family planning policy


Summary: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.

Top Publications

  1. Attané I. China's family planning policy: an overview of its past and future. Stud Fam Plann. 2002;33:103-13 pubmed
    This article provides a broad overview of China's family planning policy during the last three decades, highlighting key trends and goals of the program at national and provincial levels...
  2. Li J. Gender inequality, family planning, and maternal and child care in a rural Chinese county. Soc Sci Med. 2004;59:695-708 pubmed test the general hypothesis that gender inequality (women's status and son preference) and the state's family planning policy have a significant influence on maternal and childcare utilization...
  3. Lai wan C, Blyth E, Hoi yan C. Attitudes to and practices regarding sex selection in China. Prenat Diagn. 2006;26:610-3 pubmed
  4. Culwell K, Feinglass J. Changes in prescription contraceptive use, 1995-2002: the effect of insurance status. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;110:1371-8 pubmed
    ..It is important for clinicians to understand these differences and address issues of insurance coverage with patients when discussing contraceptive options. III. ..
  5. Adekunle A, Otolorin E. Evaluation of the Nigerian population policy--myth or reality?. Afr J Med Med Sci. 2000;29:305-10 pubmed
  6. Li Y. A perspective on health care for the elderly who lose their only child in China. Scand J Public Health. 2013;41:550-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Support from the government is essential in relieving the difficulties currently faced by the childless elderly, and the difficulties they face in the future. This includes two major aspects: health and life care, and spiritual comfort. ..
  7. Casas L, Herrera T. Maternity protection vs. maternity rights for working women in Chile: a historical review. Reprod Health Matters. 2012;20:139-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Motherhood is a magic wand that represents the selflessness of women, but society throws a blanket of mistrust over women who wish to exercise their maternity rights and to determine the number and spacing of their children. ..
  8. Thompson M. Foucault, fields of governability, and the population–family–economy nexus in China. Hist Theory. 2012;51:42-62 pubmed
  9. Paluzzi P. Reproductive rights: a call to action. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2006;51:397-401 pubmed

More Information


  1. Haslegrave M. Implementing the ICPD Programme of Action: what a difference a decade makes. Reprod Health Matters. 2004;12:12-8 pubmed
    ..The big question, which has yet to be answered, is whether the international community will help or hinder the efforts at country level to achieve the goal of access for all to sexual and reproductive health by 2015. ..
  2. Jones R, Boonstra H. Confidential reproductive health services for minors: the potential impact of mandated parental involvement for contraception. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2004;36:182-91 pubmed
    ..Research that will help clinics implement and improve efforts to encourage voluntary parental involvement is urgently needed. ..
  3. Festini F, Taccetti G, Repetto T, Cioni M, De Martino M. Sex ratio at birth among Chinese babies born in Italy is lower than in China. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003;57:967-8 pubmed
  4. Dresser R. Plan B: Politics and values at the FDA, again. Hastings Cent Rep. 2004;34:9-10 pubmed
  5. Wilson K, Garcia S, Diaz Olavarrieta C, Villalobos Hernández A, Rodríguez J, Smith P, et al. Public opinion on abortion in Mexico City after the landmark reform. Stud Fam Plann. 2011;42:175-82 pubmed
  6. Kulczycki A. Abortion in Latin America: changes in practice, growing conflict, and recent policy developments. Stud Fam Plann. 2011;42:199-220 pubmed
  7. Zheng X, Tan L, Ren Q, Cui Z, Wu J, Lin T, et al. Trends in contraceptive patterns and behaviors during a period of fertility transition in China: 1988-2006. Contraception. 2012;86:204-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings indicate that future works aimed at promoting reproductive health should be diverse among different populations. ..
  8. Delamou A, Koivogui A, Dubourg D, Delvaux T. Family planning in Guinea: a need for better public commitment. Trop Med Int Health. 2014;19:65-73 pubmed publisher
    ..5% in 1992 to 6.8% in 2005 among women aged 15-49. A stronger national engagement in favour of repositioning FP should result in improved government funding of the FP programme and the promotion of long-acting and permanent methods. ..
  9. AbouZahr C. Some thoughts on ICPD+5. Bull World Health Organ. 1999;77:767-70 pubmed
    ..The trend towards the feminist agenda explains the continuing tensions, so vociferously expressed during the ICPD+5 process, between conservatives and progressive groups. ..
  10. Mello M, Powlowski M, Nañagas J, Bossert T. The role of law in public health: the case of family planning in the Philippines. Soc Sci Med. 2006;63:384-96 pubmed
  11. Norwood C. Women, microcredit and family planning practices: a case study from rural Ghana. J Asian Afr Stud. 2011;46:169-83 pubmed
    ..Findings suggest that club membership and membership length is not associated with family planning practices; however, age, education level, number of children and empowerment status are. ..
  12. Mamdani B, Mamdani M. The impact of China's one-child policy. Indian J Med Ethics. 2006;3:106-8 pubmed
  13. Iacovou M, Tavares L. Yearning, learning, and conceding: reasons men and women change their childbearing intentions. Popul Dev Rev. 2011;37:89-123 pubmed
  14. Salazar M, Valladares E, Hogberg U. Questions about intimate partner violence should be part of contraceptive counselling: findings from a community-based longitudinal study in Nicaragua. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2012;38:221-8 pubmed publisher
    ..IPV exposure was associated with more reversible contraceptive use. Abuse inquiring at health facilities providing contraceptives should be implemented to identify women exposed to IPV and provide adequate support. ..
  15. Azmat S, Hameed W, Hamza H, Mustafa G, Ishaque M, Abbas G, et al. Engaging with community-based public and private mid-level providers for promoting the use of modern contraceptive methods in rural Pakistan: results from two innovative birth spacing interventions. Reprod Health. 2016;13:25 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate the necessity of designing and implementing FP initiatives involving local mid-level providers to expand contraceptive coverage in under-served areas. ..
  16. Finer L, Kost K. Unintended pregnancy rates at the state level. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2011;43:78-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These rates provide benchmarks for measuring the impact on unintended pregnancy of state policies and practices, such as those governing sex education and the funding of contraceptive services. ..
  17. Brewis A, McGarvey S, Tu u au Potoi N. Structure of family planning in Samoa. Aust N Z J Public Health. 1998;22:424-7 pubmed
    ..A notable feature of the Samoan women's contraceptive experience is the lack of diversity of reported contraceptive behaviours and attitudes based on age, urban versus rural residence, and education. ..
  18. Hoy C. Adolescents in China. Health Place. 2001;7:261-71 pubmed
    ..Foucault's theories on sexuality and discipline are found to be useful in exploring the subject of reproductive health education in China. ..
  19. Grace R. Population, public health and tubal ligation in Vanuatu. Pac Health Dialog. 2002;9:17-20 pubmed
    ..Urgent education and widespread provision of effective family planning is required to avoid a future public health crisis. Aid donors need to be made aware of this as an absolute priority. ..
  20. Shiffman J, Skrabalo M, Subotic J. Reproductive rights and the state in Serbia and Croatia. Soc Sci Med. 2002;54:625-42 pubmed the late 1980s and early 1990s as a challenge to the population control paradigm that has dominated family planning policy for almost half a century...
  21. Cameron L, Erkal N, Gangadharan L, Meng X. Little emperors: behavioral impacts of China's One-Child Policy. Science. 2013;339:953-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We used the exogenous imposition of the OCP to identify the causal impact of being an only child, net of family background effects. The OCP thus has significant ramifications for Chinese society. ..
  22. Berger M, Dreyer N, Anderson F, Towse A, Sedrakyan A, Normand S. Prospective observational studies to assess comparative effectiveness: the ISPOR good research practices task force report. Value Health. 2012;15:217-30 pubmed publisher
    ..g., and in advance of their execution. ..
  23. Shiffman J. The construction of community participation: village family planning groups and the Indonesian state. Soc Sci Med. 2002;54:1199-214 pubmed
    ..The state-society approach is ideally suited to identifying how family planning programs are institutions of a political nature, embedded in states and societies, and transformed by and transformative of each. ..
  24. Boonstra H, Gold R. Overhauling welfare: implications for reproductive health policy in the United States. J Am Med Womens Assoc (1972). 2002;57:41-6 pubmed
  25. Festini F, De Martino M. Twenty five years of the one child family policy in China. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2004;58:358-60 pubmed
  26. Pham B, Hall W, Hill P, Rao C. Analysis of socio-political and health practices influencing sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam. Reprod Health Matters. 2008;16:176-84 pubmed publisher
  27. Powell L. Eugenics and equality: does the Constitution allow policies designed to discourage reproduction among disfavored groups?. Yale Law Policy Rev. 2002;20:481-512 pubmed
  28. Cai Y. China's below-replacement fertility: government policy or socioeconomic development?. Popul Dev Rev. 2010;36:419-40 pubmed
  29. Arulkumaran S, Johnson T. Contemporary issues in women's health. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2003;81:149-50 pubmed
  30. Chen J, Xie Z, Liu H. Son preference, use of maternal health care, and infant mortality in rural China, 1989-2000. Popul Stud (Camb). 2007;61:161-83 pubmed
    ..the effects of socio-economic conditions and the interaction between son preference and China's one-child family planning policy on the use of maternal health care services and their effects on infant mortality in rural China, using ..
  31. Zhang N, Guo M, Zheng X. China: awakening giant developing solutions to population aging. Gerontologist. 2012;52:589-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Balancing population aging and economic growth requires innovative strategies and represents both challenges and opportunities for China. ..
  32. Grindlay K, Burns B, Grossman D. Prescription requirements and over-the-counter access to oral contraceptives: a global review. Contraception. 2013;88:91-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Country experiences with OTC provision may provide evidence about the safety and effectiveness of OTC provision as a strategy to improve access to effective family planning. ..
  33. Hoorens S, Gallo F, Cave J, Grant J. Can assisted reproductive technologies help to offset population ageing? An assessment of the demographic and economic impact of ART in Denmark and UK. Hum Reprod. 2007;22:2471-5 pubmed
  34. Li H, Yi J, Zhang J. Estimating the effect of the one-child policy on the sex ratio imbalance in China: identification based on the difference-in-differences. Demography. 2011;48:1535-57 pubmed publisher
    ..0 extra boys per 100 girls for the 1991-2005 birth cohorts. The effect of the one-child policy accounts for about 57% and 54% of the total increases in sex ratios for the 1991-2000 and 2001-2005 birth cohorts, respectively. ..
  35. Zhu W. The one child family policy. Arch Dis Child. 2003;88:463-4 pubmed
  36. Furedi A. A matter of life and death. Interview by Nick Edwards. Health Serv J. 2005;115:18-9, 21 pubmed
  37. McFarlane D. Restructuring federalism: the effects of decentralized federal policy on states' responsiveness to family planning needs. Women Health. 1992;19:43-63 pubmed
    ..Equitable state spending did not materialize; the number of unwanted births increased, particularly for women below the poverty level. ..
  38. Adams C, Manenti A. Flexibility and pragmatism in promoting health: an experience of synergy between health and religion in the Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 2012;18:892-8 pubmed
    ..It is hoped that dissemination of this experience outside of the Islamic Republic of Iran will encourage the development of similar dialogue and synergy between religion and health in other countries. ..
  39. Smith V. Where next for China? Rose tinted spectacles do not help. BMJ. 2006;333:500 pubmed
  40. Diaz Olavarrieta C, Turner A, Ellertson C, Helzner J, Ezcurra E. Policy climate, scholarship, and provision of emergency contraception at affiliates of the International Planned Parenthood Federation in Latin America and the Caribbean. Contraception. 2002;65:143-9 pubmed
    ..EC availability and support for the method appear to be increasing in LAC, and clearer distinctions between EC and abortion in medical and policy guidelines should increase acceptance further. ..
  41. Jones G, Leete R. Asia's family planning programs as low fertility is attained. Stud Fam Plann. 2002;33:114-26 pubmed
    ..This article examines the responses of Asian countries and the population challenges that remain. ..
  42. Carvalho N, Salehi A, Goldie S. National and sub-national analysis of the health benefits and cost-effectiveness of strategies to reduce maternal mortality in Afghanistan. Health Policy Plan. 2013;28:62-74 pubmed publisher
  43. Honekamp I. Family policy in Germany: appraisal and assessment. J Fam Hist. 2008;33:452-64 pubmed
    ..Cited studies based on surveys among the German and French populations reveal how different attitudes of the population may also play their role in determining the fertility rate of a country. ..
  44. Mun S. The German social democratic party (SPD) and the debate on the fertility decline in the German Empire (1870~1918). Uisahak. 2011;20:555-89 pubmed
    ..Given that women, the main actors, had no way to take part in the debate over this issue, it is not surprising that German society fought against the symptom of the disease, not against its root. ..
  45. Visaria P. Population policy in India: evolution, performance and challenges. Natl Med J India. 2002;15 Suppl 1:6-18 pubmed
  46. Bongaarts J, Sinding S. Population policy in transition in the developing world. Science. 2011;333:574-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Such programs represent a cost-effective approach to relieving population pressures, stimulating economic development, improving health, and enhancing human freedom. ..
  47. Speidel J, Grossman R. Addressing global health, economic, and environmental problems through family planning. Obstet Gynecol. 2011;117:1394-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Family planning should be a top priority for our specialty. ..
  48. Graugaard C. [The advance guard of free thinking--Jonathan Leunbach and the fight about the body]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2007;169:2880 pubmed
  49. RamaRao S, Clark H, Merkatz R, Sussman H, Sitruk Ware R. Progesterone vaginal ring: introducing a contraceptive to meet the needs of breastfeeding women. Contraception. 2013;88:591-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Careful planning with attention paid to numerous factors can result in its successful introduction. ..
  50. Liu J, Larsen U, Wyshak G. Factors affecting adoption in China, 1950-87. Popul Stud (Camb). 2004;58:21-36 pubmed
    ..Women who had experienced the death of a child were more likely to adopt than those who had not. Women with children may have used adoption as a strategy to circumvent the strict family planning policies. ..
  51. Ouyang Y. China relaxes its one-child policy. Lancet. 2013;382:e28 pubmed
  52. Beeson T, Mead K, Wood S, Goldberg D, Shin P, Rosenbaum S. Privacy and Confidentiality Practices In Adolescent Family Planning Care At Federally Qualified Health Centers. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2016;48:17-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The organizational practices used to ensure adolescent family planning confidentiality in FQHCs are varied across organizations. ..
  53. Goldberg J. The Commerce Clause and federal abortion law: why progressives might be tempted to embrace federalism. Fordham Law Rev. 2006;75:301-54 pubmed