orthodontic anchorage procedures


Summary: Attachment of orthodontic devices and materials to the MOUTH area for support and to provide a counterforce to orthodontic forces.

Top Publications

  1. Calderón J, Valencia R, Casasa A, Sánchez M, Espinosa R, Ceja I. Biomechanical anchorage evaluation of mini-implants treated with sandblasting and acid etching in orthodontics. Implant Dent. 2011;20:273-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The best results were obtained with the 8-mm mini-implants, followed by the 6-mm and 10-mm mini-implants. Modifying the mini-implant surface with sandblasting and acid treatment offers good bone anchoring for orthodontic purposes. ..
  2. Chatzigianni A, Keilig L, Duschner H, Götz H, Eliades T, Bourauel C. Comparative analysis of numerical and experimental data of orthodontic mini-implants. Eur J Orthod. 2011;33:468-75 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides further evidence of the appropriateness of the FEA as an investigational tool in relevant research. ..
  3. Lai R, Zou H, Kong W, Lin W. Applied anatomic site study of palatal anchorage implants using cone beam computed tomography. Int J Oral Sci. 2010;2:98-104 pubmed publisher
    ..CBCT plays an important role in pre-surgical treatment planning. CBCT is helpful in identifying safe and stable implantation sites for palatal anchorage. ..
  4. Alves M, Baratieri C, Nojima L. Assessment of mini-implant displacement using cone beam computed tomography. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2011;22:1151-1156 pubmed publisher
    ..Buccal, palatal and midpalatal mini-implants showed some displacement (mean value ?0.78) when submitted to force, although they are aimed to provide stable skeletal anchorage. ..
  5. Wilmes B, Drescher D. Application and effectiveness of the Beneslider: a device to move molars distally. World J Orthod. 2010;11:331-40 pubmed
    ..9 ± 1.0 mm, and the distal tipping to 1.9 ± 1.3 degrees. Two coupled mini-implants with exchangeable abutments and a heavy wire were an effective way to bodily move maxillary molars distally. ..
  6. Deguchi T, Kurosaka H, Oikawa H, Kuroda S, Takahashi I, Yamashiro T, et al. Comparison of orthodontic treatment outcomes in adults with skeletal open bite between conventional edgewise treatment and implant-anchored orthodontics. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2011;139:S60-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, since a significant amount of tooth movement occurs with miniscrews, careful attention is required during the retention phase. ..
  7. Cousley R. A clinical strategy for maxillary molar intrusion using orthodontic mini-implants and a customized palatal arch. J Orthod. 2010;37:202-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical protocols for mini-implant usage are just beginning to evolve and this paper describes the basis for a new clinical approach and future research, for the orthodontic treatment of anterior openbites. ..
  8. Lee J, Kim J, Choi Y, Kim K, Chung C. Effects of placement angle and direction of orthopedic force application on the stability of orthodontic miniscrews. Angle Orthod. 2013;83:667-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Placement angles of less than 60° can reduce the stability of miniscrews when orthopedic forces are applied in various directions. ..
  9. Chen Y, Kyung H, Gao L, Yu W, Bae E, Kim S. Mechanical properties of self-drilling orthodontic micro-implants with different diameters. Angle Orthod. 2010;80:821-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Micro-implants with a diameter of less than 1.3 mm are unsuitable for insertion into a bone with a density greater than 40 pounds per cubic foot mechanically when one is using a self-drilling technique. ..

More Information


  1. McManus M, Qian F, Grosland N, Marshall S, Southard T. Effect of miniscrew placement torque on resistance to miniscrew movement under load. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2011;140:e93-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Ex vivo, the mean resistance to movement of miniscrews with higher maximum placement torque was greater than the resistance to movement of those with lower maximum placement torque. ..
  2. Jang H, Kwon S, Kim S, Park Y, Kim S. Effects of washer on the stress distribution of mini-implant. Angle Orthod. 2012;82:137-44 pubmed publisher
    ..With the use of the washer, a more homogeneous distribution of bone stress and less displacement of the mini-implant can be achieved. ..
  3. Fayed M, Pazera P, Katsaros C. Optimal sites for orthodontic mini-implant placement assessed by cone beam computed tomography. Angle Orthod. 2010;80:939-51 pubmed publisher
    ..A clinical guideline for optimal sites for mini-implant placement is suggested. Sex and age affected the anatomic measurements in certain areas in the maxilla and the mandible. ..
  4. Hong C, Truong P, Song H, Wu B, Moon W. Mechanical stability assessment of novel orthodontic mini-implant designs: Part 2. Angle Orthod. 2011;81:1001-9 pubmed publisher
  5. Liu H, Lv T, Wang N, Zhao F, Wang K, Liu D. Drift characteristics of miniscrews and molars for anchorage under orthodontic force: 3-dimensional computed tomography registration evaluation. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2011;139:e83-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicated that the miniscrews and the maxillary first molars were mesially displaced under orthodontic loading. A mesial site for miniscrews might be a better choice for long-term stability. ..
  6. Akyalcin S, McIver H, English J, Ontiveros J, Gallerano R. Effects of repeated sterilization cycles on primary stability of orthodontic mini-screws. Angle Orthod. 2013;83:674-9 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The examined groups displayed statistical differences of variable quality that may not affect their clinical stability. ..
  7. Migliorati M, Signori A, Silvestrini Biavati A. Temporary anchorage device stability: an evaluation of thread shape factor. Eur J Orthod. 2012;34:582-6 pubmed
    ..From univariate linear regression, TSF, D, and P were statistically significant predictors of 'peak load'. The tests showed that TSF has a statistical significance for describing the mechanical competency of TADs. ..
  8. Lee N, Baek S. Effects of the diameter and shape of orthodontic mini-implants on microdamage to the cortical bone. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2010;138:8.e1-8; discussion 8-9 pubmed publisher
    ..5C and 1.5T, 2C and 2T). OMIs with larger diameters and tapered shapes caused greater microdamage to the cortical bone; this might affect bone remodeling and the stability of the OMIs. ..
  9. Cho K, Baek S. Effects of predrilling depth and implant shape on the mechanical properties of orthodontic mini-implants during the insertion procedure. Angle Orthod. 2012;82:618-24 pubmed publisher
    ..In cases of thick cortical bone, predrilling might be an effective tool for reducing microdamage without compromising OMI stability. ..
  10. Rebaudi A, Laffi N, Benedicenti S, Angiero F, Romanos G. Microcomputed tomographic analysis of bone reaction at insertion of orthodontic mini-implants in sheep. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2011;26:1233-40 pubmed
    ..Standard histologic examination may clarify whether cavities in hard bone are actually signs of bone resorption that results from the activation of remodeling. ..
  11. Chang J, Chen Y, Tung Y, Chiang Y, Lai E, Chen W, et al. Effects of thread depth, taper shape, and taper length on the mechanical properties of mini-implants. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2012;141:279-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Modification of the mini-implant design can substantially affect the mechanical properties. The finite element method is an effective tool to identify optimal design parameters and allow for improved mini-implant designs. ..
  12. Liu T, Chang C, Wong T, Liu J. Finite element analysis of miniscrew implants used for orthodontic anchorage. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2012;141:468-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Both bone stress and screw displacement decreased with increasing screw diameter and cortex thickness, and decreasing exposed length of the screw, force magnitude, and oblique loading direction. ..
  13. Wilmes B, Nienkemper M, Drescher D. Application and effectiveness of a mini-implant- and tooth-borne rapid palatal expansion device: the hybrid hyrax. World J Orthod. 2010;11:323-30 pubmed
    ..The combination of the hybrid hyrax with a face mask for maxillary protraction appears to be effective in minimizing mesial migration of the dentition. ..
  14. Wilmes B, Drescher D. Impact of bone quality, implant type, and implantation site preparation on insertion torques of mini-implants used for orthodontic anchorage. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;40:697-703 pubmed publisher
    ..Compacta thickness, implant design and preparation of implant site affect the insertion torque of mini-implants for orthodontic anchorage. To avoid fractures and high bone stresses, optimum pre-drilling diameters should be chosen. ..
  15. Suzuki E, Suzuki B. Placement and removal torque values of orthodontic miniscrew implants. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2011;139:669-78 pubmed publisher
    ..An inverse relationship between MIT and MRT values was observed. The results suggest that relatively lower MIT values were more favorable to osseointegration than higher values. ..
  16. Barros S, Janson G, Chiqueto K, Garib D, Janson M. Effect of mini-implant diameter on fracture risk and self-drilling efficacy. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2011;140:e181-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Increases in mini-implant diameters significantly influenced the increases of PT and FT on quantities that progressively reduced the fracture risk. The self-drilling efficacy was not strongly influenced by diameter. ..
  17. Shah A, Behrents R, Kim K, Kyung H, Buschang P. Effects of screw and host factors on insertion torque and pullout strength. Angle Orthod. 2012;82:603-10 pubmed publisher
    ..001) greater for the MSIs placed in thicker and denser cortical bone. Both outer diameter and length affect the stability of MSIs. Increases in cortical bone thickness and cortical bone density increase the primary stability of the MSIs. ..
  18. Pithon M, Nojima M, Nojima L. In vitro evaluation of insertion and removal torques of orthodontic mini-implants. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;40:80-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Conical type mini-implants require a greater torque force for insertion and removal compared with cylindrical types. Torque values were directly related to cortical thickness. ..
  19. Singh S, Mogra S, Shetty V, Shetty S, Philip P. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of strength, stability, and stress distribution in orthodontic anchorage: a conical, self-drilling miniscrew implant system. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2012;141:327-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The miniscrew implant can be immediately loaded and used for group movement of teeth. ..
  20. Lifshitz A, Muñoz M. Evaluation of the stability of self-drilling mini-implants for maxillary anchorage under immediate loading. World J Orthod. 2010;11:352-6 pubmed
    ..With loading, they moved in the direction of the applied force, but their displacement had no clinical impact. ..
  21. Hong C, Lee H, Webster R, Kwak J, Wu B, Moon W. Stability comparison between commercially available mini-implants and a novel design: part 1. Angle Orthod. 2011;81:692-9 pubmed publisher
  22. Crismani A, Bertl M, Celar A, Bantleon H, Burstone C. Miniscrews in orthodontic treatment: review and analysis of published clinical trials. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2010;137:108-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Placement protocols varied markedly. Screws under 8 mm in length and 1.2 mm in diameter should be avoided. Immediate or early loading up to 200 cN was adequate and showed no significant influence on screw stability. ..
  23. Su Y, Wilmes B, Hönscheid R, Drescher D. Comparison of self-tapping and self-drilling orthodontic mini-implants: an animal study of insertion torque and displacement under lateral loading. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2009;24:404-11 pubmed
    ..Based on the displacements under lateral loading, however, both the self-tapping and self-drilling implants showed similar resistance to lateral forces. ..
  24. Labanauskaite B, Jankauskas G, Vasiliauskas A, Haffar N. Implants for orthodontic anchorage. Meta-analysis. Stomatologija. 2005;7:128-32 pubmed
    ..We systemized the information about types of implants and their advantages in respect of traditional orthodontic treatment. ..
  25. Thiruvenkatachari B, Pavithranand A, Rajasigamani K, Kyung H. Comparison and measurement of the amount of anchorage loss of the molars with and without the use of implant anchorage during canine retraction. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2006;129:551-4 pubmed
    ..70 mm in the mandible on the molar anchorage side; no anchorage loss occurred on the implant side. Titanium microimplants can function as simple and efficient anchors for canine retraction when maximum anchorage is desired. ..
  26. Herman R, Currier G, Miyake A. Mini-implant anchorage for maxillary canine retraction: a pilot study. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2006;130:228-35 pubmed
    ..Ortho Implants are adequate anchorage for maxillary canine retraction when properly placed. ..
  27. Gracco A, Lombardo L, Cozzani M, Siciliani G. Quantitative cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of palatal bone thickness for orthodontic miniscrew placement. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2008;134:361-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The anterior region is the thickest part of the palate, but the bone thickness in the posterior region is also suitable for screws of appropriate diameter and length. ..
  28. Inaba M. Evaluation of primary stability of inclined orthodontic mini-implants. J Oral Sci. 2009;51:347-53 pubmed
    ..Correlations were evident between implant mobility and contact length or contact ratio. It is concluded that in clinical practice, implants inclined to the bone surface tend to have better primary stability. ..
  29. Motoyoshi M, Hirabayashi M, Uemura M, Shimizu N. Recommended placement torque when tightening an orthodontic mini-implant. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2006;17:109-14 pubmed
    ..Therefore, a large IPT should not be used always. According to our calculations of the risk ratio for failure, to raise the success rate of 1.6-mm diameter mini-implants, the recommended IPT is within the range from 5 to 10 N cm. ..
  30. Poggio P, Incorvati C, Velo S, Carano A. "Safe zones": a guide for miniscrew positioning in the maxillary and mandibular arch. Angle Orthod. 2006;76:191-7 pubmed
    ..The least amount of bone was between first premolar and the canine. Clinical indications for a safe application of the miniscrews are provided, as well as the ideal miniscrew features. ..
  31. Sugawara J, Kanzaki R, Takahashi I, Nagasaka H, Nanda R. Distal movement of maxillary molars in nongrowing patients with the skeletal anchorage system. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2006;129:723-33 pubmed
    ..The SAS is a viable noncompliance modality to move maxillary molars for distally correcting maxillary protrusions and malocclusions characterized by maxillary incisor crowding. ..
  32. Park H, Jeong S, Kwon O. Factors affecting the clinical success of screw implants used as orthodontic anchorage. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2006;130:18-25 pubmed
    ..To minimize the failure of screw implants, inflammation around the implant must be controlled, especially for screws placed in the right side of the mandible. ..
  33. Kuroda S, Sugawara Y, Deguchi T, Kyung H, Takano Yamamoto T. Clinical use of miniscrew implants as orthodontic anchorage: success rates and postoperative discomfort. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2007;131:9-15 pubmed
    ..Miniscrews placed without flap surgery have high success rates with less pain and discomfort after surgery than miniscrews placed with flap surgery or miniplates placed with either procedure. ..
  34. Chaddad K, Ferreira A, Geurs N, Reddy M. Influence of surface characteristics on survival rates of mini-implants. Angle Orthod. 2008;78:107-13 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Surface treatment, anatomical location, as well as soft tissue emergence were not statistically significant. Surface characteristics did not appear to influence survival rates of immediately loaded mini-implants. ..
  35. Hsieh Y, Su C, Yang Y, Fu E, Chen H, Kung S. Evaluation on the movement of endosseous titanium implants under continuous orthodontic forces: an experimental study in the dog. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2008;19:618-23 pubmed publisher
    ..However, when the force reached 500 g, the implants moved in an inward-tipping pattern. The results suggested that endosseous titanium implants might not necessarily be rigid anchorages under all circumstances. ..
  36. Yao C, Lee J, Chen H, Chang Z, Chang H, Chen Y. Maxillary molar intrusion with fixed appliances and mini-implant anchorage studied in three dimensions. Angle Orthod. 2005;75:754-60 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrated that significant true intrusion of maxillary molars could be obtained in a well-controlled manner by using fixed appliances with titanium mini-implants as bony anchorage. ..
  37. Yao C, Lai E, Chang J, Chen I, Chen Y. Comparison of treatment outcomes between skeletal anchorage and extraoral anchorage in adults with maxillary dentoalveolar protrusion. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2008;134:615-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Greater retraction of the maxillary incisor, less anchorage loss of the maxillary first molar, and the possibility of counterclockwise mandibular rotation all facilitated the correction of the Class II malocclusion. ..
  38. Moon C, Lee D, Lee H, Im J, Baek S. Factors associated with the success rate of orthodontic miniscrews placed in the upper and lower posterior buccal region. Angle Orthod. 2008;78:101-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Placement site, however, showed a significant difference in the mandible of adult patients. There was no difference in the success rate in the maxilla. Placement site is one of the important factors for success rate of OMI. ..
  39. Kircelli B, Pektas Z, Uckan S. Orthopedic protraction with skeletal anchorage in a patient with maxillary hypoplasia and hypodontia. Angle Orthod. 2006;76:156-63 pubmed
    ..The maxilla was expanded from the median palatal suture, and seven mm of expansion was achieved across the buccal segments. No other tooth support was used for the expansion or the protraction of the maxilla. ..
  40. Wilmes B, Drescher D. Impact of insertion depth and predrilling diameter on primary stability of orthodontic mini-implants. Angle Orthod. 2009;79:609-14 pubmed publisher
    ..001). The hypothesis is rejected. Higher insertion depths result in higher insertion torques and thus primary stability. Larger predrilling diameters result in lower insertion torques. ..
  41. Reynders R, Ronchi L, Bipat S. Mini-implants in orthodontics: a systematic review of the literature. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2009;135:564.e1-19; discussion 564-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This article includes a guideline for future studies of these issues, based on specific definitions of primary and secondary outcomes correlated with specific operational variables. ..
  42. Seres L, Kocsis A. Closure of severe skeletal anterior open bite with zygomatic anchorage. J Craniofac Surg. 2009;20:478-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This method is a safe, quick, and less expensive alternative to orthognathic surgery. ..
  43. Park H, Kwon O, Sung J. Nonextraction treatment of an open bite with microscrew implant anchorage. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2006;130:391-402 pubmed
    ..The treatment mechanics of anterior open bite with posterior intrusion by using microscrew implants were effective but still require a proper retention protocol. ..
  44. Motoyoshi M, Matsuoka M, Shimizu N. Application of orthodontic mini-implants in adolescents. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;36:695-9 pubmed
    ..Although the optimum torque could not be defined, a latent period of 3 months before loading is recommended to improve the success rate of the mini-implant when placed in the alveolar bone in adolescent patients. ..
  45. Luzi C, Verna C, Melsen B. A prospective clinical investigation of the failure rate of immediately loaded mini-implants used for orthodontic anchorage. Prog Orthod. 2007;8:192-201 pubmed
    ..Other factors such as inflammation of the surrounding soft tissues, bone characteristics, thickness of the mucosa and incorrect surgical procedure should be considered determinants of clinical failure. ..
  46. Chen Y, Chang H, Lin H, Lai E, Hung H, Yao C. Stability of miniplates and miniscrews used for orthodontic anchorage: experience with 492 temporary anchorage devices. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2008;19:1188-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Both orthodontists and oral surgeons who install orthodontic TADs must undergo sufficient training to achieve clinical excellence. ..
  47. Chen Y, Kyung H, Zhao W, Yu W. Critical factors for the success of orthodontic mini-implants: a systematic review. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2009;135:284-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Mini-implants are effective as anchorage, and their success depends on proper initial mechanical stability and loading quality and quantity. ..
  48. Chen C, Chang C, Hsieh C, Tseng Y, Shen Y, Huang I, et al. The use of microimplants in orthodontic anchorage. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;64:1209-13 pubmed
    ..2% and 8 mm was 90.2%. The results suggest that microimplants are suited as an alternative orthodontic anchorage. We recommend that 8-mm microimplants are preferable to 6-mm. ..
  49. Kuroda S, Yamada K, Deguchi T, Hashimoto T, Kyung H, Takano Yamamoto T. Root proximity is a major factor for screw failure in orthodontic anchorage. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2007;131:S68-73 pubmed
    ..The proximity of a miniscrew to the root is a major risk factor for the failure of screw anchorage. This tendency is more obvious in the mandible. ..
  50. Kato S, Kato M. Intrusion of molars with implants as anchorage: a report of two cases. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2006;8:100-6 pubmed
    ..Intrusion required 13 months in the first case and 19 months in the latter. The present method makes it possible to secure enough space for prosthodontic therapy at edentulous segments and perform highly reliable implant therapy. ..
  51. Monnerat C, Restle L, Mucha J. Tomographic mapping of mandibular interradicular spaces for placement of orthodontic mini-implants. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2009;135:428.e1-9; discussion 428-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The most convenient site for implant placement in a mandible was between the first and second molars, with a 10 degrees to 20 degrees inclination, but orthodontic mini-implants should not exceed 1.5 mm in diameter and 6 mm in length. ..
  52. Viwattanatipa N, Thanakitcharu S, Uttraravichien A, Pitiphat W. Survival analyses of surgical miniscrews as orthodontic anchorage. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2009;136:29-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The t test showed that age and latency period were not significant. Titanium surgical miniscrews can be satisfactorily used as orthodontic anchorage. Controlling some aspects of the surgical protocol could reduce the failure rate. ..
  53. Jolley T, Chung C. Peak torque values at fracture of orthodontic miniscrews. J Clin Orthod. 2007;41:326-8 pubmed