hospital housekeeping


Summary: Hospital department which manages and provides the required housekeeping functions in all areas of the hospital.

Top Publications

  1. Allen M, Griffith C. Good practice in hospital hygiene. Health Estate. 2005;59:45-7 pubmed
  2. Hayden M, Bonten M, Blom D, Lyle E, van de Vijver D, Weinstein R. Reduction in acquisition of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus after enforcement of routine environmental cleaning measures. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42:1552-60 pubmed
    ..Decreasing environmental contamination may help to control the spread of some antibiotic-resistant bacteria in hospitals. ..
  3. Goodman E, Platt R, Bass R, Onderdonk A, Yokoe D, Huang S. Impact of an environmental cleaning intervention on the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci on surfaces in intensive care unit rooms. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2008;29:593-9 pubmed publisher
  4. Lewis T, Griffith C, Gallo M, Weinbren M. A modified ATP benchmark for evaluating the cleaning of some hospital environmental surfaces. J Hosp Infect. 2008;69:156-63 pubmed publisher
    ..They can also be used in the assessment of novel cleaning methods, such as steam cleaning and microfibre cloths, which have potential use in the National Health Service. ..
  5. Cunningham J, Kernohan W, Rush T. Bed occupancy, turnover intervals and MRSA rates in English hospitals. Br J Nurs. 2006;15:656-60 pubmed
    ..The inference from this study is that there is a relationship between TI and PO and rate of MRSA infection in specialist English hospitals and that PO rates are at a level which may interfere with good infection control procedures. ..
  6. Eckstein B, Adams D, Eckstein E, Rao A, Sethi A, Yadavalli G, et al. Reduction of Clostridium Difficile and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus contamination of environmental surfaces after an intervention to improve cleaning methods. BMC Infect Dis. 2007;7:61 pubmed
    ..Such interventions should include efforts to monitor cleaning and disinfection practices and provide feedback to the housekeeping staff. ..
  7. Carling P, Briggs J, Hylander D, Perkins J. An evaluation of patient area cleaning in 3 hospitals using a novel targeting methodology. Am J Infect Control. 2006;34:513-9 pubmed
    ..This methodology has the potential for being used to evaluate objectively the cleaning/disinfecting activities in various health care settings. ..
  8. Malik R, Cooper R, Griffith C. Use of audit tools to evaluate the efficacy of cleaning systems in hospitals. Am J Infect Control. 2003;31:181-7 pubmed
    ..It is recommended that hospital cleaning regimes be designed to ensure that surfaces are cleaned adequately and that efficacy is assessed with use of internal auditing and rapid hygiene testing. ..
  9. Wilcox M, Fawley W, Wigglesworth N, Parnell P, Verity P, Freeman J. Comparison of the effect of detergent versus hypochlorite cleaning on environmental contamination and incidence of Clostridium difficile infection. J Hosp Infect. 2003;54:109-14 pubmed
    ..These results provide some evidence that use of hypochlorite for environmental cleaning may significantly reduce incidence of CDI, but emphasize the potential for confounding factors. ..

More Information


  1. Griffith C, Cooper R, Gilmore J, Davies C, Lewis M. An evaluation of hospital cleaning regimes and standards. J Hosp Infect. 2000;45:19-28 pubmed
  2. Carling P, Briggs J, Perkins J, Highlander D. Improved cleaning of patient rooms using a new targeting method. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42:385-8 pubmed
    ..Educational interventions were implemented, leading to sustained improvement in cleaning of all objects and a >2-fold improvement in cleaning of surfaces previously cleaned <85% of the time (P<or=.001). ..
  3. Denton M, Wilcox M, Parnell P, Green D, Keer V, Hawkey P, et al. Role of environmental cleaning in controlling an outbreak of Acinetobacter baumannii on a neurosurgical intensive care unit. J Hosp Infect. 2004;56:106-10 pubmed
    ..baumannii resulted in increases in patient colonization. This study showed that high standards of cleaning play an integral role in controlling outbreaks of A. baumannii in the intensive care unit setting. ..
  4. Dancer S. Importance of the environment in meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus acquisition: the case for hospital cleaning. Lancet Infect Dis. 2008;8:101-13 pubmed
    ..This Review will show why the removal of dirt might have more impact on the control of MRSA than previously thought. Introduction of additional cleaning services is easier than improvements in hand-hygiene compliance. ..
  5. Patwary M, O Hare W, Street G, Maudood Elahi K, Hossain S, Sarker M. Quantitative assessment of medical waste generation in the capital city of Bangladesh. Waste Manag. 2009;29:2392-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The amount of waste, and the proportion of hazardous waste, was found to vary significantly with the size and type of HCE. ..
  6. Barrow C. A patient's journey through the operating department from an infection control perspective. J Perioper Pract. 2009;19:94-8 pubmed
  7. Burmahl B. Got mold? Hospitals make progress in the fight against fungus. J Healthc Prot Manage. 2005;21:22-32 pubmed
    ..The author reports on how hospitals (some spurred by mold-related lawsuits) are becoming more adept at responding to water damage and finding, removing and preventing mold. ..
  8. Pancer K, Laudy A, Mikulak E, Gliniewicz A, Staniszewska M, Stypułkowska Misiurewicz H. [Bioactive effectiveness of selected disinfective agents on Gram-negative bacilli isolated from hospital environment]. Przegl Epidemiol. 2004;58:655-62 pubmed
    ..2 mg/L). In our study the highest effectiveness to biofilm forming bacteria showed disinfectant with sodium dichloroisocyanurate, the lowest--with glucoprotamine. ..
  9. Rice R. Measured performance: advice on benchmarking housekeeping operations. Health Facil Manage. 2005;18:39-41 pubmed
  10. Plummer E. More cleaners are needed. Br J Nurs. 2005;14:63 pubmed
  11. Griffin W. Spot away: removing stains from health care carpeting. Health Facil Manage. 2004;17:37-8, 40 pubmed
  12. Martin U, Sonntag A, Neuhaus B, Karch H. [Surface disinfection in nursing homes--what is really happening? Study of control success in three Duisburg nursing homes]. Gesundheitswesen. 2004;66:682-7 pubmed
    ..MRSA can be used as a marker organism to demonstrate effectiveness of cleaning. To achieve further improvement bacteriological monitoring can help in focussing special cleaning and disinfection related problems. ..
  13. Rutala W, Weber D. Surface disinfection: should we do it?. J Hosp Infect. 2001;48 Suppl A:S64-8 pubmed
    ..It concludes that while non-critical surfaces are uncommonly associated with transmission of infections to patients, one should clean and disinfect surfaces on a regularly scheduled basis. ..
  14. Beckendorf R, Klotz S, Hinkle N, Bartholomew W. Nasal myiasis in an intensive care unit linked to hospital-wide mouse infestation. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:638-40 pubmed
    ..Hence, the disruption or loss of 1 vital link in hospital organization (in this case, housekeeping support) may lead to an unintended and bizarre outcome. ..
  15. Manso V, Castro K, Matos S, Junqueira A, Souza S, Sousa M, et al. Compliance with hepatitis B virus vaccination and risk of occupational exposure to blood and other body fluids in intensive care department personnel in Brazil. Am J Infect Control. 2003;31:431-4 pubmed
  16. Griffin W. Raising the bar. High-performance cleaning enhances housekeeping quality and productivity. Health Facil Manage. 2002;15:33-6 pubmed
    ..When the ES budget gets reduced, you are left with less money for supplies, equipment and labor. This wouldn't be so bad if you could reduce the space you clean or cut back on service levels, but that is seldom the case. ..
  17. Baker F, Scott P, Kingsley A. Disposable cleansing wipes. Prof Nurse. 2005;20:45-7 pubmed
    ..This article looks at the role of disposable wipes, both for patient skin hygiene and for hard-surface cleaning and disinfection, in keeping clinical areas clean and safe for patients. ..
  18. Hacek D, Ogle A, Fisher A, Robicsek A, Peterson L. Significant impact of terminal room cleaning with bleach on reducing nosocomial Clostridium difficile. Am J Infect Control. 2010;38:350-3 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). The implementation of a thorough, all-surface terminal bleach cleaning program in the rooms of patients with CDI has made a sustained, significant impact on reducing the rate of nosocomial CDI in our health care system. ..
  19. Simor A, Lee M, Vearncombe M, Jones Paul L, Barry C, Gomez M, et al. An outbreak due to multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a burn unit: risk factors for acquisition and management. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2002;23:261-7 pubmed
    ..Ongoing surveillance and continued attention to hand hygiene and adequate environmental cleaning are essential to prevent recurrent outbreaks due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria in burn units. ..
  20. Belkin N. What about the floor?. AORN J. 2005;82:566; author reply 566-7 pubmed
  21. Blenkharn J. Standards of clinical waste management in hospitals--a second look. Public Health. 2007;121:540-5 pubmed
  22. Demirturk N, Demirdal T. Effect of a training program for hospital cleaning staff on prevention of hospital-acquired infection. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006;27:1410-2 pubmed
  23. Cunningham J, Kernohan W, Rush T. Bed occupancy, turnover interval and MRSA rates in Northern Ireland. Br J Nurs. 2006;15:324-8 pubmed
    ..The implications for nurses and managers are discussed. ..
  24. Blue J, O Neill C, Speziale P, Revill J, Ramage L, Ballantyne L. Use of a fluorescent chemical as a quality indicator for a hospital cleaning program. Can J Infect Control. 2008;23:216-9 pubmed
    ..The Brevis GlitterBug product was incorporated into the CSS environmental cleaning program at Hamilton Health Sciences as a quality indicator to monitor environmental cleaning practices. ..
  25. Bailey A. Antimicrobial resistance or resisting responsibility?. Br J Nurs. 2008;17:133 pubmed
  26. Lehman D. Microfibers, macro benefits. Health care facilities discover microfiber mops and cloths. Health Facil Manage. 2004;17:42-4 pubmed
  27. Boyce J, Havill N, Dumigan D, Golebiewski M, Balogun O, Rizvani R. Monitoring the effectiveness of hospital cleaning practices by use of an adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence assay. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2009;30:678-84 pubmed publisher
    ..ATP readings provided quantitative evidence of improved cleanliness of high-touch surfaces after the implementation of an intervention program. ..
  28. Monteiro M, Chillida M, Bargas E. [Permanent education in an outsourced cleaning service at a university hospital]. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2004;12:541-8 pubmed
    ..All workers considered permanent education essential because they had no previous experience in relation to hospital cleaning. ..
  29. Doidge M, Allworth A, Woods M, Marshall P, Terry M, O Brien K, et al. Control of an outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Australia after introduction of environmental cleaning with a commercial oxidizing disinfectant. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010;31:418-20 pubmed publisher
    ..A commercial oxidizing disinfectant (potassium peroxomonosulphate 50%, sodium alkyl benzene sulphonate 15%, and sulphamic acid 5%) was introduced throughout the intensive care unit, and its use coincided with cessation of the outbreak. ..
  30. Brown B, Crawford P, Nerlich B, Koteyko N. The habitus of hygiene: discourses of cleanliness and infection control in nursing work. Soc Sci Med. 2008;67:1047-55 pubmed publisher
    ..It also makes for self-governing, self-exploiting individuals who accrue responsibility to themselves for implementing the 'habitus of hygiene'. ..
  31. Millsap Spears C. 'Homey' touches, special care. Design trends offer cleaning and product selection challenges for ES managers. Health Facil Manage. 2002;15:33-5 pubmed
  32. Dunaway E. MRSA: time to prevent as well as control. Nurs Manage. 2008;39:49-53 pubmed publisher
  33. Sherlock O, O Connell N, Creamer E, Humphreys H. Is it really clean? An evaluation of the efficacy of four methods for determining hospital cleanliness. J Hosp Infect. 2009;72:140-6 pubmed publisher
  34. Hawkey P, Perry C. MRSA: how we can clean up our act. Interview by Carolyn Scott. Prof Nurse. 2005;20:15-6 pubmed
  35. Denton M, Wilcox M, Parnell P, Green D, Keer V, Hawkey P, et al. Role of environmental cleaning in controlling an outbreak of Acinetobacter baumannii on a neurosurgical intensive care unit. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2005;21:94-8 pubmed
    ..baumannii resulted in increases in patient colonization. This study showed that high standards of cleaning play an integral role in controlling outbreaks of A. baumannii in the intensive care unit setting. ..
  36. Coombes R. A year in Bristol. Back from the red. Health Serv J. 2005;115:26-9 pubmed
    ..The trust has cut the use of nursing agencies drastically, with 95 per cent of nurses now bank staff. Non-clinical issues such as litter, food and the appearance of buildings are also being tackled. ..
  37. Griffin W. Fabulous fabrics: cleaning and spotting upholstered furnishings in the health care setting. Health Facil Manage. 2007;20:40-2 pubmed
  38. Hall J, Horsley M. Diagnosis and management of patients with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea. Nurs Stand. 2007;21:49-56; quiz 58 pubmed
    ..This article outlines the diagnosis, treatment and nursing management of patients with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea. ..
  39. Torres M. [Handling and management of hospital residues]. Servir. 2004;52:232-8 pubmed
  40. Winter G. A bug's life. Nurs Stand. 2005;19:16-8 pubmed
    ..It explores the different strains of MRSA and points out the main ways to control their spread. It is intended to be a reference source for all nurses. ..
  41. Erdem Y, Talas M. Blunt and penetrating object injuries in housekeepers working in a Turkish University Hospital. Am J Infect Control. 2006;34:208-14 pubmed
    ..This study showed a high frequency of blunt and penetrating object injuries in housekeepers. Therefore, more efforts are necessary to increase compliance with vaccination in housekeepers. ..
  42. Richmond J. Developing the role of a ward housekeeper within a multidisciplinary team. Br J Nurs. 2007;16:56-9 pubmed
    ..NHS Estates guidance (DH, 2001b) relating to the housekeeping service and the Essence of Care benchmarks for nutrition (DH, 2001a) were used to provide this framework for continuous quality improvement. ..
  43. Carling P. Evaluating the thoroughness of environmental cleaning in hospitals. J Hosp Infect. 2008;68:273-4 pubmed publisher
  44. Griffin W. Going beyond brooms, mops: these tools can help cut your hard floor care costs. Health Facil Manage. 2008;21:41-3 pubmed
  45. Rutala W, Gergen M, Weber D. Microbiologic evaluation of microfiber mops for surface disinfection. Am J Infect Control. 2007;35:569-73 pubmed
    ..The use of a disinfectant did not improve the microbial elimination demonstrated by the microfiber system. ..
  46. Daschner F, Schumpelick V. [MRSA as a challenge to clinical organization]. Chirurg. 2002;73:924-9 pubmed
    ..The most important measures in management and therapeutic strategies regarding MRSA are presented. ..
  47. Coughlan M, Corry M. The experiences of patients and relatives/significant others of overcrowding in accident and emergency in Ireland: a qualitative descriptive study. Accid Emerg Nurs. 2007;15:201-9 pubmed
  48. Payne T. Use of antimicrobial technology set to grow. Health Estate. 2007;61:39-40 pubmed
    ..Increased use of antimicrobial technologies could have major importance in the fight against the spread of bacteria and germs. Trevor Payne reports. ..
  49. Andresen Y. A series of awakenings. Health Estate. 2003;57:48-9 pubmed
  50. Danchaivijitrmd S, Santiprasitkul S, Tiersuwan S, Naksawas K. Problems in the management of medical waste in Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai. 2005;88 Suppl 10:S140-4 pubmed
    ..5%. Improper management of medical waste was present in all hospitals. Risks of exposure and incidence of infection related to the management were at concerned levels. Education and practice guidelines are needed. ..
  51. Burns J. Performance improvement with patient service partners. J Nurs Adm. 1998;28:31-7 pubmed
    ..Demonstrated performance improvements included increased patient satisfaction, productive labor dollar savings, and improvements in the work environment for staff members. ..
  52. Wray J, Oliver K, Woodward J. Ditching the dirt. Nurs Stand. 2006;20:30-1 pubmed
  53. Dassut B. The implementation of a commode cleaning and identification system. Nurs Times. 2004;100:47 pubmed
    ..As a ward sister and infection control link nurse in a private hospital, part of my role is to train staff about infection control and monitor standards and practice within the hospital. ..