human rights


Summary: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.

Top Publications

  1. Gruskin S, Ferguson L, Alfven T, Rugg D, Peersman G. Identifying structural barriers to an effective HIV response: using the National Composite Policy Index data to evaluate the human rights, legal and policy environment. J Int AIDS Soc. 2013;16:18000 pubmed publisher
    ..Reviewing national legal and policy environments with attention to the international human rights commitments of states is a means of assessing and providing focus for addressing these barriers to effective ..
  2. Biswas D, Toebes B, Hjern A, Ascher H, Norredam M. Access to health care for undocumented migrants from a human rights perspective: a comparative study of Denmark, Sweden, and The Netherlands. Health Hum Rights. 2012;14:49-60 pubmed
    ..across Europe, and entitlements on national levels are often at odds with the rights stated in international human rights law...
  3. Kismodi E, de Mesquita J, Ibañez X, Khosla R, Sepúlveda L. Human rights accountability for maternal death and failure to provide safe, legal abortion: the significance of two ground-breaking CEDAW decisions. Reprod Health Matters. 2012;20:31-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In Alyne da Silva Pimentel v. Brazil, the first maternal death case decided by an international human rights body, it confirms that States have a human rights obligation to guarantee that all women, irrespective of their ..
  4. Ben Yami H. Circumcision: what should be done?. J Med Ethics. 2013;39:459-62 pubmed publisher
    ..I conclude with general considerations on why the steps taken towards the reform of circumcision should be moderate. ..
  5. Lemmens T. Pharmaceutical knowledge governance: a human rights perspective. J Law Med Ethics. 2013;41:163-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper analyzes why this is a human rights concern and what difference a human rights analysis can make...
  6. Hardee K, Kumar J, Newman K, Bakamjian L, Harris S, Rodríguez M, et al. Voluntary, human rights-based family planning: a conceptual framework. Stud Fam Plann. 2014;45:1-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Amid positive response, some expressed concern that the numeric goal could signal a retreat from the human rights-centered approach that underpinned the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development...
  7. Knoppers B, Harris J, Budin Ljøsne I, Dove E. A human rights approach to an international code of conduct for genomic and clinical data sharing. Hum Genet. 2014;133:895-903 pubmed publisher
    ..give this proposed code universal application and accountability, however, we propose to position it within a human rights framework...
  8. Beletsky L, Martinez G, Gaines T, Nguyen L, Lozada R, Rangel G, et al. Mexico's northern border conflict: collateral damage to health and human rights of vulnerable groups. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2012;31:403-10 pubmed
    To compare distributions of human rights violations and disease risk; to juxtapose these patterns against demographic and structural environmental variables, and to formulate implications for structural interventions...
  9. Mpinga E, Verloo H, London L, Chastonay P. Health and human rights in scientific literature: a systematic review over a decade. Health Hum Rights. 2011;13:E102-29 pubmed
    Over the past decades, the health and human rights movement has become a public health actor that cannot and should not be ignored when defining public health policies...

More Information


  1. Van Hoof W, Pennings G. The consequences of S.H. and Others v. Austria for legislation on gamete donation in Europe: an ethical analysis of the European Court of Human Rights judgments. Reprod Biomed Online. 2012;25:665-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper takes a closer look at the different national interpretations of the European Convention on Human Rights with regard to gamete donation. In the case of S.H. and Others v...
  2. Iacono T, Carling Jenkins R. The human rights context for ethical requirements for involving people with intellectual disability in medical research. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2012;56:1122-32 pubmed publisher
    The history of ethical guidelines addresses protection of human rights in the face of violations. Examples of such violations in research involving people with intellectual disabilities (ID) abound...
  3. Tsai A, Eisa M, Crosby S, Sirkin S, Heisler M, Leaning J, et al. Medical evidence of human rights violations against non-Arabic-speaking civilians in Darfur: a cross-sectional study. PLoS Med. 2012;9:e1001198 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to characterize the nature and geographic scope of allegations of human rights violations perpetrated against civilians in Darfur and to evaluate their consistency with medical examinations ..
  4. Cottingham J, Germain A, Hunt P. Use of human rights to meet the unmet need for family planning. Lancet. 2012;380:172-80 pubmed publisher
    In this report, we describe how human rights can help to shape laws, policies, programmes, and projects in relation to contraceptive information and services...
  5. Zampas C, Andión Ibañez X. Conscientious objection to sexual and reproductive health services: international human rights standards and European law and practice. Eur J Health Law. 2012;19:231-56 pubmed
    ..the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion as protected by national, international and regional human rights law...
  6. Erdman J, Depineres T, Kismodi E. Updated WHO guidance on safe abortion: health and human rights. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2013;120:200-3 pubmed publisher
    ..To reflect significant developments in the clinical, service delivery, and human rights aspects of abortion care, the Guidance was updated in 2012...
  7. Meier B, Onzivu W. The evolution of human rights in World Health Organization policy and the future of human rights through global health governance. Public Health. 2014;128:179-87 pubmed publisher
    The World Health Organization (WHO) was intended to serve at the forefront of efforts to realize human rights to advance global health, and yet this promise of a rights-based approach to health has long been threatened by political ..
  8. Darby R. The child's right to an open future: is the principle applicable to non-therapeutic circumcision?. J Med Ethics. 2013;39:463-8 pubmed publisher highly applicable to non-therapeutic circumcision, and conclude that non-therapeutic circumcision would be a violation of the child's right to an open future, and thus objectionable from both an ethical and a human rights perspective.
  9. Mazor J. The child's interests and the case for the permissibility of male infant circumcision. J Med Ethics. 2013;39:421-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, I distinguish male circumcision from female genital cutting in several important respects and argue that we can coherently hold that male circumcision is permissible without also endorsing all forms of female genital cutting. ..
  10. Gruskin S, Ferguson L, Tarantola D, Beaglehole R. Noncommunicable diseases and human rights: a promising synergy. Am J Public Health. 2014;104:773-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the increasingly important role human rights play in other areas of global health, their contribution to NCD prevention and control remains nascent...
  11. MacLachlan M, Amin M, Mannan H, El Tayeb S, Bedri N, Swartz L, et al. Inclusion and human rights in health policies: comparative and benchmarking analysis of 51 policies from Malawi, Sudan, South Africa and Namibia. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35864 pubmed publisher
    ..An analytical framework was developed--EquiFrame--to evaluate 1) the extent to which 21 Core Concepts of human rights were addressed in policy documents, and 2) coverage of 12 Vulnerable Groups who might benefit from such ..
  12. Erdman J. Harm reduction, human rights, and access to information on safer abortion. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2012;118:83-6 pubmed publisher
    A harm reduction and human rights approach, grounded in the principles of neutrality, humanism, and pragmatism, supports women's access to information on the safer self- use of misoprostol in diverse legal settings...
  13. Ram F, Singh A, Ram U. Human rights approach to maternal & child health: has India fared well?. Indian J Med Res. 2013;137:721-7 pubmed
    ..The selection of the indicator variables was guided by the Human Rights' Framework for Health and Convention of the Rights of the Child- Articles 7, 24 and 27...
  14. Yamin A. From ideals to tools: applying human rights to maternal health. PLoS Med. 2013;10:e1001546 pubmed publisher
    Alicia Yamin argues that applying human rights frameworks and approaches to maternal health offers strategies and tools to address the root causes of maternal morbidity and mortality within and beyond health systems, in addition to ..
  15. London L, Baldwin Ragaven L. Human rights and health: challenges for training nurses in South Africa. Curationis. 2008;31:5-18 pubmed
    The need for health professionals to address their human rights obligations has emerged in the last decade both internationally as well as nationally following the findings of South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission...
  16. Singh S, Bøhler E, Dahal K, Mills E. The state of child health and human rights in Nepal. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e203 pubmed
  17. Kabengele Mpinga E, Meier S, Zesiger V, Chastonay P. [Should medical schools train students in human rights? An exploratory study among medical students in 46 countries]. Rev Med Suisse. 2006;2:1544-6 pubmed
    The interest of medical students from 46 countries for human rights issues and training was investigated in a cross sectional study. Training in human rights is demanded by 85,4% of respondents...
  18. Gruskin S, Ferguson L, O Malley J. Ensuring sexual and reproductive health for people living with HIV: an overview of key human rights, policy and health systems issues. Reprod Health Matters. 2007;15:4-26 pubmed
    ..sexual and reproductive health services that help them realise their reproductive goals, while ensuring their human rights. A dynamic relationship exists between the manner in which health services and programmes are delivered, and ..
  19. Phelan A. Elder abuse, ageism, human rights and citizenship: implications for nursing discourse. Nurs Inq. 2008;15:320-9 pubmed publisher
    ..research base, there is scant literature on elder abuse viewed through the lens of ageism and its sway on human rights and citizenship...
  20. Meng K. ['Informed consent' in public health activities: based on the universal declaration on bioethics and human rights, UNESCO]. J Prev Med Public Health. 2008;41:339-44 pubmed publisher
    ..recently issued a comprehensive Report on Informed Consent based on the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights adopted in 2005, and this included detailed guidelines on informed consent in epidemiological studies and ..
  21. Gruskin S, Cottingham J, Hilber A, Kismodi E, Lincetto O, Roseman M. Using human rights to improve maternal and neonatal health: history, connections and a proposed practical approach. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86:589-93 pubmed
    ..of how maternal and neonatal mortality in the developing world came to be seen as a public-health concern, a human rights concern, and ultimately as both, leading to the development of approaches using human rights concepts and ..
  22. Gadit A, Khalid N. Human rights and international recruitment of psychiatrists: dilemma for developing countries. J Pak Med Assoc. 2006;56:474-6 pubmed
  23. Dhanda A, Narayan T. Mental health and human rights. Lancet. 2007;370:1197-8 pubmed
  24. Freedman L. Health system strengthening: new potential for public health and human rights collaboration. Reprod Health Matters. 2007;15:219-20 pubmed
  25. Gajic Veljanoski O, Stewart D. Women trafficked into prostitution: determinants, human rights and health needs. Transcult Psychiatry. 2007;44:338-58 pubmed
    ..In this article, we review the definition and extent of human trafficking, and focus on the human rights abuses and determinants of trafficking in women...
  26. Hilgert J. Building a human rights framework for workers' compensation in the United States: opening the debate on first principles. Am J Ind Med. 2012;55:506-18 pubmed publisher
    This article introduces the idea of human rights to the topic of workers' compensation in the United States...
  27. Chapman A. The social determinants of health, health equity, and human rights. Health Hum Rights. 2010;12:17-30 pubmed
    ..The article argues that the right to health requires greater attention to the social determinants of health, health inequalities, and power dynamics than these topics have received to date. ..
  28. Burns J. Mental health and inequity: a human rights approach to inequality, discrimination, and mental disability. Health Hum Rights. 2009;11:19-31 pubmed
    Mental disability and mental health care have been neglected in the discourse around health, human rights, and equality. This is perplexing as mental disabilities are pervasive, affecting approximately 8% of the world population...
  29. Wolfe D, Cohen J. Human rights and HIV prevention, treatment, and care for people who inject drugs: key principles and research needs. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;55 Suppl 1:S56-62 pubmed publisher
    ..that regard IDU as criminals and those regarding drug-dependent individuals as patients deserving treatment and human rights. Advocates for IDU health and human rights find common cause in urging greater attention to legal frameworks, ..
  30. Hogerzeil H. Essential medicines and human rights: what can they learn from each other?. Bull World Health Organ. 2006;84:371-5 pubmed
    ..After years of international discussions on human rights, many governments are now moving towards practical implementation of their commitments...
  31. Bayer R, Edington C. HIV testing, human rights, and global AIDS policy: exceptionalism and its discontents. J Health Polit Policy Law. 2009;34:301-23 pubmed publisher
    ..and its outcome will provide a unique resource to those faced with policy choices; it will also provide a unique opportunity to lay bare the complex and politically charged relationships evolving between public health and human rights.
  32. Csete J. Male circumcision and HIV prevention: a human rights and public health challenge. HIV AIDS Policy Law Rev. 2007;12:1, 5-10 pubmed
    ..WHO says that this policy exercise"will need to take into account cultural and human rights considerations associated with promoting circumcision,"among other factors...
  33. Rubenstein L, Pross C, Davidoff F, Iacopino V. Coercive US interrogation policies: a challenge to medical ethics. JAMA. 2005;294:1544-9 pubmed
  34. Gostin L, Archer R. The duty of States to assist other States in need: ethics, human rights, and international law. J Law Med Ethics. 2007;35:526-33, 511 pubmed
    ..Transnational cooperation needs to be more effective and consistent to provide assistance for the world's poorest and least healthy people. ..
  35. Marks J. Interrogational neuroimaging in counterterrorism: a "no-brainer" or a human rights hazard?. Am J Law Med. 2007;33:483-500 pubmed
  36. Fenton E. Genetic enhancement--a threat to human rights?. Bioethics. 2008;22:1-7 pubmed
    ..George Annas has recently leveled a new attack against genetic enhancement, drawing on human rights as his primary weapon...
  37. Dixon Mueller R. The sexual ethics of HIV testing and the rights and responsibilities of partners. Stud Fam Plann. 2007;38:284-96 pubmed
  38. Dresler C, Lando H, Schneider N, Sehgal H. Human rights-based approach to tobacco control. Tob Control. 2012;21:208-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The FCTC is derivative from previously constructed international human rights conventions. These previous conventions have enforcement mechanisms, unlike the FCTC...
  39. Kenyon K. Routine HIV testing: a view from Botswana. Health Hum Rights. 2005;8:21-3 pubmed
  40. Fee E, Parry M. Jonathan Mann, HIV/AIDS, and human rights. J Public Health Policy. 2008;29:54-71 pubmed publisher
    ..He advanced a new way of understanding AIDS and AIDS policies based on a human rights framework.
  41. Venkatapuram S, Bell R, Marmot M. The right to sutures: social epidemiology, human rights, and social justice. Health Hum Rights. 2010;12:3-16 pubmed
    The article examines the convergences and contrasts between social epidemiology, social medicine, and human rights approaches toward advancing global health and health equity...
  42. Bryant J. Kenya's cash transfer program: protecting the health and human rights of orphans and vulnerable children. Health Hum Rights. 2009;11:65-76 pubmed
    ..program documents obtained from those key actors--describes the Kenyan cash transfer program in light of human rights issues as they relate to childrens health...
  43. Gruskin S, Tarantola D. Universal Access to HIV prevention, treatment and care: assessing the inclusion of human rights in international and national strategic plans. AIDS. 2008;22 Suppl 2:S123-32 pubmed publisher
    Rhetorical acknowledgment of the value of human rights for the AIDS response continues, yet practical application of human rights principles to national efforts appears to be increasingly deficient...
  44. Cole P. Human rights and the national interest: migrants, healthcare and social justice. J Med Ethics. 2007;33:269-72 pubmed
    ..The exclusion of migrants of any status from any welfare system cannot be ethically justified because the distinction between citizens and migrants cannot be an ethical one. ..
  45. Gruskin S, Daniels N. Process is the point: justice and human rights: priority setting and fair deliberative process. Am J Public Health. 2008;98:1573-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Most are also concerned with distributing improvements equitably. Accordingly, they often invoke human rights or principles of distributive justice to legitimize choices that create winners and losers...
  46. John T. Human rights and public health during pandemic influenza. Indian J Med Ethics. 2006;3:2-3 pubmed
  47. London L. Neurobehavioural methods, effects and prevention: workers' human rights are why the field matters for developing countries. Neurotoxicology. 2009;30:1135-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Placing the problem in a human rights context enables researchers and scientists in developing countries to make a strong case for why the field of ..
  48. Salako S. The Council of Europe Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine: a new look at international biomedical law and ethics. Med Law. 2008;27:339-56 pubmed
    The Council of Europe Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine is European in conception but has a wider territorial application since non-Member States which have participated in its elaboration may sign it...
  49. London L, Baldwin Ragaven L, Kalebi A, Maart S, Petersen L, Kasolo J. Developing human rights competencies for South African health professional graduates. S Afr Med J. 2007;97:1269-70 pubmed
  50. Weiser S, Heisler M, Leiter K, Percy de Korte F, Tlou S, Demonner S, et al. Routine HIV testing in Botswana: a population-based study on attitudes, practices, and human rights concerns. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e261 pubmed
    ..As routine testing is adopted elsewhere, measures should be implemented to assure true informed consent and human rights safeguards, including protection from HIV-related discrimination and protection of women against partner ..
  51. Fathalla M. Human rights aspects of safe motherhood. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2006;20:409-19 pubmed
    ..Maternal deaths in developing countries are often the ultimate tragic outcome of the cumulative denial of women's human rights. Women are not dying because of untreatable diseases...
  52. Elliott R, Csete J, Wood E, Kerr T. Harm reduction, HIV/AIDS, and the human rights challenge to global drug control policy. Health Hum Rights. 2005;8:104-38 pubmed
    ..At the same time, HIV/AIDS has catalyzed the "health and human rights movement" to articulate legal and policy responses that both represent sound public health policy and ..
  53. Hansen A, Krasnik A, Høg E. [Access to health care for undocumented immigrants. Rights and practice]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2006;168:3011-3 pubmed
    ..In practice, undocumented immigrants in Denmark are able to receive more than emergency health care through unofficial networks of health care providers. ..