Summary: Agreements between two or more parties, especially those that are written and enforceable by law (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). It is sometimes used to characterize the nature of the professional-patient relationship.

Top Publications

  1. Pruszydlo M, Quinzler R, Kaltschmidt J, Haefeli W. [Medical problems and risks of switching drugs according to legal requirements of drug discount contracts in Germany]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2008;133:1423-8 pubmed publisher
    Since 2007 German health insurance funds may conclude discount contracts with pharmaceutical companies for individual drugs...
  2. Kompier M, Ybema J, Janssen J, Taris T. Employment contracts: cross-sectional and longitudinal relations with quality of working life, health and well-being. J Occup Health. 2009;51:193-203 pubmed
    ..The quality of working life, health and well-being are unequally distributed over employment contract groups. Temporary agency workers and on-call workers deserve special attention in terms of job design and human resource management. ..
  3. Petsoulas C, Allen P, Hughes D, Vincent Jones P, Roberts J. The use of standard contracts in the English National Health Service: a case study analysis. Soc Sci Med. 2011;73:185-92 pubmed publisher
    The use of contracts is vital to market transactions. The introduction of market reforms in health care in the U.K. and other developed countries twenty years ago meant greater use of contracts. In the U.K...
  4. Bowser D, Figueroa R, Natiq L, Okunogbe A. A preliminary assessment of financial stability, efficiency, health systems and health outcomes using performance-based contracts in Belize. Glob Public Health. 2013;8:1063-74 pubmed publisher
    ..the last 10 years, Belize has implemented a National Health Insurance (NHI) program that uses performance-based contracts with both public and private facilities to improve financial sustainability, efficiency and service provision...
  5. Morgan S, Daw J, Thomson P. International best practices for negotiating 'reimbursement contracts' with price rebates from pharmaceutical companies. Health Aff (Millwood). 2013;32:771-7 pubmed publisher
    Reimbursement contracts, in which health insurers receive rebates from drug manufacturers instead of paying the transparent list price, are becoming increasingly common worldwide...
  6. Hartwell J. Psychological contracts: a new strategy for retaining reduced-hour physicians. J Med Pract Manage. 2010;25:285-97 pubmed
    ..are directed to the importance of understanding the composition of reduced-hour physicians' psychological contracts, specifically, their need to do challenging work, receive high levels of supervisor support, and promotion ..
  7. Hoffmann F, Windt R, Glaeske G. [Regional differences in the use of 'no substitution' in the elderly after introduction of rebate contracts]. Gesundheitswesen. 2011;73:438-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These considerable regional differences show that, in several regions, the use of the no-substitution regulation influences the effect of rebate contracts.
  8. Antonanzas F, Juárez Castelló C, Rodríguez Ibeas R. Should health authorities offer risk-sharing contracts to pharmaceutical firms? A theoretical approach. Health Econ Policy Law. 2011;6:391-403 pubmed publisher
    In this paper, we characterise the risk-sharing contracts that health authorities can design when they face a regulatory decision on drug pricing and reimbursement in a context of uncertainty. We focus on two types of contracts...
  9. Walmsley H. Stock options, tax credits or employment contracts please! The value of deliberative public disagreement about human tissue donation. Soc Sci Med. 2011;73:209-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, this paper argues that practitioners should present persistent disagreements to public and policy audiences as an 'output' of deliberative democracy events. ..

More Information


  1. Johnston L, Delva J, O Malley P. Soft drink availability, contracts, and revenues in American secondary schools. Am J Prev Med. 2007;33:S209-25 pubmed schools from vending machines and other venues, as well as about the presence and nature of pouring rights contracts with soft drink bottlers. Data were analyzed in 2006...
  2. Millett C, Gray J, Saxena S, Netuveli G, Khunti K, Majeed A. Ethnic disparities in diabetes management and pay-for-performance in the UK: the Wandsworth Prospective Diabetes Study. PLoS Med. 2007;4:e191 pubmed
    ..Quality improvement initiatives must place greater emphasis on minority communities to avoid continued disparities in mortality from cardiovascular disease and the other major complications of diabetes. ..
  3. Thrall J. Changing relationships between radiologists and hospitals. Part II. Contracts and resolution of issues. Radiology. 2008;246:343-7 pubmed publisher
  4. Hariharan J, Denson K. A challenging patient, an innovative solution. WMJ. 2005;104:72-5 pubmed
  5. van Willigenburg T, Delaere P. Protecting autonomy as authenticity using Ulysses contracts. J Med Philos. 2005;30:395-409 pubmed
    Pre-commitment directives or Ulysses contracts are often defended as instruments that may strengthen the autonomous self-control of episodically disordered psychiatric patients...
  6. Crocker K, Moran J. Contracting with limited commitment: evidence from employment-based health insurance contracts. Rand J Econ. 2003;34:694-718 pubmed
    ..Using data on health insurance contracts obtained from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey, we find that the quantity of insurance provided is ..
  7. Palmer N, Mills A. Contracts in the real world: case studies from Southern Africa. Soc Sci Med. 2005;60:2505-14 pubmed
    ..Understanding the nature of contracts that initiate and govern such public-private partnerships, and the extent to which they can define the ..
  8. Elster N. Assisted reproductive technologies: contracts, consents, and controversies. Am J Fam Law. 2005;18:193-9 pubmed
  9. Rosenthal M, Landon B, Normand S, Frank R, Epstein A. Pay for performance in commercial HMOs. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:1895-902 pubmed
    ..than half the HMOs, representing more than 80% of persons enrolled, use pay for performance in their provider contracts. Of the 126 health plans with pay-for-performance programs, nearly 90% had programs for physicians and 38% had ..
  10. Coyle Shapiro J, Conway N. Exchange relationships: examining psychological contracts and perceived organizational support. J Appl Psychol. 2005;90:774-81 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that POS and the components of psychological contract fulfillment are more important in predicting organizational citizenship behavior than psychological contract fulfillment. ..
  11. Steinbrook R. Gag clauses in clinical-trial agreements. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:2160-2 pubmed
  12. Strasser J, Cola P, Rosenblum D. Evaluating various areas of process improvement in an effort to improve clinical research: discussions from the 2012 Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) Clinical Research Management workshop. Clin Transl Sci. 2013;6:317-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This report provides a brief summary of the workshop proceedings and the major themes discussed among the participants. ..
  13. Howard Williams P. Clinical audit and peer review scheme for the South West post-new 2006 dental contract: a report on progress so far. Br Dent J. 2009;206:37-41 pubmed publisher
  14. White J, Dow W, Rungruanghiranya S. Commitment contracts and team incentives: a randomized controlled trial for smoking cessation in Thailand. Am J Prev Med. 2013;45:533-42 pubmed publisher
    ..An RCT of commitment contracts and team incentives for rural smokers to quit smoking...
  15. Hirschberg R, Meyer B. [Contract focused short-term group therapy--results of an evaluation]. Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr. 2010;59:89-100 pubmed
    ..The evaluation was accomplished using the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL 4-18) at the beginning and 3 month after the end of the group therapy. The results show positive effects which finally are discussed critically. ..
  16. Stanley H. Their fair share. An academic medical group recovers $1.7 million with an automated contract-management solution. Health Manag Technol. 2008;29:30-1 pubmed
  17. Turner L. "Medical tourism" and the global marketplace in health services: U.S. patients, international hospitals, and the search for affordable health care. Int J Health Serv. 2010;40:443-67 pubmed
    ..The emergence of a global market in health services will have profound consequences for health insurance, delivery of health services, patient-physician relationships, publicly funded health care, and the spread of medical consumerism. ..
  18. Dukes A, Tyagi R. Pricing in vitro fertilization procedures. Health Econ. 2009;18:1461-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also show how the addition of MBGs can affect the overall social welfare. ..
  19. Schluger N. Suppose they gave an epidemic and nobody came?. Am J Bioeth. 2008;8:23-5 pubmed publisher
  20. Sanderson S. Selecting a way forward. Br Dent J. 2008;204:279 pubmed publisher
  21. Lebster R. Covenants-not-to-compete: what you should know. J Mich Dent Assoc. 2007;89:20, 66 pubmed
  22. Norbury M, Fawkes N, Guthrie B. Impact of the GP contract on inequalities associated with influenza immunisation: a retrospective population-database analysis. Br J Gen Pract. 2011;61:e379-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The impact of financial incentives on inequalities is likely to vary, and some kinds of care may require more targeted improvement activity and support. ..
  23. Minahan T. Can supply management technology be the antidote to the healthcare crisis?. Health Manag Technol. 2007;28:52, 54-5 pubmed
  24. Levens E, Levy M. Ethical application of Shared Risk programs in assisted reproductive technology. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:2198-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These programs improve utilization of and perseverance with fertility treatment, receiving strong patient endorsements. ..
  25. Berbée R, Gemmel P, Droesbeke B, Casteleyn H, Vandaele D. Evaluation of hospital service level agreements. Int J Health Care Qual Assur. 2009;22:483-97 pubmed
    ..While a fairly-substantial amount of scientific literature deals with SLAs in the world of ICT, this literature is often very specific and cannot always be applied to other service sectors. ..
  26. Ploumis E. One day, you are going to need an attorney. N Y State Dent J. 2007;73:6-9 pubmed
    ..Like a patient who finds a dentist he can trust and forms a long-term relationship with, we, as dentists, should find an attorney with whom we can have a similar lifetime professional association. ..
  27. Macdougall D. Physicians' strikes and the competing bases of physicians' moral obligations. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2013;23:249-74 pubmed
  28. Williams K. What you should know about buy-sell agreements. Hawaii Dent J. 2008;39:13 pubmed
  29. Abadía C, Pinilla M, Ariza K, Ruíz H. [Neoliberalism in health: the torture of the health care workers of the Bogota's Instituto Materno Infantil (child and maternity hospital)]. Rev Salud Publica (Bogota). 2012;14 Suppl 1:18-31 pubmed
    ..the last health care workers of the country who had job stability and full-benefits through public labour contracts. Their elimination furthers the accumulation of capital generated by increasing over-exploitation of labour and ..
  30. Penko J, Mattson J, Miaskowski C, Kushel M. Do patients know they are on pain medication agreements? Results from a sample of high-risk patients on chronic opioid therapy. Pain Med. 2012;13:1174-80 pubmed publisher
    ..6%. In a high-risk sample, clinicians were using agreements at a low rate, but were more likely to use them with patients at highest risk of misuse. Patients exhibited low awareness of whether they signed a pain medicine agreement. ..
  31. de Vries P, Huisman A, Kerkhof A, Robben P. [The no-suicide contract: a risky ritual]. Tijdschr Psychiatr. 2008;50:667-71 pubmed
    ..Less risky alternatives are: systematic risk assessment, the commitment to treatment statement and the delay or reconsideration agreement. ..
  32. Valenzuela P. Establishing patient contracts: as easy as ABC. J Med Pract Manage. 2009;24:199-202 pubmed
    ..This article describes how to perform an activity-based cost analysis to decide whether this form of healthcare services is right for your practice. ..
  33. Curley A. The business of dentistry. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2009;37:618-20 pubmed
  34. Friedberg M, Buendia A, Lauderdale K, Hussey P. Option pricing: a flexible tool to disseminate shared savings contracts. Am J Manag Care. 2013;19:e285-92 pubmed
    Due to volatility in healthcare costs, shared savings contracts can create systematic financial losses for payers, especially when contracting with smaller providers...
  35. DeSimone D, Gingerich L. Sample/recruitment process policy. J Health Law. 2007;40:161-6 pubmed
  36. Terry K. Look out for employment contract snags. Med Econ. 2008;85:30, 32-4, 38 pubmed
  37. Philpott T. Public-private partnerships: a Canadian hospital's perspective. Healthc Manage Forum. 2007;20:33-6 pubmed
    ..The studies concluded that there are various frameworks available and that the specific characteristics of a project should be considered when determining which model to use. ..
  38. Moreira E, Costa E. [The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency performance evaluation at the management contract model]. Cien Saude Colet. 2010;15 Suppl 3:3381-91 pubmed
    ..05%) and the worst in 2004 (40.00%). The evaluation model was shown to have contributed little towards the agency's institutional purpose and the effectiveness measurement of the implemented actions. ..
  39. Harty Golder B. Restrictive covenants complicate employment offers. MLO Med Lab Obs. 2007;39:42-3 pubmed
  40. Dow B, McDonald J. The invisible contract: shifting care from the hospital to the home. Aust Health Rev. 2007;31:193-202 pubmed
    ..Informal carers in RITH programs can be seen as disenfranchised care contractors. This has implications for policy makers, program managers and researchers. ..
  41. Charkin S, Baum N. Just say no to poorly performing payor contracts. J Med Pract Manage. 2008;24:129-34 pubmed
    ..However, by reviewing your payor contracts on an annual basis and negotiating with payors from a position of strength, you can have an impact on your ..
  42. Stuart J. Before and beyond the contract. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2007;36:249-51 pubmed
  43. Zaric G, Xie B. The impact of two pharmaceutical risk-sharing agreements on pricing, promotion, and net health benefits. Value Health. 2009;12:838-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Because neither risk-sharing arrangement is always preferred, payers and manufacturers must carefully consider the characteristics of their individual situation when entering into such contracts.
  44. Emkes B, Phillips W. Blindside discounts: are you being underpaid for your noncontract claims?. Healthc Financ Manage. 2007;61:92-4, 96 pubmed
    ..Identifying noncontract claims and confirming correct payment are two critical steps in this process. ..
  45. Ng T, Feldman D, Lam S. Psychological contract breaches, organizational commitment, and innovation-related behaviors: a latent growth modeling approach. J Appl Psychol. 2010;95:744-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight the importance of examining the nomological network of psychological contract breaches from a change perspective. ..
  46. Murphy J. Concerns about the new common contract. Ir Med J. 2007;100:580-1 pubmed
  47. Roig F, Saigí F. [Barriers to the normalization of telemedicine in a healthcare system model based on purchasing of healthcare services using providers' contracts]. Gac Sanit. 2011;25:397-402 pubmed publisher
    ..of telemedicine in a healthcare system model based on purchasing of healthcare services using providers' contracts. We performed a qualitative study based on data from semi-structured interviews with 17 key informants belonging ..
  48. Ranganathan M, Lagarde M. Promoting healthy behaviours and improving health outcomes in low and middle income countries: a review of the impact of conditional cash transfer programmes. Prev Med. 2012;55 Suppl:S95-S105 pubmed publisher
    ..However, CCTs need to be combined with supply-side interventions to maximise effects. Finally, some questions remain regarding their sustainability and cost-effectiveness. ..
  49. Thomas A. [Is your practice lease contract a cost trap?]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2008;150:9-10 pubmed
  50. López Guzmán J, Aparisi Miralles A. [An approach to the legal and ethical problem of surrogate motherhood]. Cuad Bioet. 2012;23:253-67 pubmed
    ..This means that the freedom of the individual to make contracts for mutual benefit is limited...
  51. Frost P. Winners and losers. Dent Update. 2008;35:67 pubmed
  52. Crane A. Taking the offensive against claims denials. Hosp Health Netw. 2007;81:46-50, 2 pubmed
    Hospitals can fight costly claims denials by paying more attention to contracts with insurers and teaching staff to head off problems at the front end.
  53. Town R, Feldman R, Kralewski J. Market power and contract form: evidence from physician group practices. Int J Health Care Finance Econ. 2011;11:115-32 pubmed publisher
    We examine how the market power of physician groups affects the form of their contracts with health insurers...