aerospace medicine


Summary: That branch of medicine dealing with the studies and effects of flight through the atmosphere or in space upon the human body and with the prevention or cure of physiological or psychological malfunctions arising from these effects. (from NASA Thesaurus)

Top Publications

  1. Gårdelöf B. [In-flight medical emergencies. American and European viewpoints on the duties of health care personnel]. Lakartidningen. 2002;99:3596-9 pubmed
    ..Medical professionals can and should assist the cabin crew in their care for ill passengers on board. We also have unique possibilities to inform our patients in advance, whenever flying means an increased health risk. ..
  2. Yesavage J, Taylor J, Mumenthaler M, Noda A, O HARA R. Relationship of age and simulated flight performance. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1999;47:819-23 pubmed
  3. Lee H, Wilbur J, Kim M, Miller A. Psychosocial risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the lower-back among long-haul international female flight attendants. J Adv Nurs. 2008;61:492-502 pubmed publisher
    ..Occupational health nurses in the airline industry should be cognizant of the importance of assessing the influence of both job tasks and work-related psychosocial factors on lower-back work-related musculoskeletal disorders. ..
  4. Hagihara A, Tarumi K, Nobutomo K. The number of steps taken by flight attendants during international long-haul flights. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2001;72:937-9 pubmed
    ..Although it is implied that flight duration and night flight increase the work load of flight attendants, we need to consider psychological aspects to evaluate the overall effects of their jobs on work stress and health. ..
  5. Gendreau M, DeJohn C. Responding to medical events during commercial airline flights. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:1067-73 pubmed
  6. Lee H, Wilbur J, Conrad K, Mokadam D. Work-related musculoskeletal symptoms reported by female flight attendants on long-haul flights. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2006;77:1283-7 pubmed
  7. Moore B, Ping J, Claypool D. Pediatric emergencies on a US-based commercial airline. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2005;21:725-9 pubmed
    ..The most common in-flight pediatric emergencies involved infectious diseases and neurological and respiratory tract problems. Emergency medical kits should be expanded to include pediatric medications. ..
  8. Qureshi A, Porter K. Emergencies in the air. Emerg Med J. 2005;22:658-9 pubmed
  9. McLoughlin D, Jenkins D. Aircrew periodic medical examinations. Occup Med (Lond). 2003;53:11-4 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the current system is of limited value. Selected changes to the content and frequency of aircrew periodic medical examinations could be made without compromising flight safety. ..

More Information


  1. Repace J. Flying the smoky skies: secondhand smoke exposure of flight attendants. Tob Control. 2004;13 Suppl 1:i8-19 pubmed
    ..Thus, ventilation systems massively failed to control SHS air pollution in aircraft cabins. These results have implications for studies of the past and future health of flight attendants. ..
  2. Taylor J, O HARA R, Mumenthaler M, Yesavage J. Relationship of CogScreen-AE to flight simulator performance and pilot age. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2000;71:373-80 pubmed
    ..These data support the validity of CogScreen-AE as a cognitive battery that taps skills relevant to piloting. ..
  3. Thibeault C, Evans A. Emergency medical kit for commercial airlines: an update. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2007;78:1170-1 pubmed
    ..Based on the above, the Committee proposes the following update to its 2002 recommendations. ..
  4. Wagner J, Ruskin K. Pulse oximetry: basic principles and applications in aerospace medicine. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2007;78:973-8 pubmed
    Pulse oximeters are reliable, objective, and noninvasive monitors that have broad application in aerospace medicine. New technology enables pulse oximeters to perform well in adverse environments and measure additional parameters...
  5. Kane R, Short P, Sipes W, Flynn C. Development and validation of the spaceflight cognitive assessment tool for windows (WinSCAT). Aviat Space Environ Med. 2005;76:B183-91 pubmed
    ..The rationale, background, and development of WinSCAT are described, research supporting its use is summarized, and recommendations are made for its continued development. ..
  6. Samet J. Adverse effects of smoke exposure on the upper airway. Tob Control. 2004;13 Suppl 1:i57-60 pubmed
    ..Surveys of cabin crews, while flawed, consistently indicate high rates of upper airway symptoms. ..
  7. Whelan E, Lawson C, Grajewski B, Petersen M, Pinkerton L, Ward E, et al. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms among female flight attendants and teachers. Occup Environ Med. 2003;60:929-34 pubmed
    ..2%, 13.3%, 11.8%, respectively). Overall, FAs and schoolteachers report a higher prevalence of work related upper respiratory symptoms, chest illness, and cold or flu than the general working population. ..
  8. Delaune E, Lucas R, Illig P. In-flight medical events and aircraft diversions: one airline's experience. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2003;74:62-8 pubmed
    ..Physician participation in decisions to divert aircraft should be sought as it is associated with more appropriate divert decisions. ..
  9. Taneja N, Wiegmann D. Prevalence of cardiovascular abnormalities in pilots involved in fatal general aviation airplane accidents. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2002;73:1025-30 pubmed
    ..The findings have implications for aircrew health education and primary prevention programs. There is also a need for more standardized data collection. ..
  10. Taylor J, Kennedy Q, Noda A, Yesavage J. Pilot age and expertise predict flight simulator performance: a 3-year longitudinal study. Neurology. 2007;68:648-54 pubmed
  11. Arya R, Barnes J, Hossain U, Patel R, Cohen A. Long-haul flights and deep vein thrombosis: a significant risk only when additional factors are also present. Br J Haematol. 2002;116:653-4 pubmed
    ..3 (CI 0.6-2.8). Risk of DVT was only increased in long-haul travellers if one or more additional risk factors were present, with an odds ratio of 3.0 (CI 1.1-8.2). Such individuals may benefit from prophylactic measures to minimize risk. ..
  12. Johnston R. Clinical aviation medicine: safe travel by air. Clin Med (Lond). 2001;1:385-8 pubmed
    ..This team approach is important and is of benefit to the patient; it may avoid disruption to the flight. ..
  13. Gazenko O, Genin A, Egorov A. Summary of medical investigations in the U.S.S.R. manned space missions. Acta Astronaut. 1981;8:907-17 pubmed
    ..Attention should be given to psychological, social-psychological and ethical problems that may also limit further increase in flight duration. ..
  14. Sand M, Bechara F, Sand D, Mann B. Surgical and medical emergencies on board European aircraft: a retrospective study of 10189 cases. Crit Care. 2009;13:R3 pubmed publisher
    ..The study demonstrates that although aviation is regulated by a variety of national and international laws, standardised documentation of IMEs is inadequate and needs further development. ..
  15. Giardi M, Touloupakis E, Bertolotto D, Mascetti G. Preventive or potential therapeutic value of nutraceuticals against ionizing radiation-induced oxidative stress in exposed subjects and frequent fliers. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:17168-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss scientific data in support of protection strategies by safe antioxidant formulations that can provide preventive or potential therapeutic value in response to long-term diseases that may develop following exposure. ..
  16. Gibson C, Mader T, Schallhorn S, Pesudovs K, Lipsky W, Raid E, et al. Visual stability of laser vision correction in an astronaut on a Soyuz mission to the International Space Station. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2012;38:1486-91 pubmed publisher
    ..This report suggests that PRK is a safe, effective, and well-tolerated procedure in astronauts during space flight. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. ..
  17. Pons Y, Raynal M, Hunkemöller I, Lepage P, Kossowski M. Vestibular schwannoma and fitness to fly. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2010;81:961-4 pubmed
    ..The complications that may arise from VS treatments must also be considered. ..
  18. Damon A, Lessley D, Salzar R, Bass C, Shen F, Paskoff G, et al. Kinematic response of the spine during simulated aircraft ejections. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2010;81:453-9 pubmed
    ..Future studies should examine the effects of gender, muscle tensing, out-of-position (of head from neutral position) occupants, and external forces (e.g., windblast) on spinal kinematics during aircraft ejection. ..
  19. Zadik Y. Barodontalgia: what have we learned in the past decade?. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010;109:e65-9 pubmed publisher
  20. Karmon Y, Blum S, Levite R, Barenboim E, Gadoth N. Myasthenia gravis and return to flying status. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2010;81:69-73 pubmed
  21. Fitz Clarke J, Quinlan D, Valani R. Flying with a pneumothorax: a model of altitude limitations due to gas expansion. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2013;84:834-9 pubmed
    ..Critical limitation in our model is more likely due to hypoxemia caused by altitude and pulmonary shunt from lung collapse. Studies of PTX tolerance to altitude should be conducted with caution. ..
  22. Cevette M, Pradhan G, Cocco D, Crowell M, Galea A, Bartlett J, et al. Electrogastrographic and autonomic responses during oculovestibular recoupling in flight simulation. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2014;85:15-24 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate the potential of oculovestibular recoupling to stabilize gastric activity and cardiac autonomic changes altered during simulator and motion sickness. ..
  23. Ozturk C, Akin A, Metin S, Cakmak T, Sen A. Atrial fibrillation in two jet pilots during aircrew periodical medical examination. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2012;83:706-10 pubmed
    ..AF particularly should not be overlooked due to its potential for sudden incapacitation during flight via acute hypotension or thromboembolic events. ..
  24. Vigo D, Ogrinz B, Wan L, Bersenev E, Tuerlinckx F, Van den Bergh O, et al. Sleep-wake differences in heart rate variability during a 105-day simulated mission to Mars. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2012;83:125-30 pubmed
    ..Several factors could account for this observation, including reduced daylight exposure related to the confinement situation. ..
  25. Assa A, Prokupetz A, Wand O, Harpaz D, Grossman A. Echocardiographic evaluation and follow-up of cardiac and aortic indexes in aviators exposed to acceleration forces. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2011;24:1163-7 pubmed publisher
    ..No adverse events occurred during the follow-up period. Exposure to acceleration forces has no significant impact on cardiac and aortic morphology. ..
  26. Gore R, Webb T, Hermes E. Fatigue and stimulant use in military fighter aircrew during combat operations. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2010;81:719-27 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, current policies authorizing stimulant use, based primarily on sortie duration, should also consider hypnotic use, inconsistent aircrew scheduling, and circadian disruption. ..
  27. Simons R, Wilschut E, Valk P. Sleep and alertness in North Sea helicopter operations. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2011;82:704-10 pubmed
    ..Appropriate FDP scheduling is an important measure to optimize alertness of helicopter pilots who have to cope with adverse environmental conditions and limited landing and air traffic control facilities. ..
  28. Lippi G, Favaloro E, Cervellin G. Prevention of venous thromboembolism: focus on mechanical prophylaxis. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2011;37:237-51 pubmed publisher
  29. Chester A, Edwards A, Crowe M, Quirk F. Physiological, biochemical, and psychological responses to environmental survival training in the Royal Australian Air Force. Mil Med. 2013;178:e829-35 pubmed publisher
  30. Ricci M, Brumsted J. Crew resource management: using aviation techniques to improve operating room safety. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2012;83:441-4 pubmed
    ..However, constant reinforcement and refresher training is necessary for sustained results. Though no one technique can prevent all errors, CRM can effect culture change, producing a safer environment. ..
  31. Liu B, Ma H, Jiang S. [Progress of research on human tolerance to impact acceleration]. Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi. 2010;27:444-7 pubmed
    ..The study on human tolerance to impact acceleration has become a cynosure in the realm of modern biomechanics. So this paper reviews the progress of the researches. ..
  32. Fleck F. Space technologies for health. Bull World Health Organ. 2015;93:519-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Pascal Michel talks to Fiona Fleck. ..
  33. Nagatani K. Two reports of flight-related headache. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2013;84:730-3 pubmed
    ..In Case 2, an anxiety disorder could be considered as an underlying etiology. The etiology of so-called airplane headache is probably protean and this should be taken into account when assessing cases of in-flight cephalalgia. ..
  34. Lange B, Nielsen R, Skejø P, Toft P. Centrifuge-induced neck and back pain in F-16 pilots: a report of four cases. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2013;84:734-8 pubmed
    ..To test the stability of the neck in a setup similar to the environment where the pilot is going to operate, the pilot should be given the opportunity to prepare himself or herself accordingly in advance. ..
  35. Garcìa H, Hays S, Tsuji J. Modeling of blood lead levels in astronauts exposed to lead from microgravity-accelerated bone loss. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2013;84:1229-34 pubmed
  36. Asmaro D, Mayall J, Ferguson S. Cognition at altitude: impairment in executive and memory processes under hypoxic conditions. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2013;84:1159-65 pubmed
    ..Given that these tests also assess neuropsychological functioning, our results allow for inferences to be made about the effects of hypoxia on human brain functioning. ..
  37. Simons R. Use of Gene Expression Biomarkers to Predict Suicidality. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016;87:659-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Simons R. Use of gene expression biomarkers to predict suicidality. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(7):659-660. ..
  38. Kagami S, Bradshaw S, Fukumoto M, Tsukui I. Cataracts in airline pilots: prevalence and aeromedical considerations in Japan. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2009;80:811-4 pubmed
    ..Cataracts in otherwise fit pilots have important aeromedical significance which requires further consideration. ..
  39. Biernacki M, Kennedy R, Dziuda Ł. [Simulator sickness and its measurement with Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ)]. Med Pr. 2016;67:545-55 pubmed publisher
    ..W jego pierwszej cz??ci omówiono badania z zastosowaniem SSQ, natomiast w drugiej przedstawiono procedur? badania SSQ i zaprezentowano SSQ wraz ze sposobem obliczania przyk?adowych wyników. Med. Pr. 2016;67(4):545–555. ..
  40. Anderson J, Waters M, Hein M, Schubauer Berigan M, Pinkerton L. Assessment of occupational cosmic radiation exposure of flight attendants using questionnaire data. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2011;82:1049-54 pubmed
    ..The difference is attributed to the inclusion of dose from work at other airlines and commuter flights, which was made possible by using questionnaire data. ..
  41. Loo S, Campbell A, Vyas J, Pillarisetti N. Case Report of a Hypobaric Chamber Fitness to Fly Test in a Child With Severe Cystic Lung Disease. Pediatrics. 2017;140: pubmed publisher
    ..This test has the potential to be used as a fitness to fly test in children at risk for air leak syndromes who are being considered for air travel. ..
  42. Goswami N. Falls and Fall-Prevention in Older Persons: Geriatrics Meets Spaceflight!. Front Physiol. 2017;8:603 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, such integration can lead to procedures that address the morbidity and the mortality associated with bedrest immobilization and in the rising health care costs associated with an aging population demographic...
  43. Houston S, Wilkinson E. Flying After Conducting an Aircraft Excessive Cabin Leakage Test. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016;87:816-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Houston S, Wilkinson E. Flying after conducting an aircraft excessive cabin leakage test. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(9):816-820. ..
  44. Steinkraus L, Rayman R, Butler W, Marsh R, Ercoline W, Cowl C. Aeromedical decision making--it may be time for a paradigm change. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2012;83:1006-7 pubmed
    ..Existing aerospace medicine risk assessment tools, while necessary, are no longer sufficient to affect positive safety changes given the ..
  45. Moniaga N, Griswold C. Loss of consciousness and seizure during normobaric hypoxia training. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2009;80:485-8 pubmed
    ..The authors include the patient's physiology instructor, one, of the primary witnesses for the event, and the patient's flight surgeon, who was extensively involved in his care. ..
  46. Wirawan I, Aldington S, Griffiths R, Ellis C, Larsen P. Cardiovascular investigations of airline pilots with excessive cardiovascular risk. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2013;84:608-12 pubmed
    ..A more comprehensive and accurate cardiac investigation algorithm to assess excessive CVD risk in pilots is required. ..
  47. Pump S, Stüben U, Graf J. [Aviation and high-altitude medicine for anaesthetists: part 1: physical basics and pathophysiology]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther. 2012;47:682-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It is the artificial environment of the aircraft cabin that allows travel in usual flight levels. Nevertheless, mild hypoxia and its sequeale have to be considered. ..
  48. Simmons R, Chandler J, Horning D. Forehead-mounted reflectance oximetry for in-cockpit hypoxia early detection and warning. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2012;83:1067-76 pubmed
    ..Significant improvements aimed at diminishing noise, curbing motion artifact, and improving reliability are required to reduce errant measurements. ..
  49. Martin D, Caine T, Matz T, Lee S, Stenger M, Sargsyan A, et al. Virtual guidance as a tool to obtain diagnostic ultrasound for spaceflight and remote environments. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2012;83:995-1000 pubmed
  50. Jakob B, Durante M. Radiation dose detection by imaging response in biological targets. Radiat Res. 2012;177:524-32 pubmed
    ..Alternatively, prompt ? rays or scattered secondary particles are under study for in vivo dosimetry of ion beams in therapy. ..
  51. Trivelloni P, Berrettini U. [Cardiovascular consequences of aerobic maneuvers]. G Ital Cardiol (Rome). 2010;11:126S-129S pubmed
    ..The human physiological tolerance to the gravito-inertial forces developed in flight operations can be increased by physiological and technological means. ..
  52. MacCallum P, Ashby D, Hennessy E, Letley L, Martin J, Mt Isa S, et al. Cumulative flying time and risk of venous thromboembolism. Br J Haematol. 2011;155:613-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The risks of VTE in those with a higher baseline risk due to surgery, previous VTE or obesity are further increased by air travel. ..
  53. García Izquierdo A, Moreno B, García Izquierdo M. Applying information theory to small groups assessment: emotions and well-being at work. Span J Psychol. 2010;13:309-28 pubmed