Summary: The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.

Top Publications

  1. Ranganathan R, Newell K. Online feedback and the regulation of degrees of freedom in motor control. Hum Mov Sci. 2008;27:577-89 pubmed publisher
    ..that the degree to which online feedback is used to control movement influences the regulation of degrees of freedom in a task...
  2. Laurin K, Kay A, Fitzsimons G. Reactance versus rationalization: divergent responses to policies that constrain freedom. Psychol Sci. 2012;23:205-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We end by discussing future research directions. ..
  3. Briegel H. On creative machines and the physical origins of freedom. Sci Rep. 2012;2:522 pubmed publisher
    ..We relate the discussion to a model of an artificial agent that exhibits a primitive notion of creativity and freedom in dealing with its environment, which is part of a recently introduced scheme of information processing called ..
  4. Campbell M, Prata N, Potts M. The impact of freedom on fertility decline. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2013;39:44-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Education and wealth can make the adoption of family planning easier, but they are not prerequisites for fertility decline. By contrast, access to family planning itself can accelerate economic development and the spread of education. ..
  5. Baumeister R, Masicampo E, DeWall C. Prosocial benefits of feeling free: disbelief in free will increases aggression and reduces helpfulness. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2009;35:260-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the findings do not speak to the existence of free will, the current results suggest that disbelief in free will reduces helping and increases aggression. ..
  6. Kumar A, Grewal N, Chung T, Bradley J. Lessons from operation Iraqi freedom: successful subacute reconstruction of complex lower extremity battle injuries. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;123:218-29 pubmed publisher
    War wounds associated with Operation Iraqi Freedom have created a unique reconstructive challenge...
  7. Harris J. Moral enhancement and freedom. Bioethics. 2011;25:102-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The paper analyses the work of some of the leading contemporary advocates of moral enhancement and finds that in so far as they identify moral qualities or moral emotions for enhancement they have little prospect of success. ..
  8. Kelly B. The power gap: freedom, power and mental illness. Soc Sci Med. 2006;63:2118-28 pubmed
    ..Here I examine the idea that this situation is attributable, at least in part, to the ways in which the freedom and power of the mentally ill are undermined by a range of factors, including: (i) dispersion of political power ..
  9. Church D, Hawk C, Brooks A, Toukolehto O, Wren M, Dinter I, et al. Psychological trauma symptom improvement in veterans using emotional freedom techniques: a randomized controlled trial. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2013;201:153-60 pubmed publisher
    This study examined the effect of Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT), a brief exposure therapy combining cognitive and somatic elements, on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychological distress symptoms in veterans receiving ..

More Information


  1. Schwartz B. Self-determination. The tyranny of freedom. Am Psychol. 2000;55:79-88 pubmed
    Americans now live in a time and a place in which freedom and autonomy are valued above all else and in which expanded opportunities for self-determination are regarded as a sign of the psychological well-being of individuals and the ..
  2. Drazen J. Institutions, contracts, and academic freedom. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:1362-3 pubmed
  3. Rozin P, Lowery L, Imada S, Haidt J. The CAD triad hypothesis: a mapping between three moral emotions (contempt, anger, disgust) and three moral codes (community, autonomy, divinity). J Pers Soc Psychol. 1999;76:574-86 pubmed
    ..Results generally supported the CAD triad hypothesis. Results were further confirmed by analysis of facial expressions actually made by Americans to the descriptions of these situations. ..
  4. Cheng S, Song H. Physician performance information and consumer choice: a survey of subjects with the freedom to choose between doctors. Qual Saf Health Care. 2004;13:98-101 pubmed
    ..Providing physician specific performance reports to the public may be viewed favourably by consumers of health care and have a significant impact on physician selection and hence quality improvement. ..
  5. Hayry M. Prescribing cannabis: freedom, autonomy, and values. J Med Ethics. 2004;30:333-6 pubmed
    ..In this paper, it is argued that freedom, properly understood, provides a sound ethical reason to allow the use of cannabis in medicine...
  6. Albinsson L, Strang P. Existential concerns of families of late-stage dementia patients: questions of freedom, choices, isolation, death, and meaning. J Palliat Med. 2003;6:225-35 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was, therefore, to focus on issues of freedom/responsibility, existential isolation, death, and issues of meaning/meaninglessness...
  7. Nathan D, Weatherall D. Academic freedom in clinical research. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:1368-71 pubmed
  8. Brody B. Freedom and responsibility in genetic testing. Soc Philos Policy. 2002;19:343-59 pubmed
  9. Hesketh T, Zhu W. Effect of restricted freedom on health in China. BMJ. 2004;329:1427 pubmed
  10. Munyon J. Protectionism and freedom of contract: the erosion of female autonomy in surrogacy decisions. Suffolk Univ Law Rev. 2003;36:717-44 pubmed
  11. Hawkins A, Ho A. Genetic counseling and the ethical issues around direct to consumer genetic testing. J Genet Couns. 2012;21:367-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Ultimately this will help ensure that the public enjoys the benefits of an increasingly genetic based healthcare system. ..
  12. Degani A, Danna Dos Santos A, Robert T, Latash M. Kinematic synergies during saccades involving whole-body rotation: a study based on the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis. Hum Mov Sci. 2010;29:243-58 pubmed publisher
    ..It shows multi-joint synergies stabilizing head trajectory in space. In contrast, there was no synergy between head and eye rotations during saccades that would achieve a relatively invariant gaze trajectory. ..
  13. Mason D. On freedom of the scientific press: can you trust the information you read in nursing journals?. Am J Nurs. 2006;106:11 pubmed
  14. Wolpe P, Foster K, Langleben D. Emerging neurotechnologies for lie-detection: promises and perils. Am J Bioeth. 2010;10:40-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Premature application of these technologies outside of research settings should be resisted, and the social conversation about the appropriate parameters of its civil, forensic, and security use should begin. ..
  15. Morton T, Weeks A, House S, Chiang P, Scaffidi C. Location and activity tracking with the cloud. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012;2012:5846-9 pubmed publisher
  16. Fuchs T. Existential vulnerability: toward a psychopathology of limit situations. Psychopathology. 2013;46:301-8 pubmed publisher
    ..g. the fragility of one's own body, the inevitability of freedom, or the finiteness of life...
  17. Snow N, Austin W. Community treatment orders: the ethical balancing act in community mental health. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2009;16:177-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Consideration of the ethical and practical implications of the use of CTOs must continue. In this paper, some of the most pressing issues are identified and discussed. ..
  18. Powell T. Wrestling Satan and conquering dopamine: addiction and free will. Am J Bioeth. 2007;7:14-5 pubmed
  19. Ferguson J. Freedom, equality, race. Daedalus. 2011;140:44-52 pubmed
    ..the relationship between black and white Americans, it argues that the widespread embrace of universal values of freedom and equality, which most regard as antidotes to racial exclusion, actually reinforce it...
  20. Kaplan L. Sexual psychopathy, public policy, and the liberal state. Int J Law Psychiatry. 2008;31:172-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, the disposition of this class may well serve as a model for isolating and demonizing other disfavored classes, including political dissenters. ..
  21. Marris E. Sackings put editorial freedom on the spot. Nature. 2006;440:10-1 pubmed
  22. Midolo E, Minacori R, Panocchia N, Sacchini D, Silvestri P, Di Pietro M, et al. The legislation on living organ donation in Western Europe: legal and ethical analysis and impact on clinical practice. Transplant Proc. 2013;45:2576-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The former practices which increases LOD, can facilitate "organ tourism." ..
  23. Whitehead B. Will graduate entry free nursing from the shackles of class and gender oppression?. Nurs Times. 2010;106:19-22 pubmed
    ..It also examines the profession's social position, arguing thatthe majority of nurses identify with the most oppressed social class. ..
  24. Petrina S. Medical liberty: drugless healers confront allopathic doctors, 1910-1931. J Med Humanit. 2008;29:205-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This article explores the social history of medical freedom and liberty in North America during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries...
  25. Ben Yami H. Circumcision: what should be done?. J Med Ethics. 2013;39:459-62 pubmed publisher
    ..I conclude with general considerations on why the steps taken towards the reform of circumcision should be moderate. ..
  26. Arrigo B. Punishment, freedom, and the culture of control: the case of brain imaging and the law. Am J Law Med. 2007;33:457-82 pubmed
  27. Shah A, Pennington M, Heginbotham C, Donaldson C. Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards in England: implementation costs. Br J Psychiatry. 2011;199:232-8 pubmed publisher
  28. Harris J. Life in the cloud and freedom of speech. J Med Ethics. 2013;39:307-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In it is argued that a famous, and hitherto useful, distinction relating to the ethical limitations on freedom of speech which we owe to John Stuart Mill may, because of the emergence of 'the cloud' have become redundant or ..
  29. Manaouil C, Gignon M, Werbrouck A, Jarde O. [The genetic fingerprints file in France: between security and freedom]. Rev Med Brux. 2008;29:121-5 pubmed
  30. Farrelly C. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis, reproductive freedom, and deliberative democracy. J Med Philos. 2009;34:135-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Such a model incorporates the concern for both procedural and substantive principles; and it does so in way that takes provisionality seriously. ..
  31. Lederer W. The freedom of scientific research and publication: what price do we pay?. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2006;50:394 pubmed
  32. Bunkers S. What stories and fables can teach us. Nurs Sci Q. 2006;19:104-7 pubmed
    ..Ideas for teaching-learning in nursing regarding the issues in the stories are presented. Parse's human becoming theory is used to further explicate understanding of these ideas. ..
  33. Kaider A. What it means to be free. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2007;64:1103 pubmed
  34. Vogel J, Polloway E, Smith J. Inclusion of people with mental retardation and other developmental disabilities in communities of faith. Ment Retard. 2006;44:100-11 pubmed
    ..Discussion of the implications for enhancing inclusion in faith communities is provided. ..
  35. Griffith R, Tengnah C. Restraint and the Mental Capacity Act 2005. Br J Community Nurs. 2008;13:487-9 pubmed
  36. Kühn S, Brass M. Retrospective construction of the judgement of free choice. Conscious Cogn. 2009;18:12-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support the retrospective account of intentional action. Furthermore, we introduce an experimental approach that objectifies introspective judgments of awareness of intention. ..
  37. Lipscomb M, Snelling P. Moral content and assignment marking: an exploratory study. Nurse Educ Today. 2006;26:457-64 pubmed
    ..Further research is justified. ..
  38. Arif Z. Let me out of here. Nurs Stand. 2007;22:24-5 pubmed
  39. Quick B. What is the best measure of psychological reactance? An empirical test of two measures. Health Commun. 2012;27:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..vis-à-vis the other with respect to reliability and validity by placing each in a nomothetic network with a freedom threat, attitude, motivation, and source appraisal...
  40. Mercieca C, Aquilina K, Pullicino R, Borg A. Freedom of movement across the EU: legal and ethical issues for children with chronic disease. J Med Ethics. 2012;38:694-6 pubmed publisher
    While freedom of movement has been one of the most highly respected human right across the EU, there are various aspects which come into play which still need to be resolved for this to be achieved in practice...
  41. Perry T. Changes at CMAJ. CMAJ. 2006;174:1746-7; discussion 1747 pubmed
  42. Li Y, Raghavarao D, Chervoneva I. Extensions of D-optimal Minimal Designs for Symmetric Mixture Models. Commun Stat Theory Methods. 2017;46:2542-2558 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, they lack the degrees of freedom to perform the Lack of Fit tests...
  43. Wesseling M, Wigersma L, van der Wal G. Assessment model for the justification of intrusive lifestyle interventions: literature study, reasoning and empirical testing. BMC Med Ethics. 2016;17:14 pubmed publisher
    ..Parties for and against a particular intervention could use the model to test and strengthen their argumentation and to improve the quality of the intervention. ..
  44. Fletcher K. Beyond dualism: leading out of oppression. Nurs Forum. 2006;41:50-9 pubmed
    ..All of this was distilled in the context of the author's experience as a nurse and nurse leader. Moving beyond dualism creates new possibilities for leading nurses out of oppression. ..
  45. Jackson C, Allen G, Essock S, Felton C, Donahue S. Clients' satisfaction with Project Liberty counseling services. Psychiatr Serv. 2006;57:1316-9 pubmed
    ..Such evaluations can be conducted in a cost-effective manner and integrated with evidence-based practice to ultimately ensure that recipients of counseling receive the most efficient and effective interventions. ..
  46. Hannah S, Allan L, Siegel S. The consequences of surrendering a degree of freedom to the participant in a contingency assessment task. Behav Processes. 2007;74:265-73 pubmed
    ..Moreover, nominal contingency manipulations are confounded with the probability that the subject experiences an outcome. While researchers might be aware of these issues, not enough attention has been paid to their potential impact. ..
  47. Bardet F. [Collaboration with men of the church. Prayer of liberation]. Krankenpfl Soins Infirm. 2007;100:55 pubmed
  48. Butler J. Sexual politics, torture, and secular time. Br J Sociol. 2008;59:1-23 pubmed publisher
  49. Petersen J, Larimer N, Kaye J, Pavel M, Hayes T. SVM to detect the presence of visitors in a smart home environment. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012;2012:5850-3 pubmed publisher
    ..These preliminary data demonstrate the feasibility of detecting visitors with in-home sensor data, but highlight the need for more advanced modeling techniques so the model performs well for all subjects and all types of visitors. ..
  50. Johnson P, Williams R. European securitization and biometric identification: the uses of genetic profiling. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2007;43:36-43 pubmed
    ..This paper discusses the current limitations on the use of DNA profiling in civil identification practices and speculates on future uses of the technology with regard to its interoperability with other biometric databasing systems. ..
  51. Galeazzi G, MacKinnon A, Curci P. Constraints perceived by psychiatrists working in community mental health services. Development and pilot study of a novel instrument. Community Ment Health J. 2007;43:609-18 pubmed
    ..score of the perceived constraints instrument was significantly negatively correlated with ratings of perceived freedom in therapeutic choices and with overall job satisfaction. Reliability was good (alpha = 0.85)...
  52. Griffith R, Tengnah C. Deprivation of liberty safeguards. Br J Community Nurs. 2008;13:532-7 pubmed
    ..District nurses will have such patients on their case loads and will need to be aware of the requirements that are due to come into force in April 2009. ..
  53. Hussein G. Democracy: the forgotten challenge for bioethics in the developing countries. BMC Med Ethics. 2009;10:3 pubmed publisher
    ..For bioethics to flourish in developing countries, it needs an atmosphere of freedom where people can practice free moral reasoning and have full potential to take their life decisions by themselves...