law enforcement


Summary: Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.

Top Publications

  1. Dandona R, Kumar G, Dandona L. Traffic law enforcement in Hyderabad, India. Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot. 2005;12:167-76 pubmed
    The aim of the study was to understand traffic law enforcement (TLE) carried out by the police to reduce non-compliance with traffic laws on the roads of Hyderabad city in India for 2001-2003...
  2. Hiyama T, Yoshihara M, Tanaka S, Chayama K. The number of criminal prosecutions against physicians due to medical negligence is on the rise in Japan. Am J Emerg Med. 2008;26:105-6 pubmed
  3. Stokes E. Improving effectiveness of protection efforts in tiger source sites: Developing a framework for law enforcement monitoring using MIST. Integr Zool. 2010;5:363-377 pubmed publisher
    ..Improving the capacity and effectiveness of law enforcement in reducing poaching of tigers is an immediate priority to secure remaining wild populations in source sites...
  4. Ringwalt C, Paschall M. The utility of keg registration laws: a cross-sectional study. J Adolesc Health. 2011;48:106-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Longitudinal research is needed to examine the relationships between keg registration policies and levels of adolescent alcohol consumption, hazardous drinking, and driving after drinking. ..
  5. Ho J, Nystrom P, Calvo D, Berris M, Norlin J, Clinton J. Prehospital chemical restraint of a noncommunicative autistic minor by law enforcement. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2012;16:407-11 pubmed publisher
    ..using chemical restraint in the prehospital setting are found in the medical literature, the use of this by law enforcement as a first-response restraint has not previously been described...
  6. N Goran P, Boesch C, Mundry R, N Goran E, Herbinger I, Yapi F, et al. Hunting, law enforcement, and African primate conservation. Conserv Biol. 2012;26:565-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Monitoring can also be used to inform law enforcement and managers of where hunting is concentrated...
  7. Zimmerman F. Cardiovascular disease and risk factors in law enforcement personnel: a comprehensive review. Cardiol Rev. 2012;20:159-66 pubmed publisher
    b>Law enforcement is a high-stress occupation that is prone to increasing the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular disease...
  8. Vardavas C, Dimitrakaki C, Schoretsaniti S, Patelarou E, Filippidis F, Connolly G, et al. The role of the non-smoker in enforcing smoke-free laws. J Public Health Policy. 2011;32:46-59 pubmed publisher
    ..8). Policymakers should evaluate how non-smokers could actively support smoke-free laws through reporting of violations using media campaigns that inform them of their rights, and other measures. ..
  9. Beirness D, LeCavalier J, Singhal D. Evaluation of the Drug Evaluation and Classification program: a critical review of the evidence. Traffic Inj Prev. 2007;8:368-76 pubmed
    ..There remains room for improvement in the DEC program. As further research becomes available, either from laboratory or field investigations or both, it needs to be incorporated into the program to enhance its validity and accuracy. ..

More Information


  1. Jason L, Hunt Y, Adams M, Pokorny S, Gadiraju P. Strengthening communities' youth access policies may facilitate clean indoor air action. Prev Chronic Dis. 2007;4:A113 pubmed
  2. Rothstein M, Talbott M. The expanding use of DNA in law enforcement: what role for privacy?. J Law Med Ethics. 2006;34:153-64 pubmed
  3. Dandona R, Kumar G, Dandona L. Risky behavior of drivers of motorized two wheeled vehicles in India. J Safety Res. 2006;37:149-58 pubmed
    ..policy interventions for improving the drivers license system, mandatory use of a helmet, effective traffic law enforcement, and ensuring good vehicle condition to reduce the risk factors that potentially contribute to mortality and ..
  4. Cooper H, Moore L, Gruskin S, Krieger N. The impact of a police drug crackdown on drug injectors' ability to practice harm reduction: a qualitative study. Soc Sci Med. 2005;61:673-84 pubmed
    ..Possible strategies include improving access to treatment and establishing safe injection spaces. ..
  5. Degenhardt L, Day C, Conroy E, Gilmour S, Hall W. Age differentials in the impacts of reduced heroin: effects of a "heroin shortage" in NSW, Australia. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005;79:397-404 pubmed
    ..There was no change in other drug related deaths in any age group. A reduction in heroin supply was followed by greater reductions in heroin related harms among younger than older people, across a number of outcome domains. ..
  6. Sarang A, Rhodes T, Sheon N, Page K. Policing drug users in Russia: risk, fear, and structural violence. Subst Use Misuse. 2010;45:813-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Future drug use(r)-related policies, and the state responses they sponsor, should set out to promote public health while protecting human rights, hope, and dignity. ..
  7. DiFranza J, Dussault G. The federal initiative to halt the sale of tobacco to children--the Synar Amendment, 1992-2000: lessons learned. Tob Control. 2005;14:93-8 pubmed
    ..Implementation was slowed significantly by a lack of good faith effort in many states and by DHHS's decision not to require states to enforce their laws by penalising lawbreakers. ..
  8. Degenhardt L, Reuter P, Collins L, Hall W. Evaluating explanations of the Australian 'heroin shortage'. Addiction. 2005;100:459-69 pubmed
    ..offered for the shortage against evidence from a variety of sources: government reports, police and drug law enforcement documents and briefings, key informant (KI) interviews, indicator data and research data...
  9. Dent C, Grube J, Biglan A. Community level alcohol availability and enforcement of possession laws as predictors of youth drinking. Prev Med. 2005;40:355-62 pubmed
    ..There was also evidence that communities with higher minor in possession law enforcement had lower rates of alcohol use and binge drinking...
  10. Redelmeier D, Tibshirani R, Evans L. Traffic-law enforcement and risk of death from motor-vehicle crashes: case-crossover study. Lancet. 2003;361:2177-82 pubmed
    ..Traffic-law enforcement effectively reduces the frequency of fatal motor-vehicle crashes in countries with high rates of motor-..
  11. Jason L, Pokorny S, Muldowney K, Velez M. Youth tobacco sales-to-minors and possession-use-purchase laws: a public health controversy. J Drug Educ. 2005;35:275-90 pubmed
    ..This article reviews the ongoing debate behind these types of public health efforts, and examines the evidence of such programs to reduce youth tobacco use. ..
  12. Jason L, Pokorny S, Adams M, Hunt Y, Gadiraju P, Morello T, et al. Youth caught in violation of tobacco purchase, use, and possession laws: education versus fines. Behav Modif. 2007;31:713-31 pubmed
  13. Vardavas C, Kafatos A. Smoking policy and prevalence in Greece: an overview. Eur J Public Health. 2007;17:211-3 pubmed
    ..It is obvious that the strict enforcement of a nationwide anti-tobacco policy must be a priority on the national health agenda, if we are to ever effectively combat the high prevalence of smoking in Greece. ..
  14. Butler J, Cohen M, Friedman C, Scripp R, Watz C. Collaboration between public health and law enforcement: new paradigms and partnerships for bioterrorism planning and response. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:1152-6 pubmed
    ..anthracis sent through the mail during September and October 2001 led to unprecedented public health and law enforcement investigations, which involved thousands of investigators from federal, state, and local agencies...
  15. Levenson R, Dwyer L. Peer support in law enforcement: past, present, and future. Int J Emerg Ment Health. 2003;5:147-52 pubmed interested licensed psychologists and social workers who often have minimal experience working with the law enforcement community...
  16. Shinar D, Schechtman E. Drug identification performance on the basis of observable signs and symptoms. Accid Anal Prev. 2005;37:843-51 pubmed
  17. Friedman S, Cooper H, Tempalski B, Keem M, Friedman R, Flom P, et al. Relationships of deterrence and law enforcement to drug-related harms among drug injectors in US metropolitan areas. AIDS. 2006;20:93-9 pubmed
  18. Cooper H, Bossak B, Tempalski B, Des Jarlais D, Friedman S. Geographic approaches to quantifying the risk environment: drug-related law enforcement and access to syringe exchange programmes. Int J Drug Policy. 2009;20:217-26 pubmed publisher
    ..methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of syringe exchange programmes (SEPs) or of drug-related law enforcement activities, despite the fact that these interventions are widely conceptualized as structural and spatial in ..
  19. Davis C, Burris S, Kraut Becher J, Lynch K, Metzger D. Effects of an intensive street-level police intervention on syringe exchange program use in Philadelphia, PA. Am J Public Health. 2005;95:233-6 pubmed
    ..Declines in use among Black and male participants were much more pronounced than decreases among White and female participants. ..
  20. VanMeenen K, Cherniack N, Bergen M, Gleason L, Teichman R, Servatius R. Cardiovascular evaluation of electronic control device exposure in law enforcement trainees: a multisite study. J Occup Environ Med. 2010;52:197-201 pubmed publisher
    Occupational health risk with regard to training exercises is a relatively under studied domain for law enforcement officers. One potential health risk is exposure to electronic control devices (ECDs)...
  21. Werb D, Hayashi K, Fairbairn N, Kaplan K, Suwannawong P, Lai C, et al. Drug use patterns among Thai illicit drug injectors amidst increased police presence. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2009;4:16 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate high ongoing rates of drug injecting in Thailand despite reports of increased levels of strict enforcement and enforcement-related violence, and raise questions regarding the merits of this approach. ..
  22. Schechtman E, Shinar D. Modeling drug detection and diagnosis with the 'drug evaluation and classification program'. Accid Anal Prev. 2005;37:852-61 pubmed
    ..Both the formal model and the officers were quite poor in identifying codeine impairment. In conclusion, the joint application of the DECP procedures with the formal model is useful for drug detection and identification. ..
  23. Jason L, Pokorny S, Adams M. A randomized trial evaluating tobacco possession-use-purchase laws in the USA. Soc Sci Med. 2008;67:1700-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The implications of these findings are discussed. ..
  24. Wahl P, Schreyer N, Yersin B. Injury pattern of the Flash-Ball, a less-lethal weapon used for law enforcement: report of two cases and review of the literature. J Emerg Med. 2006;31:325-30 pubmed
    Less-lethal weapons are used in law enforcement to neutralize combative individuals and to disperse riot crowds. Local police recently used such an impact weapon, the Flash-Ball, in two different situations...
  25. Bright D, Ritter A. Retail price as an outcome measure for the effectiveness of drug law enforcement. Int J Drug Policy. 2010;21:359-63 pubmed publisher
    One outcome measure of law enforcement effectiveness is the reduction in drug consumption which occurs as a result of law enforcement interventions...
  26. Pollini R, Brouwer K, Lozada R, Ramos R, Cruz M, Magis Rodriguez C, et al. Syringe possession arrests are associated with receptive syringe sharing in two Mexico-US border cities. Addiction. 2008;103:101-8 pubmed
    ..Public health collaborations with law enforcement to modify the risk environment in which drug use occurs are essential to facilitate safer injection practices. ..
  27. Montgomery J, Foley K, Wolfson M. Enforcing the minimum drinking age: state, local and agency characteristics associated with compliance checks and Cops in Shops programs. Addiction. 2006;101:223-31 pubmed
    To identify state, local and organizational characteristics associated with local law enforcement agencies' implementation of two dramatically different approaches to enforcement of underage drinking laws: compliance checks and Cops in ..
  28. Rhodes T, Platt L, Sarang A, Vlasov A, Mikhailova L, Monaghan G. Street policing, injecting drug use and harm reduction in a Russian city: a qualitative study of police perspectives. J Urban Health. 2006;83:911-25 pubmed
    ..We conclude that facilitating partnerships between policing agencies and HIV prevention initiatives are a critical feature of creating environments conducive for risk reduction. ..
  29. Zambon F, Fedeli U, Visentin C, Marchesan M, Avossa F, Brocco S, et al. Evidence-based policy on road safety: the effect of the demerit points system on seat belt use and health outcomes. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2007;61:877-81 pubmed
    ..The demerit points system is effective both in encouraging drivers and passengers to adhere to the law and in terms of health outcomes, substantially contributing to road safety. ..
  30. Wood E, Tyndall M, Spittal P, Li K, Anis A, Hogg R, et al. Impact of supply-side policies for control of illicit drugs in the face of the AIDS and overdose epidemics: investigation of a massive heroin seizure. CMAJ. 2003;168:165-9 pubmed
    ..drug use and behavioural characteristics, heroin and cocaine prices, and participants' reports of whether law enforcement had affected their source of drugs or the types of drugs available on the street, as well as overdoses, in ..
  31. Richards E. Collaboration between public health and law enforcement: the constitutional challenge. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:1157-9 pubmed
  32. Vardavas C, Kafatos A. Bans on smoking in public places: policy enforcement needed. Lancet. 2007;370:133-4 pubmed
  33. Burris S, Strathdee S. To serve and protect? Toward a better relationship between drug control policy and public health. AIDS. 2006;20:117-8 pubmed
  34. Chang H, Shih C. Using a multidimensional Rasch model approach to measure the police's perceived ability to detect, detain and intercept DWI vehicles when conducting sobriety checkpoints. Accid Anal Prev. 2012;48:505-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Several strategies and programs are suggested based on the study findings to improve the enforcement ability of police officers. ..
  35. Wagner K, Simon Freeman R, Bluthenthal R. The association between law enforcement encounters and syringe sharing among IDUs on skid row: a mixed methods analysis. AIDS Behav. 2013;17:2637-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the association between law enforcement encounters (i.e...
  36. Beletsky L, Grau L, White E, Bowman S, Heimer R. Prevalence, characteristics, and predictors of police training initiatives by US SEPs: building an evidence base for structural interventions. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011;119:145-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Robust evaluation is needed to better understand the impact of these trainings on law enforcement practices, SEP operations, and community health...
  37. van Leeuwen M, Harte J. Violence against care workers in psychiatry: is prosecution justified?. Int J Law Psychiatry. 2011;34:317-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Empirical studies on this subject are suggested, in order to develop a uniform policy, which is embraced by all parties involved. ..
  38. Mulvey E, Iselin A. Improving professional judgments of risk and amenability in juvenile justice. Future Child. 2008;18:35-57 pubmed
  39. Wasarhaley N, Simcic T, Golding J. Mock juror perception of sexual assault nurse examiner testimony. Violence Vict. 2012;27:500-11 pubmed
    ..Results are discussed in terms of the impact of SANE involvement in legal proceedings. ..
  40. O Byrne P, Bryan A, Roy M. HIV criminal prosecutions and public health: an examination of the empirical research. Med Humanit. 2013;39:85-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, the behavioural effects of HIV criminal laws appear to be complex and non-linear. A review of the extant literature from a public health perspective leads to the conclusion that HIV criminal laws undermine public health. ..
  41. Gaitonde R, Oxman A, Okebukola P, Rada G. Interventions to reduce corruption in the health sector. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;:CD008856 pubmed publisher
    ..The extent to which increased transparency alone reduces corruption is uncertain. There is a need to monitor and evaluate the impacts of all interventions to reduce corruption, including their potential adverse effects. ..
  42. Roe S, Banta Green C. An Initial Evaluation of Web-Based Opioid Overdose Education. Subst Use Misuse. 2016;51:268-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, results suggest that a web-based platform may be a promising approach to basic overdose education. ..
  43. Green T, Zaller N, Palacios W, Bowman S, Ray M, Heimer R, et al. Law enforcement attitudes toward overdose prevention and response. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013;133:677-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Law enforcement is often the first to respond to medical emergencies in the community, including overdose...
  44. Fleming M, Chandwani H, Barner J, Weber S, Okoro T. Prescribers and pharmacists requests for prescription monitoring program (PMP) data: does PMP structure matter?. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother. 2013;27:136-42 pubmed publisher
    ..g., requested reports) by prescribers, pharmacists, and law enforcement for active state PMPs; (2) PMP utilization by health care providers with and without online access; (3) ..
  45. Jonsson G, Moosa M, Jeenah F, Musenge E. The outcome of mental health care users admitted under Section 40 of the South African Mental Health Care Act (No 17 of 2002). Afr J Psychiatry (Johannesbg). 2013;16:94-103 pubmed publisher
  46. Rusting R. Enforcing the new 'total' hospital smoking bans. J Healthc Prot Manage. 2012;28:120-4 pubmed
    ..This article describes the problems faced by some security managers called on to enforce the new "no alternative" smoking bans and how they are solving them. ..
  47. Salame Y, Devreker F, Imbert R, Delbaere A, Fontenelle N, Englert Y. Contribution of cryopreservation in a mandatory SET policy: analysis of 5 years of application of law in an academic IVF center. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2011;28:1059-66 pubmed publisher
    To analyse treatment outcomes after SET law enforcement and to evaluate the contribution of cryopreservation in a SET policy...
  48. Paltrow L, Flavin J. Arrests of and forced interventions on pregnant women in the United States, 1973-2005: implications for women's legal status and public health. J Health Polit Policy Law. 2013;38:299-343 pubmed publisher
    ..Third, we explore the role played by health care providers. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings and the likely impact of personhood measures on pregnant women's liberty and on maternal, fetal, and child health. ..
  49. Jou R, Wang P. The intention and willingness to pay moving violation citations among Taiwan motorcyclists. Accid Anal Prev. 2012;49:177-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates that current fines in Taiwan could be raised. ..
  50. Komenda J, Hejna P, Rydlo M, Novak M, Krajsa J, Racek F, et al. Forensic and clinical issues in the use of frangible projectile. J Forensic Leg Med. 2013;20:697-702 pubmed publisher
    Frangible projectiles for firearms, which break apart on impact, are mainly used by law enforcement agencies for training purposes, but can also be used for police interventions...
  51. Dorji G, DeJong W, Bor J, Bachman DeSilva M, Sabin L, Feeley F, et al. Increasing compliance with alcohol service laws in a developing country: intervention trial in the Kingdom of Bhutan. Addiction. 2016;111:467-74 pubmed publisher
    ..A multi-sector programme to improve compliance with legal restrictions on serving alcohol in Bhutan appeared to have a modest effect but even after the programme, in two-thirds of the occasions tested, the laws were broken. ..
  52. Feldmeyer B. The effects of racial/ethnic segregation on Latino and Black homicide. Sociol Q. 2010;51:600-23 pubmed
    ..Implications for segregation–violence relationships, the racial-invariance position, and the Latino paradox are discussed. ..
  53. Engelman A, Deardorff J. Cultural Competence Training for Law Enforcement Responding to Domestic Violence Emergencies With the Deaf and Hard of Hearing: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation. Health Promot Pract. 2016;17:177-85 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate a training workshop for law enforcement as first responders for the purpose of increasing officers' cultural competency in working with Deaf and hard-of-hearing people (Deaf/HH) during domestic violence (DV) emergencies...