on three different proteins has shown promise as an IN SILICO tool for rational target fishing and pharmacological profiling of extracts and single chemical entities in natural product research...
  25. Chen Z, Hou L, Xie L, Xu Z, Zheng H. [Morphological and commercial identification on semen torreyae]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2000;23:19-22 pubmed
    ..The results of identification of commercial samples indicated that Torreya grandis was mainly used; T. fargesii, T. yunnanensis and T. jackii were used in their producing areas...
  26. Huang L, Su Q, Zhao T, Sun W. [Determination of rosmarinic acid in seeds and its processed products of Perilla frutescens var. typica and Perilla frutescens var. acuta]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2010;33:1856-8 pubmed
    ..The content of rosmarinic acid in seeds of PFT, PFA and PFAD are prone to decline by heat-processing. ..
  27. Caballero George C, Gupta M. A quarter century of pharmacognostic research on Panamanian flora: a review. Planta Med. 2011;77:1189-202 pubmed publisher
    ..From the results presented, it is immediately obvious that the Panamanian flora is still an untapped source of new bioactive compounds. ..
  28. Lu Q, Li W, Hu S. [Studies on fingerprints of Centella asiatica by HPLC]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2011;34:46-50 pubmed
    ..The method is accurate, reliable and good repeatability. This chromatographic fingerprint method can be used to controll the quality of Centella asiatica. ..
  29. Schuster B. A new integrated program for natural product development and the value of an ethnomedical approach. J Altern Complement Med. 2001;7 Suppl 1:S61-72 pubmed
    ..The presentation details a collaboration that includes an ICBG based at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and its four partner organizations and discusses the associated programs the collaboration has underway. ..
  30. Cai Y, Zhu Y, Liu D, Teng J, Wang J. [Pharmacognostical identification of Vernonia patula (Dry) Merr]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2006;29:116-8 pubmed
    ..Obvious characteristics were found in the tissue structures of the roots, stems and leaves. The results can be taken as the reference for analyzing the quality of the crude drug. ..
  31. Zhang Q, Chen X, Zhang H, Ma J, Tong L, Mo Z. [Comparative study on macroscopic and microscopic identification of Celastrus aculeatus and Kadsura heteroclite]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2012;35:712-6 pubmed
    To compare and identify Celastrus aculeatus and Kadsura heteroclita with pharmacognosy methods for analyzing the quality of the crude drug.
  32. Sanchez Medina A, García Sosa K, May Pat F, Peña Rodríguez L. Evaluation of the biological activity of crude extracts from plants used in Yucatecan traditional medicine. Part II. DNA-interacting activity. Phytomedicine. 2001;8:236-9 pubmed
    ..The highest activity (17.6%) was detected in the leaf extract of Heliotropium angiospermum...
  33. Xiao X, Zhao Y, Jin C, Shu G, Fang Q, Shu Z. [Histological and morphological studies on leaves of Curcuma in China]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004;29:203-7 pubmed
    ..But the differences in the hair distribution, stoma density and size , shape and size of epidermic cells could be considered to be the main features for the microscopic identification of leaves of Curcuma. ..
  34. Zhang S, Zhu W. [Pharmacognostical studies on cortex Indigoferae Pseudotinctoriae]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2001;24:30-1 pubmed
    ..These studies provided referential information for clinics, quality control, development and identification of this crude drug...
  35. Cui G, Huang L. [Discussion on criterions of endanger and protection levels of traditional Chinese medicine herbs]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005;30:1474-7 pubmed
    ..Some qualitative and quantitative factors are discussed, some useful information was also provided for the establishment of protection levels of traditional Chinese medicine herbs. ..
  36. Knight V, Sanglier J, DiTullio D, Braccili S, Bonner P, Waters J, et al. Diversifying microbial natural products for drug discovery. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2003;62:446-58 pubmed
    ..This review will focus on approaches for diversifying microbial natural product strains and extract libraries, while decreasing genetic and chemical redundancy. ..
  37. Li F, Wan P, Gao S, Ding Y, Zhou F. [Pollen morphology identification of five species of medicinal sanguisorba with electron microscope]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1999;24:715-7, 762 pubmed
    ..To approach a new evidence for identifying various species of Rosaceae Sanguisorba, especially for distinguishing S. applanata from S. sitchinese...
  38. Ali S, Gopalakrishnan B, Venkatesalu V. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Properties of Achillea millefolium L.: A Review. Phytother Res. 2017;31:1140-1161 pubmed publisher
    ..The present review will comprehensively summarize the pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and ethnopharmacology of A...
  39. Li X, Shi H, Xu M, Meng L. [HPLC fingerprint chromatogram analysis of some Taraxacum in Henan province]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2008;31:1470-3 pubmed
    ..The period of flowering and fruiting in Spring was the best gather period, and the components in different parts were different. The quality of medicinal materal within Taraxacum should be controlled better by this method. ..
  40. Sun J, He S. [Species and distribution of the medicinal plants peculiar to Guizhou]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005;30:735-8 pubmed
    ..Guizhou has a diversity of medicinal plants. The area of distribution of most species is restricted and the population is small. Some of the species have higher medicinal and scientific research values. ..
  41. Wu Y, Guo Q, Zheng H. [Textual research on history of introduction [corrected] and herbal medicine of Pogostemon cablin]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007;32:2114-7, 2181 pubmed
    ..To study the history of introduction and herbal medicine of Pogostemon cablin by textual researches and clarify the confusion in literatures...
  42. Di H, Shi J, Yan X, Zhao R, Liu Y, Xiao P. [Study on quality specification of Rhizoma et Radix Valeriana Jatamansi]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007;32:2357-9 pubmed
    ..The qualitative and quantitative analysis of valtrate and acevaltrate by TLC and HPLC were preformed respectively. The established method can be used for the quality control of V. jatamans. ..
  43. Wei J, Cheng H, Li K, Ding W, Xu Z, Chu Q. [Study on organogenesis and dry substance accumulation of Bupleurum Chinense]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2003;26:469-71 pubmed
    ..Management methods and planting technologies of B. chinense should be mapped out according to the different characteristics of its three key growing stages. ..
  44. Wei J, Cheng H, Li K, Ding W, Xu Z, Chu Q. [Plant growth analysis of Bupleurum chinense]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2003;26:617-9 pubmed
    ..Short cultivated history of B. chinense are still maintained some significant wild characteristics, so they don't accord with the demand of the objective gathering in the root. It may be resolved with artifical regulation and breeding. ..
  45. Cheng W, Liu X, Wan D, Sun J, Tao G. [Pharmacognostic identification on Dai medicine" guo sha" (Broussonetia papyrifera)]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2007;30:148-50 pubmed
    ..It was found that there are distinct microscopic characters of the transection and the powder which can serve as evidence for identification of the ethnomedicine...
  46. Zhao Z, Yuen J, Wu J, Yu T, Huang W. A systematic study on confused species of Chinese materia medica in the Hong Kong market. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2006;35:764-9 pubmed
    ..The current situation in the Hong Kong market and some suggestions for alleviating the problem are also discussed. ..
  47. Nie L, Luo G, Cao J, Wang Y. [Pattern recognition applied to the fingerprint of traditional Chinese medicine characterized by two-dimension information data]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2004;39:136-9 pubmed
    ..The fingerprints characterized by two-dimension information data could provide more overall and special information as compared with the methods indicated by one-dimension information data. ..
  48. Li J, Long X, He L, Liu F, Shu J. [Determination of capsaicin in Pheretima aspergillum from different habitats by RP-HPLC]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2006;29:448-9 pubmed
    ..The average recoveries for hypoxanthine was 98.6% , precision of the method was 0. 50% (RSD, n = 6). The method can be used to determine the content of hypoxanthine in Pheretima aspergillum from diffrent habitats. ..
  49. Warren B. Digitalis purpurea. Am J Cardiol. 2005;95:544 pubmed
  50. Zhang C, Li L, Geng L, Liu Y, Lin N, Xiao Y. [Studies on quality standard of Peucedanum praeruptorum]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005;30:177-9 pubmed
    ..17696-0.88480 microg (r=0.9999). The average recovery rate was 99.72% (RSD=0.40%). TLC is specific. The method of quantity is accurate, reappearance, simple, rapid, and suitable for the quality control of P. praeruptorum. ..
  51. Wang J, Zhang Q, Wu L, Wu L, Mei Z, Wan D. [Comparative identification on Dai medicine "Pokou" and its processing product]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2010;33:1058-61 pubmed
    ..The results provided the basis for identification of the medicine and establishment of its quality standard. ..
  52. Huang B, Zheng H, Qin L, Zheng Q, Xin H. [Investigation on resource of genus Valeriana in China]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2004;27:632-4 pubmed
    ..The investigation on the resources of genus Valeriana in China have shown out. About 30 species distributed in Southwest and Northeast China. Four of them were most used as medicine. ..
  53. Campbell J, Campbell J, David R. An insight into the practice of pharmacy in ancient Egypt. Pharm Hist (Lond). 2005;35:62-8 pubmed