intellectual property


Summary: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)

Top Publications

  1. t Hoen E, Passarelli C. The role of intellectual property rights in treatment access: challenges and solutions. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2013;8:70-4 pubmed publisher
    ..relevant literature published from January 2011 to July 2012 that specifically addresses the impact of intellectual property protection on access to antiretroviral drugs...
  2. Brody B. Intellectual property and biotechnology: the U.S. internal experience--Part II. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2006;16:105-28 pubmed
    ..of the United States to adequately consider possible modifications in the traditional robust system of intellectual property rights as applied to biotechnology...
  3. du Toit L, Pillay V, Choonara Y. Nano-microbicides: challenges in drug delivery, patient ethics and intellectual property in the war against HIV/AIDS. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2010;62:532-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of nanotechnology in the antiviral arena and the unique issues facing the generation of intellectual property relating to nano-microbicides in the ongoing global 'tug-of-war' of 'patients versus patents' are also ..
  4. Akaleephan C, Wibulpolprasert S, Sakulbumrungsil R, Luangruangrong P, Jitraknathee A, Aeksaengsri A, et al. Extension of market exclusivity and its impact on the accessibility to essential medicines, and drug expense in Thailand: analysis of the effect of TRIPs-Plus proposal. Health Policy. 2009;91:174-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Several options as well as other related mechanisms to help reduce the negative impact are proposed. ..
  5. Satyanarayana K, Srivastava S. Poverty, health & intellectual property rights with special reference to India. Indian J Med Res. 2007;126:390-406 pubmed
    ..In addition, global intellectual property rights (IPR) protection regimes like the Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) are considered ..
  6. Trask A. An overview of pharmaceutical cocrystals as intellectual property. Mol Pharm. 2007;4:301-9 pubmed
    ..The article provides an outlook on how the developing field of cocrystallization may impact the pharmaceutical intellectual property landscape.
  7. Westerhaus M, Castro A. How do intellectual property law and international trade agreements affect access to antiretroviral therapy?. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e332 pubmed
  8. Milstien J, Gaulé P, Kaddar M. Access to vaccine technologies in developing countries: Brazil and India. Vaccine. 2007;25:7610-9 pubmed assess the effects of TRIPS on vaccine technology access in Brazil and India, a good understanding of intellectual property management will be useful...
  9. Lipinski C. The anti-intellectual effects of intellectual property. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2006;10:380-3 pubmed
    b>Intellectual property considerations decrease research productivity in subtle and unanticipated ways. Chemical probe exchange between Pharma and academia is hindered by academic IP interests...

More Information


  1. Krummel T, Shafi B, Wall J, Chandra V, Mery C, Gertner M. Intellectual property and royalty streams in academic departments: myths and realities. Surgery. 2008;143:183-91 pubmed publisher
  2. Turmen T, Clift C. Public health, innovation and intellectual property rights: unfinished business. Bull World Health Organ. 2006;84:338 pubmed
  3. Andanda P. Human-tissue-related inventions: ownership and intellectual property rights in international collaborative research in developing countries. J Med Ethics. 2008;34:171-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The question of intellectual property rights over commercially viable products or procedures that are derived from these samples and the ..
  4. Gupta R, Gabrielsen B, Ferguson S. Nature's medicines: traditional knowledge and intellectual property management. Case studies from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), USA. Curr Drug Discov Technol. 2005;2:203-19 pubmed
    ..We hope that these discussions and our lessons learned would be helpful to others seeking to develop their own models of cooperation for the benefit of global health. ..
  5. Stiglitz J. Scrooge and intellectual property rights. BMJ. 2006;333:1279-80 pubmed
  6. Campbell G, Miller A, Balasubramaniam C. The role of intellectual property in creating, sharing and repurposing virtual patients. Med Teach. 2009;31:709-12 pubmed
    ..Unless all intellectual property rights (IPRs) and plans of the authors regarding the VP are confirmed upfront, the ability of the school ..
  7. Brody B. Intellectual property and biotechnology: the U.S. internal experience--Part I. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2006;16:1-37 pubmed
    ..questions were raised about the appropriateness of applying to this area a traditional robust system of intellectual property rights. Despite these hesitations, the U.S. rejected suggested modifications...
  8. Kesselheim A, Fischer M, Avorn J. Extensions of intellectual property rights and delayed adoption of generic drugs: effects on medicaid spending. Health Aff (Millwood). 2006;25:1637-47 pubmed
    ..Generic substitution can reduce costs, but the effects are undercut by extensions of intellectual property (IP) protection, elevated generic prices, and low substitution rates...
  9. Brody B. Intellectual property and biotechnology: the European debate. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2007;17:69-110 pubmed
  10. Jensen K, Murray F. Intellectual property. Enhanced: intellectual property landscape of the human genome. Science. 2005;310:239-40 pubmed
    ..Unsurprisingly, genes associated with health and disease are more patented than the genome at large. The intellectual property rights for some genes can become highly fragmented between many owners, which suggests that downstream ..
  11. Chokshi D, Parker M, Kwiatkowski D. Data sharing and intellectual property in a genomic epidemiology network: policies for large-scale research collaboration. Bull World Health Organ. 2006;84:382-7 pubmed
    ..Here we consider data-sharing and intellectual property policies for an international research consortium working on the genomic epidemiology of malaria...
  12. Noehrenberg E. Report of the Commission on Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation and Public Health: an industry perspective. Bull World Health Organ. 2006;84:419-20 pubmed
  13. Soejarto D, Fong H, Tan G, Zhang H, Ma C, Franzblau S, et al. Ethnobotany/ethnopharmacology and mass bioprospecting: issues on intellectual property and benefit-sharing. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;100:15-22 pubmed is the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) that recognizes issues on genetic access, prior informed consent, intellectual property and the sharing of benefits that may arise as a result of the effort...
  14. Smith R, Correa C, Oh C. Trade, TRIPS, and pharmaceuticals. Lancet. 2009;373:684-91 pubmed publisher
    The World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual-..
  15. Palazzoli F, Testu F, Merly F, Bigot Y. Transposon tools: worldwide landscape of intellectual property and technological developments. Genetica. 2010;138:285-99 pubmed publisher
  16. Chi Ham C, Boettiger S, Figueroa Balderas R, Bird S, Geoola J, Zamora P, et al. An intellectual property sharing initiative in agricultural biotechnology: development of broadly accessible technologies for plant transformation. Plant Biotechnol J. 2012;10:501-10 pubmed publisher
    The Public Intellectual Property Resource for Agriculture (PIPRA) was founded in 2004 by the Rockefeller Foundation in response to concerns that public investments in agricultural biotechnology benefiting developing countries were facing ..
  17. Supakankunti S, Janjaroen W, Tangphao O, Ratanawijitrasin S, Kraipornsak P, Pradithavanij P. Impact of the World Trade Organization TRIPS agreement on the pharmaceutical industry in Thailand. Bull World Health Organ. 2001;79:461-70 pubmed
    The 1994 World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) established minimum universal standards in all areas of intellectual property...
  18. Timmermans K. Intellectual property rights and traditional medicine: policy dilemmas at the interface. Soc Sci Med. 2003;57:745-56 pubmed
    ..It points to possible modifications and at ways to devise new forms of intellectual property ownership that may better suit the needs of those who seek to protect traditional medicine...
  19. Atkinson R, Beachy R, Conway G, Cordova F, Fox M, Holbrook K, et al. Intellectual property rights. Public sector collaboration for agricultural IP management. Science. 2003;301:174-5 pubmed
  20. Posey D. Commodification of the sacred through intellectual property rights. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;83:3-12 pubmed
  21. Benkler Y. Intellectual property. Commons-based strategies and the problems of patents. Science. 2004;305:1110-1 pubmed
  22. Thursby J, Thursby M. Intellectual property. University licensing and the Bayh-Dole Act. Science. 2003;301:1052 pubmed
  23. Eisenberg R. Intellectual property issues in genomics. Trends Biotechnol. 1996;14:302-7 pubmed
    Controversy over intellectual property rights in the results of large-scale cDNA sequencing raises intriguing questions about the roles of the public and private sectors in genomics research, and about who stands to benefit (and who ..
  24. Loff B. No agreement reached in talks on access to cheap drugs. Lancet. 2002;360:1951 pubmed
  25. Cohen J, Illingworth P. The dilemma of intellectual property rights for pharmaceuticals: the tension between ensuring access of the poor to medicines and committing to international agreements. Dev World Bioeth. 2003;3:27-48 pubmed
    ..we provide an overview of how the outcomes of the Uruguay Round affected the application of pharmaceutical intellectual property rights globally...
  26. Lobo Antunes J. Conflicts of interest in medical practice. Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg. 2007;32:25-39 pubmed
    ..This has always been one of our worst kept secrets. Equally conflicts of interest [1] assume particular relevance in an occupation whose foundation values demand a robust ethical identity. This is the topic of this essay. ..
  27. Rogueda P, Lallement A, Traini D, Iliev I, Young P. Twenty years of HFA pMDI patents: facts and perspectives. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2012;64:1209-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These developments may have a significant impact on innovation trends and key company activity around novel pMDI formulations, in particular for generics manufacturers. ..
  28. Mackey T, Liang B. Integrating biodiversity management and indigenous biopiracy protection to promote environmental justice and global health. Am J Public Health. 2012;102:1091-5 pubmed publisher
    ..However, global intellectual property rules have resulted in biopiracy, raising serious ethical concerns of environmental justice, exploitation, ..
  29. Chavan V, Penev L. The data paper: a mechanism to incentivize data publishing in biodiversity science. BMC Bioinformatics. 2011;12 Suppl 15:S2 pubmed
    ..However, uptake and establishment of the data paper as a potential mechanism of scholarly recognition requires a high degree of commitment and investment by the cross-sectional stakeholder communities. ..
  30. Mohamed M, Punwani M, Clay M, Appelbaum P. Protecting the residency training environment: a resident's perspective on the ethical boundaries in the faculty-resident relationship. Acad Psychiatry. 2005;29:368-73 pubmed
    ..The authors offer suggestions for understanding faculty members' responsibilities to residents in their training programs. ..
  31. Schroeder D, Chennells R. Benefit sharing and access to essential health care: a happy marriage?. Med Law. 2008;27:53-69 pubmed
    ..We shall substantiate our claim by introducing practical, normative and so-called 'bigger picture' reasons against the link. ..
  32. Hongsermeier T, Maviglia S, Tsurikova L, Bogaty D, Rocha R, Goldberg H, et al. A legal framework to enable sharing of Clinical Decision Support knowledge and services across institutional boundaries. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2011;2011:925-33 pubmed
    ..required for knowledge sharing and clinical decision support services in order to address data sharing, intellectual property, accountability, and liability concerns...
  33. Pienta K. Successfully accelerating translational research at an academic medical center: the University of Michigan-Coulter translational research partnership program. Clin Transl Sci. 2010;3:316-8 pubmed publisher
    ..bridging the translational gap is dependent on successfully managing an additional four risks: scientific, intellectual property, market, and regulatory. The University of Michigan (UM) has partnered with the Wallace H...
  34. Liberman J. Implications of international law for the treatment of cancer: the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and the TRIPS Agreement. Public Health. 2011;125:840-846 pubmed publisher
    ..system, which regulates opioid analgesics; and the World Trade Organization's Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Agreement...
  35. Gronvall G, Borio L. Removing barriers to global pandemic influenza vaccination. Biosecur Bioterror. 2006;4:168-75 pubmed
    ..They should quickly converge on regulatory requirements, intellectual property considerations, the use of recombinant DNA techniques for vaccine production, and technical issues about ..
  36. Bubela T, Fitzgerald G, Gold E. Recalibrating intellectual property rights to enhance translational research collaborations. Sci Transl Med. 2012;4:122cm3 pubmed publisher
    ..for drug and therapeutic research and development (R&D) are emerging, requiring a recalibration of how intellectual property rights (IPRs) are used...
  37. Heyer M, Spranger T. The European Court of Justice's decision regarding the Brüstle patent and its implications for the legality of stem cell research within the European Union. Stem Cells Dev. 2013;22 Suppl 1:50-3 pubmed publisher
    ..It offers some critical comments regarding the findings' consistency with European and international regulations on intellectual property rights as well as some considerations on the possible impact of the case for other fields of law.
  38. McElligott S. Addressing supply side barriers to introduction of new vaccines to the developing world. Am J Law Med. 2009;35:415-41 pubmed
    ..This would increase overall product availability, maintain market separation, and decrease costs to UN agencies. ..
  39. Betz U, Farquhar R, Ziegelbauer K. Genomics: success or failure to deliver drug targets?. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2005;9:387-91 pubmed
  40. Sterckx S. Biodiversity under the law: protection or propertisation?. J Int Bioethique. 2006;17:55-78 pubmed
  41. Schiermeier Q. Swedish strategies. Nature. 2007;449:254-5 pubmed
  42. Williams O. Access to medicines, market failure and market intervention: a tale of two regimes. Glob Public Health. 2012;7 Suppl 2:S127-43 pubmed publisher
    This study explores how an 'Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)/trade regime' has generated a particular set of problems regarding access to medicines despite patents on drugs being presented as economically necessary for reward and ..
  43. Timmermans K. Monopolizing clinical trial data: implications and trends. PLoS Med. 2007;4:e2 pubmed
  44. Bennett M, Naranja R. Getting nano tattoos right - a checklist of legal and ethical hurdles for an emerging nanomedical technology. Nanomedicine. 2013;9:729-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This Note aims to articulate a checklist of fundamental intellectual property, bioethical and system design issues that are appropriately considered in the pre-clinical, pre-..
  45. Klein R. AMP v Myriad: the Supreme Court gives a win to personalized medicine. J Mol Diagn. 2013;15:731-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The guest editorial provides perspective to the decision by the Supreme Court of the United States in the case of Association for Molecular Pathology v Myriad Genetics, Inc. ..
  46. Luong M, Smith K, Stein G. Human embryonic stem cell registries: value, challenges and opportunities. J Cell Biochem. 2008;105:625-32 pubmed publisher
    ..challenges include addressing the legal and ethical issues surrounding hESC derivation as well as complex intellectual property concerns...
  47. Ganzinger M, Noack T, Diederichs S, Longerich T, Knaup P. Service oriented data integration for a biomedical research network. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2011;169:867-71 pubmed
    ..We identified data confidentiality and intellectual property considerations as major challenges while establishing such an integrated information platform...
  48. Jannuzzi A, Vasconcellos A, de Souza C. [Specificities of patent protection in the pharmaceutical industry: modalities and traits of intellectual property]. Cad Saude Publica. 2008;24:1205-18 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, while the tendency to expand towards more a permissive protective scope could produce opportunities for Brazilian national inventors, it could also be harmful to a policy for access to medicines. ..
  49. Nunnally A, Webster C, Brown S, Cohen G. Genetic patent protection in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Community Genet. 2005;8:209-16 pubmed
    ..and biotechnology industries and the critical role the patent regime plays in driving investment in these areas, a clearer picture of the necessity of strong intellectual property rights in the context of genetics will emerge.
  50. Sánchez Serrano I. Success in translational research: lessons from the development of bortezomib. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006;5:107-14 pubmed publisher
    ..A model to explain how and why bortezomib was approved in record time is presented, and areas for public-policy initiatives to improve translational research in general are highlighted. ..
  51. Soejarto D, Zhang H, Fong H, Tan G, Ma C, Gyllenhaal C, et al. "Studies on biodiversity of Vietnam and Laos" 1998-2005: examining the impact. J Nat Prod. 2006;69:473-81 pubmed
    ..on medicinal plants; (c) drug discovery and development; (d) economic development; and (e) issues on intellectual property rights and benefit sharing in natural products drug discovery and development...
  52. Jonge B, Korthals M. Vicissitudes of benefit sharing of crop genetic resources: downstream and upstream. Dev World Bioeth. 2006;6:144-57 pubmed
    ..We concretize our ideas on upstream benefit sharing by introducing a set of criteria that determine the success of consultations on agricultural research agenda setting. ..
  53. van Zimmeren E, Rutz B, Minssen T. Intellectual property rights, standards and data exchange in systems biology: Reflections from the IP Expert Meeting at the University of Luxembourg, 8-9 October 2015, ERASysAPP - ERA-Net for Systems Biology Applications. Biotechnol J. 2016;11:1477-1480 pubmed publisher
    b>Intellectual property rights (IPRs) have become a key concern for researchers and industry in basically all high-tech sectors...