Summary: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)
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- Brody B. Intellectual property and biotechnology: the U.S. internal experience--Part I. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2006;16:1-37 pubmed..questions were raised about the appropriateness of applying to this area a traditional robust system of intellectual property rights. Despite these hesitations, the U.S. rejected suggested modifications...
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- Chokshi D, Parker M, Kwiatkowski D. Data sharing and intellectual property in a genomic epidemiology network: policies for large-scale research collaboration. Bull World Health Organ. 2006;84:382-7 pubmed..Here we consider data-sharing and intellectual property policies for an international research consortium working on the genomic epidemiology of malaria...
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- Smith R, Correa C, Oh C. Trade, TRIPS, and pharmaceuticals. Lancet. 2009;373:684-91 pubmed publisherThe World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual-..
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- Supakankunti S, Janjaroen W, Tangphao O, Ratanawijitrasin S, Kraipornsak P, Pradithavanij P. Impact of the World Trade Organization TRIPS agreement on the pharmaceutical industry in Thailand. Bull World Health Organ. 2001;79:461-70 pubmedThe 1994 World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) established minimum universal standards in all areas of intellectual property...
- Timmermans K. Intellectual property rights and traditional medicine: policy dilemmas at the interface. Soc Sci Med. 2003;57:745-56 pubmed..It points to possible modifications and at ways to devise new forms of intellectual property ownership that may better suit the needs of those who seek to protect traditional medicine...
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- Lobo Antunes J. Conflicts of interest in medical practice. Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg. 2007;32:25-39 pubmed..This has always been one of our worst kept secrets. Equally conflicts of interest  assume particular relevance in an occupation whose foundation values demand a robust ethical identity. This is the topic of this essay. ..
- Rogueda P, Lallement A, Traini D, Iliev I, Young P. Twenty years of HFA pMDI patents: facts and perspectives. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2012;64:1209-16 pubmed publisher..These developments may have a significant impact on innovation trends and key company activity around novel pMDI formulations, in particular for generics manufacturers. ..
- Mackey T, Liang B. Integrating biodiversity management and indigenous biopiracy protection to promote environmental justice and global health. Am J Public Health. 2012;102:1091-5 pubmed publisher..However, global intellectual property rules have resulted in biopiracy, raising serious ethical concerns of environmental justice, exploitation, ..
- Chavan V, Penev L. The data paper: a mechanism to incentivize data publishing in biodiversity science. BMC Bioinformatics. 2011;12 Suppl 15:S2 pubmed..However, uptake and establishment of the data paper as a potential mechanism of scholarly recognition requires a high degree of commitment and investment by the cross-sectional stakeholder communities. ..
- Mohamed M, Punwani M, Clay M, Appelbaum P. Protecting the residency training environment: a resident's perspective on the ethical boundaries in the faculty-resident relationship. Acad Psychiatry. 2005;29:368-73 pubmed..The authors offer suggestions for understanding faculty members' responsibilities to residents in their training programs. ..
- Schroeder D, Chennells R. Benefit sharing and access to essential health care: a happy marriage?. Med Law. 2008;27:53-69 pubmed..We shall substantiate our claim by introducing practical, normative and so-called 'bigger picture' reasons against the link. ..
- Hongsermeier T, Maviglia S, Tsurikova L, Bogaty D, Rocha R, Goldberg H, et al. A legal framework to enable sharing of Clinical Decision Support knowledge and services across institutional boundaries. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2011;2011:925-33 pubmed..required for knowledge sharing and clinical decision support services in order to address data sharing, intellectual property, accountability, and liability concerns...
- Pienta K. Successfully accelerating translational research at an academic medical center: the University of Michigan-Coulter translational research partnership program. Clin Transl Sci. 2010;3:316-8 pubmed publisher..bridging the translational gap is dependent on successfully managing an additional four risks: scientific, intellectual property, market, and regulatory. The University of Michigan (UM) has partnered with the Wallace H...
- Liberman J. Implications of international law for the treatment of cancer: the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and the TRIPS Agreement. Public Health. 2011;125:840-846 pubmed publisher..system, which regulates opioid analgesics; and the World Trade Organization's Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Agreement...
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- Bubela T, Fitzgerald G, Gold E. Recalibrating intellectual property rights to enhance translational research collaborations. Sci Transl Med. 2012;4:122cm3 pubmed publisher..for drug and therapeutic research and development (R&D) are emerging, requiring a recalibration of how intellectual property rights (IPRs) are used...
- Heyer M, Spranger T. The European Court of Justice's decision regarding the Brüstle patent and its implications for the legality of stem cell research within the European Union. Stem Cells Dev. 2013;22 Suppl 1:50-3 pubmed publisher..It offers some critical comments regarding the findings' consistency with European and international regulations on intellectual property rights as well as some considerations on the possible impact of the case for other fields of law.
- McElligott S. Addressing supply side barriers to introduction of new vaccines to the developing world. Am J Law Med. 2009;35:415-41 pubmed..This would increase overall product availability, maintain market separation, and decrease costs to UN agencies. ..
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- Williams O. Access to medicines, market failure and market intervention: a tale of two regimes. Glob Public Health. 2012;7 Suppl 2:S127-43 pubmed publisherThis study explores how an 'Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)/trade regime' has generated a particular set of problems regarding access to medicines despite patents on drugs being presented as economically necessary for reward and ..
- Timmermans K. Monopolizing clinical trial data: implications and trends. PLoS Med. 2007;4:e2 pubmed
- Bennett M, Naranja R. Getting nano tattoos right - a checklist of legal and ethical hurdles for an emerging nanomedical technology. Nanomedicine. 2013;9:729-31 pubmed publisher..This Note aims to articulate a checklist of fundamental intellectual property, bioethical and system design issues that are appropriately considered in the pre-clinical, pre-..
- Klein R. AMP v Myriad: the Supreme Court gives a win to personalized medicine. J Mol Diagn. 2013;15:731-2 pubmed publisher..The guest editorial provides perspective to the decision by the Supreme Court of the United States in the case of Association for Molecular Pathology v Myriad Genetics, Inc. ..
- Luong M, Smith K, Stein G. Human embryonic stem cell registries: value, challenges and opportunities. J Cell Biochem. 2008;105:625-32 pubmed publisher..challenges include addressing the legal and ethical issues surrounding hESC derivation as well as complex intellectual property concerns...
- Ganzinger M, Noack T, Diederichs S, Longerich T, Knaup P. Service oriented data integration for a biomedical research network. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2011;169:867-71 pubmed..We identified data confidentiality and intellectual property considerations as major challenges while establishing such an integrated information platform...
- Jannuzzi A, Vasconcellos A, de Souza C. [Specificities of patent protection in the pharmaceutical industry: modalities and traits of intellectual property]. Cad Saude Publica. 2008;24:1205-18 pubmed..In conclusion, while the tendency to expand towards more a permissive protective scope could produce opportunities for Brazilian national inventors, it could also be harmful to a policy for access to medicines. ..
- Nunnally A, Webster C, Brown S, Cohen G. Genetic patent protection in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Community Genet. 2005;8:209-16 pubmed..and biotechnology industries and the critical role the patent regime plays in driving investment in these areas, a clearer picture of the necessity of strong intellectual property rights in the context of genetics will emerge.
- Sánchez Serrano I. Success in translational research: lessons from the development of bortezomib. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006;5:107-14 pubmed publisher..A model to explain how and why bortezomib was approved in record time is presented, and areas for public-policy initiatives to improve translational research in general are highlighted. ..
- Soejarto D, Zhang H, Fong H, Tan G, Ma C, Gyllenhaal C, et al. "Studies on biodiversity of Vietnam and Laos" 1998-2005: examining the impact. J Nat Prod. 2006;69:473-81 pubmed..on medicinal plants; (c) drug discovery and development; (d) economic development; and (e) issues on intellectual property rights and benefit sharing in natural products drug discovery and development...
- Jonge B, Korthals M. Vicissitudes of benefit sharing of crop genetic resources: downstream and upstream. Dev World Bioeth. 2006;6:144-57 pubmed..We concretize our ideas on upstream benefit sharing by introducing a set of criteria that determine the success of consultations on agricultural research agenda setting. ..
- van Zimmeren E, Rutz B, Minssen T. Intellectual property rights, standards and data exchange in systems biology: Reflections from the IP Expert Meeting at the University of Luxembourg, 8-9 October 2015, ERASysAPP - ERA-Net for Systems Biology Applications. Biotechnol J. 2016;11:1477-1480 pubmed publisherb>Intellectual property rights (IPRs) have become a key concern for researchers and industry in basically all high-tech sectors...