comparative effectiveness research


Summary: Conduct and synthesis of systematic research comparing interventions and strategies to prevent, diagnose, treat, and monitor health conditions. The purpose of this research is to inform patients, providers, and decision-makers, responding to their expressed needs, about which interventions are most effective for which patients under specific circumstances. ( accessed 6/12/2009)

Top Publications

  1. Cook D. If you teach them, they will learn: why medical education needs comparative effectiveness research. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2012;17:305-10 pubmed publisher
  2. Faden R, Beauchamp T, Kass N. Informed consent, comparative effectiveness, and learning health care. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:766-8 pubmed publisher
  3. Gargiulo G, Tamburino C, Capodanno D. Five-year outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary artery bypass graft surgery in patients with left main coronary artery disease: An updated meta-analysis of randomized trials and adjusted observational studies. Int J Cardiol. 2015;195:79-81 pubmed publisher
  4. Naci H, O Connor A. Assessing comparative effectiveness of new drugs before approval using prospective network meta-analyses. J Clin Epidemiol. 2013;66:812-6 pubmed publisher
  5. Lauer M, D Agostino R. The randomized registry trial--the next disruptive technology in clinical research?. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:1579-81 pubmed publisher
  6. Hernán M, Robins J. Using Big Data to Emulate a Target Trial When a Randomized Trial Is Not Available. Am J Epidemiol. 2016;183:758-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We outline a framework for comparative effectiveness research using big data that makes the target trial explicit...
  7. Wilt T, MacDonald R, Brasure M, Olson C, Carlyle M, Fuchs E, et al. Pharmacologic Treatment of Insomnia Disorder: An Evidence Report for a Clinical Practice Guideline by the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2016;165:103-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacotherapies for insomnia may cause cognitive and behavioral changes and may be associated with infrequent but serious harms. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. ( CRD42014009908). ..
  8. Steuri R, Sattelmayer M, Elsig S, Kolly C, Tal A, Taeymans J, et al. Effectiveness of conservative interventions including exercise, manual therapy and medical management in adults with shoulder impingement: a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs. Br J Sports Med. 2017;51:1340-1347 pubmed publisher
    ..NSAIDS and corticosteroids are superior to placebo, but it is unclear how these treatments compare to exercise. ..
  9. Magnus D, Caplan A. Risk, consent, and SUPPORT. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:1864-5 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Fiore L, Lavori P. Integrating Randomized Comparative Effectiveness Research with Patient Care. N Engl J Med. 2016;374:2152-8 pubmed publisher
  2. Mel nikov M, Val ger A. [The influence of nasal packing on the quality of life in the early postoperative period following septoplastic surgery]. Vestn Otorinolaringol. 2017;82:28-30 pubmed publisher
  3. Rinfret F, Cloutier L, L Archevêque H, Gauthier M, Laskine M, Larochelle P, et al. The Gap Between Manual and Automated Office Blood Pressure Measurements Results at a Hypertension Clinic. Can J Cardiol. 2017;33:653-657 pubmed publisher
    ..The difference was not influenced by the real-world context of clinical practice. Office nonautomated BP measurements may still be valuable if measurement procedures are well standardized and performed by trained nurses. ..
  4. . Methodological standards and patient-centeredness in comparative effectiveness research: the PCORI perspective. JAMA. 2012;307:1636-40 pubmed publisher
    ..characteristics of patients are addressed, and is the key characteristic differentiating PCOR from comparative effectiveness research. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act signed into law in 2010 created the Patient-Centered ..
  5. Kim S, Miller F. Varieties of standard-of-care treatment randomized trials: ethical implications. JAMA. 2015;313:895-6 pubmed publisher
  6. Chen H, Geng Q, Lu C, Jiang W, Zhang J, Lyu X, et al. [Application of bowel plication combined with early enteral nutrition in the enhanced recovery after surgery for neonates with jejunal atresia]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2017;20:535-539 pubmed
    ..370, P=0.000]. The bowel plication combined with EEN contributes to the early use of intestinal function, shorten the time to the first oral feeding, and reduces the use of TPN, which can improve the recovery of jejunal atresia neonates. ..
  7. Schmit K, Dolor R, Jones W, Vemulapalli S, Hasselblad V, Subherwal S, et al. Comparative effectiveness review of antiplatelet agents in peripheral artery disease. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014;3:e001330 pubmed publisher
  8. Madigan D, Ryan P. What can we really learn from observational studies?: the need for empirical assessment of methodology for active drug safety surveillance and comparative effectiveness research. Epidemiology. 2011;22:629-31 pubmed publisher
  9. Xie Y, Li J, Yu X. [Thinking on the junction point of Chinese medicine in comparative effectiveness research on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2014;34:611-6 pubmed
    In this paper, we described basic connotations of comparative effectiveness research (CER), expounded the application of CER in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
  10. Ost D, Niu J, Elting L, Buchholz T, Giordano S. Quality gaps and comparative effectiveness in lung cancer staging and diagnosis. Chest. 2014;145:331-345 pubmed publisher
    ..We found three quality gaps: failure to sample the mediastinum first, failure to sample the mediastinum at all in patients with non-small cell lung cancer, and overuse of thoracotomy. ..
  11. Schultz J, Leupold S, Grahlert X, Pfeiffer R, Schwanebeck U, Schröttner P, et al. Study protocol for a randomized controlled pilot-trial on the semiocclusive treatment of fingertip amputation injuries using a novel finger cap. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8224 pubmed publisher
    ..The trial is registered at the European Database on Medical Devices (EUDAMED-No.: CIV-15-03-013246) and at (NCT03089060). ..
  12. Hornung B, Telford K, Carlson G, Mitchell P, Klarskov N, Kiff E. Use of Anal Acoustic Reflectometry in the Evaluation of Men With Passive Fecal Leakage. Dis Colon Rectum. 2017;60:521-526 pubmed publisher
    ..An identifiable abnormality has been detected using anal acoustic reflectometry, which may further our understanding of the pathogenesis in this group. ..
  13. Tinetti M, Studenski S. Comparative effectiveness research and patients with multiple chronic conditions. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:2478-81 pubmed publisher
  14. Djulbegovic B, Paul A. From efficacy to effectiveness in the face of uncertainty: indication creep and prevention creep. JAMA. 2011;305:2005-6 pubmed publisher
  15. Rap M, Chacko A. Optimising the use of transoesophageal echocardiography in diagnosing suspected infective endocarditis. Acta Cardiol. 2015;70:487-91 pubmed
    ..TOE has a higher diagnostic yield and remains a useful tool in patients with intermediate to high suspicion of IE in the presence of poor TTE image quality, calcified aortic valve, myxomatous mitral valve and prosthetic valves. ..
  16. Sugarman J, Califf R. Ethics and regulatory complexities for pragmatic clinical trials. JAMA. 2014;311:2381-2 pubmed publisher
  17. Neglia D, Rovai D, Caselli C, Pietilä M, Teresinska A, Aguadé Bruix S, et al. Detection of significant coronary artery disease by noninvasive anatomical and functional imaging. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2015;8: pubmed publisher
    .. Unique identifier: NCT00979199. ..
  18. Curtis J, Chen L, Higginbotham P, Nowell W, Gal Levy R, Willig J, et al. Social media for arthritis-related comparative effectiveness and safety research and the impact of direct-to-consumer advertising. Arthritis Res Ther. 2017;19:48 pubmed publisher
    ..Social media is a challenging yet promising data source that may complement traditional approaches for comparative effectiveness research for new medications.
  19. Ganz P, Barry J, Burke W, Col N, Corso P, Dodson E, et al. National Institutes of Health State-of-the-Science Conference: role of active surveillance in the management of men with localized prostate cancer. Ann Intern Med. 2012;156:591-5 pubmed publisher
  20. Selby J, Beal A, Frank L. The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) national priorities for research and initial research agenda. JAMA. 2012;307:1583-4 pubmed publisher
  21. Williamson P, Clarke M. The COMET (Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials) Initiative: Its Role in Improving Cochrane Reviews. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;:ED000041 pubmed publisher
  22. Chen G, Zhang D, Ying Y, Wang Z, Tao W, Zhu H, et al. [Clinical investigation on transarterial chemoembolization with indigenous drug-eluting beads in treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma]. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2017;46:44-51 pubmed
    ..Hepatic-locoregional complications may be more frequent in DEB-TACE group than those in cTACE group. ..
  23. Dreyer N. Using observational studies for comparative effectiveness: finding quality with GRACE. J Comp Eff Res. 2013;2:413-8 pubmed publisher
  24. Melnyk B. The role of technology in enhancing evidence-based practice, education, heathcare quality, and patient outcomes: a call for randomized controlled trials and comparative effectiveness research. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs. 2012;9:63-5 pubmed publisher
  25. Jayadevappa R, Chhatre S, Wong Y, Wittink M, Cook R, Morales K, et al. Comparative effectiveness of prostate cancer treatments for patient-centered outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA Compliant). Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e6790 pubmed publisher
    ..Lack of patient-centered outcomes in comparative effectiveness research in localized PCa is a major hurdle to informed and shared decision-making...
  26. Reade M, Bass F, Howe B, Seppelt I, Shehabi Y. Considerations for co-enrolment in randomised controlled effectiveness trials in critical care: the SPICE-8 co-enrolment guidelines. Crit Care Resusc. 2017;19:110-114 pubmed
    ..We suggest that noting compliance with these criteria would simplify such reporting and enhance transparency. ..
  27. Crandall C, Newberry S, Diamant A, Lim Y, Gellad W, Booth M, et al. Comparative effectiveness of pharmacologic treatments to prevent fractures: an updated systematic review. Ann Intern Med. 2014;161:711-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Side effects vary among drugs, and the comparative effectiveness of the drugs is unclear. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and RAND Corporation. ..
  28. Chen V, Eheman C, Johnson C, Hernandez M, Rousseau D, Styles T, et al. Enhancing cancer registry data for comparative effectiveness research (CER) project: overview and methodology. J Registry Manag. 2014;41:103-12 pubmed
    Following the Institute of Medicine's 2009 report on the national priorities for comparative effectiveness research (CER), funding for support of CER became available in 2009 through the American Recovery and Re-investment Act...
  29. Katsanos K, Kitrou P, Spiliopoulos S, Maroulis I, Petsas T, Karnabatidis D. Comparative effectiveness of different transarterial embolization therapies alone or in combination with local ablative or adjuvant systemic treatments for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma: A network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184597 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) of different embolization options for unresectable HCC...
  30. Rassen J, Schneeweiss S. Newly marketed medications present unique challenges for nonrandomized comparative effectiveness analyses. J Comp Eff Res. 2012;1:109-11 pubmed publisher
  31. Baker D, Brown T, Buchanan D, Weil J, Cameron K, Ranalli L, et al. Design of a randomized controlled trial to assess the comparative effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention to improve adherence to colorectal cancer screening among patients cared for in a community health center. BMC Health Serv Res. 2013;13:153 pubmed publisher NCT01453894. ..
  32. Dionne F, Mitton C, Dempster B, Lynd L. Developing a multi-criteria approach for drug reimbursement decision making: an initial step forward. J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol. 2015;22:e68-77 pubmed
    ..Much progress has been made and it is now time to share the results. Feedback will determine the final shape of the framework proposed. ..
  33. Tang K, Yang S, Zhang B, Liu H, Ye D, Zhang H, et al. Ultrasonic monitoring in the assessment of pulmonary recruitment and the best positive end-expiratory pressure. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8168 pubmed publisher
    ..05).Lung ultrasound can be used to detect the endpoint of lung recruitment and the best PEEP, with good effects on lung compliance and oxygenation improvement. ..
  34. Brandal D, Keller M, Lee C, Grogan T, Fujimoto Y, Gricourt Y, et al. Impact of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery and Opioid-Free Anesthesia on Opioid Prescriptions at Discharge From the Hospital: A Historical-Prospective Study. Anesth Analg. 2017;125:1784-1792 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to assess the impact of an ERAS intervention for colorectal surgery on discharge opioid prescribing practices...
  35. Goodman S, Dickersin K. Metabias: a challenge for comparative effectiveness research. Ann Intern Med. 2011;155:61-2 pubmed publisher
  36. Harinck F, Konings I, Kluijt I, Poley J, van Hooft J, van Dullemen H, et al. A multicentre comparative prospective blinded analysis of EUS and MRI for screening of pancreatic cancer in high-risk individuals. Gut. 2016;65:1505-13 pubmed publisher
  37. Mullins C, Abdulhalim A, Lavallee D. Continuous patient engagement in comparative effectiveness research. JAMA. 2012;307:1587-8 pubmed publisher
  38. Glasgow R. Commentary: Electronic health records for comparative effectiveness research. Med Care. 2012;50 Suppl:S19-20 pubmed publisher
  39. Ji F, Fang X, Fei B. [Comparative study of 3D and 2D laparoscopic surgery for gastrointestinal tumors]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2017;20:509-513 pubmed
  40. Weinstein M, Skinner J. Comparative effectiveness and health care spending--implications for reform. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:460-5 pubmed publisher
  41. Hernán M. With great data comes great responsibility: publishing comparative effectiveness research in epidemiology. Epidemiology. 2011;22:290-1 pubmed publisher
  42. Udy A, Schweikert S, Anstey J, Anstey M, Cohen J, Flower O, et al. Critical care management of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage in Australia and New Zealand: what are we doing, and where to from here?. Crit Care Resusc. 2017;19:103-109 pubmed
    ..Whether this influences patient outcomes is unknown, although it represents a major knowledge gap in neurocritical practice in Australia and New Zealand. ..
  43. Kalkman S, Kim S, van Thiel G, Grobbee D, van Delden J. Ethics of Informed Consent for Pragmatic Trials with New Interventions. Value Health. 2017;20:902-908 pubmed publisher
    ..For postmarket EPTs with newly approved interventions, waivers of consent will be ethically problematic, but some studies might be conducted in an ethical manner with alterations to regulatory consent. ..
  44. Curtis J, Chastek B, Becker L, Harrison D, Collier D, Yun H, et al. Further evaluation of a claims-based algorithm to determine the effectiveness of biologics for rheumatoid arthritis using commercial claims data. Arthritis Res Ther. 2013;15:404 pubmed publisher
  45. Liu W, Fan J, Bai J, Tang P, Chen J, Luo Y, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging: A possible alternative to a standing lateral radiograph for evaluating cervical sagittal alignment in patients with cervical disc herniation?. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8194 pubmed publisher
    ..MRI could be used to evaluate the sagittal balance of the cervical spine with great reliability. ..
  46. Kreif N, Tran L, Grieve R, Destavola B, Tasker R, Petersen M. Estimating the comparative effectiveness of feeding interventions in the paediatric intensive care unit: a demonstration of longitudinal targeted maximum likelihood estimation. Am J Epidemiol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..TMLE offers a flexible estimation approach, hence we provide a practical guidance in implementation to encourage its wider uptake...
  47. Djulbegovic B, Kumar A, Glasziou P, Miladinovic B, Chalmers I. Medical research: Trial unpredictability yields predictable therapy gains. Nature. 2013;500:395-6 pubmed publisher
  48. Singh J, Cleveland J. Comparative effectiveness of allopurinol versus febuxostat for preventing incident renal disease in older adults: an analysis of Medicare claims data. Ann Rheum Dis. 2017;76:1669-1678 pubmed publisher
    ..Allopurinol was associated with a lower risk of incident renal disease in elderly patients than febuxostat. Future studies need to examine the mechanism of this potential renal benefit of allopurinol. ..
  49. Goozner M. The proton beam debate: are facilities outstripping the evidence?. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010;102:450-3 pubmed publisher
  50. Parekh A, Barton M. The challenge of multiple comorbidity for the US health care system. JAMA. 2010;303:1303-4 pubmed publisher
  51. Weitkamp K, Daniels J, Romer G, Wiegand Grefe S. Health-related quality of life of children and adolescents with mental disorders. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2013;11:129 pubmed publisher
    ..This stresses the importance of extending therapy goals and outcome measures from mere pathology to measures of QoL in psychotherapy research particularly for patients with internalising pathology. ..
  52. Cao J, Ji Y, Peng X, Wu W, Cheng L, Zhou Y, et al. [Efficacy evaluation of laparoscopic complete mesocolic excision for transverse colon cancer]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2017;20:545-549 pubmed
    ..05). Laparoscopic complete mesocolic excision for transverse colon cancer is safe and feasible with slightly longer operation time, and has quite good long-term oncologic efficacy. ..
  53. Zhang H, Yuan W, Zhou Q, Gu X, Wang F. [Efficacy comparison of robotic and laparoscopic radical surgery in the treatment of middle-low rectal cancer]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2017;20:540-544 pubmed
    ..There was no death in two groups. Robotic radical surgery in the treatment of middle-low rectal cancers is safe and effective with the advantages of less trauma, less bleeding, rapid recovery of intestinal function and urinary function. ..
  54. Washington A, Lipstein S. The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute--promoting better information, decisions, and health. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:e31 pubmed publisher
  55. Brody H. Medicine's ethical responsibility for health care reform--the Top Five list. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:283-5 pubmed publisher
  56. Jegatheswaran J, Ruzicka M, Hiremath S, Edwards C. Are Automated Blood Pressure Monitors Comparable to Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitors? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Can J Cardiol. 2017;33:644-652 pubmed publisher
    ..3; P < 0.001). Because of the significant heterogeneity we believe that use of the AOBP should not replace awake ambulatory BP (ABPM) as the reference standard. ..
  57. Garabedian L, Chu P, Toh S, Zaslavsky A, Soumerai S. Potential bias of instrumental variable analyses for observational comparative effectiveness research. Ann Intern Med. 2014;161:131-8 pubmed publisher
    Instrumental variable analysis is an increasingly popular method in comparative effectiveness research (CER). In theory, the instrument controls for unobserved and observed patient characteristics that affect the outcome...
  58. Zyczkowski M, Bogacki R, Nowakowski K, Muskała B, Rajwa P, Bryniarski P, et al. Application of Pneumatic Lithotripter and Holmium Laser in the Treatment of Ureteral Stones and Kidney Stones in Children. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:2505034 pubmed publisher
    ..i> The URSL and RIRS procedures are highly efficient and safe methods. The use of a holmium laser reduces the duration of the procedure and increases its effectiveness in comparison with the use of a pneumatic lithotripter. ..
  59. Berger M, Sox H, Willke R, Brixner D, Eichler H, Goettsch W, et al. Good Practices for Real-World Data Studies of Treatment and/or Comparative Effectiveness: Recommendations from the Joint ISPOR-ISPE Special Task Force on Real-World Evidence in Health Care Decision Making. Value Health. 2017;20:1003-1008 pubmed publisher
    ..We recognize that some of the recommendations in this report may not be widely adopted without appropriate incentives from decision makers, journal editors, and other key stakeholders. ..
  60. Gargiulo G, Sannino A, Capodanno D, Barbanti M, Buccheri S, Perrino C, et al. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Versus Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2016;165:334-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with SAVR, TAVI may have similar or better early and midterm outcomes for adults with aortic stenosis, including those at low to intermediate risk. None. ..
  61. Sculpher M. Reflecting heterogeneity in patient benefits: the role of subgroup analysis with comparative effectiveness. Value Health. 2010;13 Suppl 1:S18-21 pubmed publisher
  62. Franklin J, Schneeweiss S, Solomon D. Assessment of Confounders in Comparative Effectiveness Studies From Secondary Databases. Am J Epidemiol. 2017;185:474-478 pubmed publisher
    Secondary clinical databases are an important and growing source of data for comparative effectiveness research (CER) studies...
  63. Franklin P, Allison J, Ayers D. Beyond joint implant registries: a patient-centered research consortium for comparative effectiveness in total joint replacement. JAMA. 2012;308:1217-8 pubmed
  64. Shaw L, Hage F, Berman D, Hachamovitch R, Iskandrian A. Prognosis in the era of comparative effectiveness research: where is nuclear cardiology now and where should it be?. J Nucl Cardiol. 2012;19:1026-43 pubmed publisher
  65. Masoudi F, Mi X, Curtis L, Peterson P, Curtis J, Fonarow G, et al. Comparative effectiveness of cardiac resynchronization therapy with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator versus defibrillator therapy alone: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2014;160:603-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In older patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and prolonged QRS duration, CRT-D was associated with lower risks for death and readmission than ICD therapy alone. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. ..
  66. Li M, Li Q, Sun M, Liu L. Comparative effectiveness and acceptability of the FDA-licensed proton pump inhibitors for erosive esophagitis: A PRISMA-compliant network meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8120 pubmed publisher
    ..Esomeprazole 40?mg, pantoprazole 40?mg, esomeprazole 20?mg, and lansoprazole 30?mg showed more benefits in effectiveness and acceptability than other interventions. ..
  67. Reeder Hayes K, Meyer A, Hinton S, Meng K, Carey L, Dusetzina S. Comparative Toxicity and Effectiveness of Trastuzumab-Based Chemotherapy Regimens in Older Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2017;35:3298-3305 pubmed publisher
    ..In the context of limited evidence in older patients, selection between these two regimens on the basis of concerns about differential toxicity or efficacy may not be appropriate. ..
  68. Leonard D. Comparative effectiveness and real-world evidence. Am J Manag Care. 2010;16:410-1 pubmed
  69. Vogrin S, Harper R, Paratz E, MacIsaac A, Burchell J, Smith B, et al. Comparative Effectiveness of Routine Invasive Coronary Angiography for Managing Unstable Angina. Ann Intern Med. 2017;166:783-791 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, no clear, specific recommendations exist regarding the use of angiography in unstable angina...
  70. Liang H, Ma S, Xiao Y, Tan H. Comparative efficacy and safety of oral antidiabetic drugs and insulin in treating gestational diabetes mellitus: An updated PRISMA-compliant network meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7939 pubmed publisher
    ..This NAMbased on 32 RCTs will strongly help to guide further development of management for GDM patients, clinicians should carefully balance the risk-benefit profile of different treatments according to various situations. ..
  71. Swanson S, Robins J, Miller M, Hernán M. Selecting on treatment: a pervasive form of bias in instrumental variable analyses. Am J Epidemiol. 2015;181:191-7 pubmed publisher
    Instrumental variable (IV) methods are increasingly being used in comparative effectiveness research. Studies using these methods often compare 2 particular treatments, and the researchers perform their IV analyses conditional on patients'..
  72. Shaidakov E, Porembskaia O, Grigorian A, Bulatov V, Rosukhovskiĭ D. [First experience with intravascular ultrasonographic examination in diagnosis of post-traumatic obstruction of deep veins]. Angiol Sosud Khir. 2017;23:89-96 pubmed
  73. Giordano S. Comparative effectiveness research in cancer with observational data. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2015;:e330-5 pubmed publisher
    Observational studies are increasingly being used for comparative effectiveness research. These studies can have the greatest impact when randomized trials are not feasible or when randomized studies have not included the population or ..
  74. Maruthur N, Tseng E, Hutfless S, Wilson L, Suarez Cuervo C, Berger Z, et al. Diabetes Medications as Monotherapy or Metformin-Based Combination Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2016;164:740-51 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of less evidence, results for add-on therapies to metformin were similar to those for monotherapies. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. ..
  75. Selby J, Forsythe L, Sox H. Stakeholder-Driven Comparative Effectiveness Research: An Update From PCORI. JAMA. 2015;314:2235-6 pubmed publisher
  76. Horwitz R, Hayes Conroy A, Caricchio R, Singer B. From Evidence Based Medicine to Medicine Based Evidence. Am J Med. 2017;130:1246-1250 pubmed publisher
    ..This represents medicine based evidence that is tuned to decision-making for the particular patient. ..