dental plaque index


Summary: An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.

Top Publications

  1. Zhou Y, Yang J, Lo E, Lin H. The contribution of life course determinants to early childhood caries: a 2-year cohort study. Caries Res. 2012;46:87-94 pubmed publisher
    ..mutans were risk predictors for ECC of the children. There appears to be a relationship between socioeconomic, behavioural and biological factors and ECC. Early life factors play an important role in the development of ECC. ..
  2. Vidal F, Cordovil I, Figueredo C, Fischer R. Non-surgical periodontal treatment reduces cardiovascular risk in refractory hypertensive patients: a pilot study. J Clin Periodontol. 2013;40:681-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Periodontal therapy significantly reduced levels of CRP, IL-6, fibrinogen, blood pressure, LVM and arterial stiffness, lowering cardiovascular risk in refractory hypertensive patients. ..
  3. Zanatta F, Moreira C, Rösing C. Association between dental floss use and gingival conditions in orthodontic patients. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2011;140:812-21 pubmed publisher
    ..000) showed higher probabilities of gingival bleeding (>30%) than did their counterparts. Orthodontic patients who use dental floss regularly have somewhat better gingival conditions than those who do not use floss. ..
  4. Del Peloso Ribeiro E, Bittencourt S, Nociti F, Sallum E, Sallum A, Casati M. Comparative study of ultrasonic instrumentation for the non-surgical treatment of interproximal and non-interproximal furcation involvements. J Periodontol. 2007;78:224-30 pubmed
    ..The aim of this clinical trial was to compare the outcome of non-surgical treatment of interproximal and non-interproximal Class II furcation involvements...
  5. Rego R, Oliveira C, dos Santos Pinto A, Jordan S, Zambon J, Cirelli J, et al. Clinical and microbiological studies of children and adolescents receiving orthodontic treatment. Am J Dent. 2010;23:317-23 pubmed
    ..Terrahaemophilus aromaticivorans, and TM7 bacterium. ..
  6. Ribeiro E, Bittencourt S, Sallum E, Sallum A, Nociti F, Casati M. Non-surgical instrumentation associated with povidone-iodine in the treatment of interproximal furcation involvements. J Appl Oral Sci. 2010;18:599-606 pubmed
    ..The aim of this controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of topically applied povidone-iodine (PVP-I) used as an adjunct to non-surgical treatment of interproximal class II furcation involvements...
  7. Shimada Y, Komatsu Y, Ikezawa Suzuki I, Tai H, Sugita N, Yoshie H. The effect of periodontal treatment on serum leptin, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein. J Periodontol. 2010;81:1118-23 pubmed publisher
    ..2 +/- 479.3, P = 0.047). Periodontal treatment is effective in reducing serum leptin, IL-6, and CRP levels. The results suggest that leptin, IL-6, and CRP could be mediating factors that connect metabolic syndrome and periodontitis. ..
  8. Romano F, Pigella E, Guzzi N, Aimetti M. Patients' self-assessment of oral malodour and its relationship with organoleptic scores and oral conditions. Int J Dent Hyg. 2010;8:41-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to compare patients' self-rating of oral malodour with organoleptic evaluation and to relate them to oral conditions...
  9. Stein J, Kuch B, Conrads G, Fickl S, Chrobot J, Schulz S, et al. Clinical periodontal and microbiologic parameters in patients with acute myocardial infarction. J Periodontol. 2009;80:1581-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, Pg might be considered a potential risk indicator for AMI. ..

More Information


  1. Duarte P, De Mendonça A, Máximo M, Santos V, Bastos M, Nociti F. Effect of anti-infective mechanical therapy on clinical parameters and cytokine levels in human peri-implant diseases. J Periodontol. 2009;80:234-43 pubmed
    ..05). The proposed anti-infective therapies may locally modulate the levels of TNF-alpha and the OPG/RANKL ratio and improve clinical parameters around peri-implant tissues. ..
  2. da Cruz G, de Toledo S, Sallum E, Sallum A, Ambrosano G, de Cássia Orlandi Sardi J, et al. Clinical and laboratory evaluations of non-surgical periodontal treatment in subjects with diabetes mellitus. J Periodontol. 2008;79:1150-7 pubmed
    ..Clinical and laboratory responses were similar in DM and NDM groups 3 months after full-mouth scaling and root planing. ..
  3. Zigdon H, Machtei E. The dimensions of keratinized mucosa around implants affect clinical and immunological parameters. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2008;19:387-92 pubmed publisher
    ..04). The KM around dental implants affects both the clinical and the immunological parameters at these sites. These findings are of special importance in the esthetic zone, where thin and narrow KM may lead to a greater MR. ..
  4. Lee H, Choi S, Won K, Merchant A, Song K, Jeong S, et al. The effect of intensive oral hygiene care on gingivitis and periodontal destruction in type 2 diabetic patients. Yonsei Med J. 2009;50:529-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Intensive oral hygiene care can persistently improve oral inflammation status and could slow periodontal deterioration. ..
  5. Figueiredo M, de Amorim R, Leal S, Mulder J, Frencken J. Prevalence and severity of clinical consequences of untreated dentine carious lesions in children from a deprived area of Brazil. Caries Res. 2011;45:435-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The pufa index is an epidemiological tool complementary to existing caries indices aimed to assess dental caries. However, there appears to be no need to include code 'u' nor to score codes 'f' and 'a' separately. ..
  6. Zheng P, Chen H, Shi S, Jepsen S, Eberhard J. Periodontal parameters and platelet-activating factor levels in serum and gingival crevicular fluid in a Chinese population. J Clin Periodontol. 2006;33:797-802 pubmed
    ..Based on the observed close correlation of GCF and serum PAF levels, future studies are warranted to test the hypothesis of a possible link between periodontitis and adverse systemic events mediated by PAF. ..
  7. Gomes S, Varela C, da Veiga S, Rosing C, Oppermann R. Periodontal conditions in subjects following orthodontic therapy. A preliminary study. Eur J Orthod. 2007;29:477-81 pubmed
    ..For the treated group, the canines showed lower CAL values than the first molars. The results indicate that the use of orthodontic appliances is not necessarily related to a worsening of periodontal conditions. ..
  8. Vettore M, Leal M, Leão A, da Silva A, Lamarca G, Sheiham A. The relationship between periodontitis and preterm low birthweight. J Dent Res. 2008;87:73-8 pubmed
    ..Periodontal disease was not more severe in women with preterm low birthweight babies. ..
  9. Almosa N, Al Mulla A, Birkhed D. Caries risk profile using the Cariogram in governmental and private orthodontic patients at de-bonding. Angle Orthod. 2012;82:267-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The governmental group also had significantly less favorable values than the private group for most of the caries-related factors. ..
  10. Franchini R, Petri A, Migliario M, Rimondini L. Poor oral hygiene and gingivitis are associated with obesity and overweight status in paediatric subjects. J Clin Periodontol. 2011;38:1021-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The gingivitis observed in overweight and obese young subjects is probably due to a combination of metabolic and inflammatory profiles and neglected attitude towards oral hygiene. ..
  11. Aspriello S, Zizzi A, Tirabassi G, Buldreghini E, Biscotti T, Faloia E, et al. Diabetes mellitus-associated periodontitis: differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Periodontal Res. 2011;46:164-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that IL-1? and TNF-? levels in periodontitis patients with T1DM are affected by the duration of diabetes mellitus. ..
  12. Shibli J, Melo L, Ferrari D, Figueiredo L, Faveri M, Feres M. Composition of supra- and subgingival biofilm of subjects with healthy and diseased implants. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2008;19:975-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The microbiota associated with peri-implantitis was comprised of more periodontal pathogenic bacterial species, including the supragingival biofilm. ..
  13. Serino G, Ström C. Peri-implantitis in partially edentulous patients: association with inadequate plaque control. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2009;20:169-74 pubmed publisher
  14. Woodmansey K, Severine A, Lembariti B. Giant calculus: review and report of a case. Gen Dent. 2013;61:e14-6 pubmed
    ..Several extreme cases have been reported in the dental literature. The specific etiology of these cases remains uncertain. This paper reviews previously reported cases, and presents another extreme example of giant calculus. ..
  15. Pilloni A, Zeza B, Mongardini C, Dominici F, Cassini M, Polimeni A. A preliminary comparison of the effect of 0.3% versus 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinse on de novo plaque formation: a monocentre randomized double-blind crossover trial. Int J Dent Hyg. 2013;11:198-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Chlorhexidine is an effective oral antiseptic. The CHX 0.3% mouth rinse formulation used for 15 s resulted in superior clinical and microbiological outcomes compared to the CHX 0.2% formulation, used for 30 s. ..
  16. Renvert S, Polyzois I, Claffey N. Surgical therapy for the control of peri-implantitis. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2012;23 Suppl 6:84-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Surgical therapy for treating peri-implantitis is a predictable method for treating peri-implant disease and patients receiving this therapy have benefited from it in the short term. ..
  17. Hugo F, Hilgert J, de Sousa M, Cury J. Depressive symptoms and untreated dental caries in older independently living South Brazilians. Caries Res. 2012;46:376-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that depressive symptoms may act as determinants of caries, adding to the body of knowledge supporting the importance of psychological reactions in oral health/disease processes. ..
  18. Gehrt M, Wolfart S, Rafai N, Reich S, Edelhoff D. Clinical results of lithium-disilicate crowns after up to 9 years of service. Clin Oral Investig. 2013;17:275-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Crowns made of a lithium-disilicate framework material can be used clinically in the anterior and posterior region irrespective of an adhesive or conventional cementation when considering abutment preconditions. ..
  19. Patil Y, Hegde Shetiya S, Kakodkar P, Shirahatti R. Evaluation of a preventive program based on caries risk among mentally challenged children using the Cariogram model. Community Dent Health. 2011;28:286-91 pubmed
    ..At follow-up, only 4 new carious lesions developed. The preventive program was effective in improving the caries risk factors and increasing the "chance to avoid caries" from a mean of 44% to 87%. ..
  20. Crocombe L, Broadbent J, Thomson W, Brennan D, Poulton R. Impact of dental visiting trajectory patterns on clinical oral health and oral health-related quality of life. J Public Health Dent. 2012;72:36-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Improving dental visiting behavior among low socioeconomic status groups would have the greatest effect on improving oral health and reducing oral health impacts. ..
  21. Huang B, Meng H, Piao M, Xu L, Zhang L, Zhu W. Influence of placement depth on bone remodeling around tapered internal connection implant: a clinical and radiographic study in dogs. J Periodontol. 2012;83:1164-71 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Tapered internal IAI configuration had no significant effect on crestal bone resorption. Moreover, subcrestal placement of tapered internal IAI had a positive impact on crestal bone preservation around the cervix of the implant. ..
  22. Cardoso Silva C, Barberia E, Ramos Atance J, Maroto M, Hernandez A, Garcia Godoy F. Microbiological analysis of gingivitis in pediatric patients under orthodontic treatment. Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2011;12:210-4 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between gingival inflammation and changes in bacteria of the gingival sulcus in children in orthodontic treatment with brackets...
  23. Si Y, Fan H, Song Y, Zhou X, Zhang J, Wang Z. Association between periodontitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a Chinese population. J Periodontol. 2012;83:1288-96 pubmed
    ..46 (95% CI = 1.47 to 4.10) for current, smokers, and non-smokers, respectively. Our study found a strong association between periodontitis and COPD, and PI seemed to be a major periodontal factor for predicting COPD among Chinese adults. ..
  24. Latifi Xhemajli B, Véronneau J, Begzati A, Bytyci A, Kutllovci T, Rexhepi A. Association between salivary level of infection with Streptococcus mutans/Lactobacilli and caries-risk factors in mothers. Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2016;17:70-4 pubmed
  25. Mahyari S, Mahyari B, Emami S, Malaekeh Nikouei B, Jahanbakhsh S, Sahebkar A, et al. Evaluation of the efficacy of a polyherbal mouthwash containing Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis and Calendula officinalis extracts in patients with gingivitis: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2016;22:93-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Polyherbal mouthwash containing hydroalcoholic extracts of Z. officinale, R. officinalis and C. officinalis (5%) was effective in the treatment of gingivitis and its efficacy was comparable to that of chlorhexidine mouthwash. ..
  26. Ferrazzano G, Sangianantoni G, Cantile T, Iorio R, Ingenito A. Oral health status in liver transplant Italian children. Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2013;14:323-7 pubmed
    ..8%) of dental enamel defects with respect to the healthy group (21.8%). The high prevalence of caries and gingival diseases showed the need to promote specific dental caries prevention programmes in liver transplant children. ..
  27. Lohinai Z, Kerémi B, Szöko E, Tábi T, Szabo C, Tulassay Z, et al. Bacterial lysine decarboxylase influences human dental biofilm lysine content, biofilm accumulation, and subclinical gingival inflammation. J Periodontol. 2012;83:1048-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Lysine appears important for biofilm accumulation and the epithelial barrier to bacterial proinflammatory agents. Inhibiting lysine decarboxylase may retard the increased GCF exudation required for microbial development and gingivitis. ..
  28. Muzurovic S, Babajic E, Masic T, Smajic R, Selmanagic A. The relationship between oral hygiene and oral colonisation with Candida species. Med Arch. 2012;66:415-7 pubmed
    ..Study included 140 patients. For oral hygiene assessement were used the dental plaque index, oral hygiene index and dental calculus index. Ph test strips were used to determine pH of saliva...
  29. Teles F, Teles R, Martin L, Socransky S, Haffajee A. Relationships among interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-?, adipokines, vitamin D, and chronic periodontitis. J Periodontol. 2012;83:1183-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Adipokines and IL-6 levels were affected by sex and body mass index. Serum analytes were not influenced by periodontal therapy. ..
  30. Maruyama T, Yamanaka R, Yokoi A, Ekuni D, Tomofuji T, Mizukawa N, et al. Relationship between serum albumin concentration and periodontal condition in patients with head and neck cancer. J Periodontol. 2012;83:1110-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Longitudinal studies are necessary to examine the causal relationship between serum albumin concentration and periodontal condition. ..
  31. Waghmare P, Chaudhari A, Karhadkar V, Jamkhande A. Comparative evaluation of turmeric and chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash in prevention of plaque formation and gingivitis: a clinical and microbiological study. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2011;12:221-4 pubmed
    ..From this study, it could be stated that turmeric is definitely a good adjunct to mechanical plaque control. Further studies are required on turmeric based mouthwash to establish it as a low cost plaque control measure. ..
  32. López Jornet P, Plana Ramon E, Lestón J, Pons Fuster A. Short-term side effects of 0.2% alcohol-free chlorhexidine mouthrinse in geriatric patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Gerodontology. 2012;29:292-8 pubmed publisher
    ..albicans between the start and end of treatment. These results suggest that the clinical benefits of antiplaque, antigingivitis mouthrinses in both study groups. ..
  33. Moder D, Taubenhansl F, Hiller K, Schmalz G, Christgau M. Influence of autogenous platelet concentrate on combined GTR/graft therapy in intrabony defects: a 7-year follow-up of a randomized prospective clinical split-mouth study. J Clin Periodontol. 2012;39:457-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Within its limitations, the present study indicates that the clinical outcome of GTR therapy can be maintained over 7 years. However, the additional use of APC may even have a possibly negative influence on the long-term stability. ..
  34. Ashkenazi M, Miller R, Levin L. Effect of non-functional teeth on accumulation of supra-gingival calculus in children. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2012;13:248-51 pubmed
    ..4% vs. 15.9%; p=0.738). Accumulation of calculus in children aged 6-10 years was found mainly in the mandibular incisors, decreased with age and was correlated with open-bite. ..
  35. Kohal R, Patzelt S, Butz F, Sahlin H. One-piece zirconia oral implants: one-year results from a prospective case series. 2. Three-unit fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) reconstruction. J Clin Periodontol. 2013;40:553-62 pubmed publisher
  36. Gupta D, Gupta R, Bhaskar D, Gupta V. Comparative evaluation of terminalia chebula extract mouthwash and chlorhexidine mouthwash on plaque and gingival inflammation - 4-week randomised control trial. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2015;13:5-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Terminalia chebula extract mouthrinse can be used as an alternative to chlorhexidine mouthrinse as it has similar properties without the side-effects of the latter. ..
  37. Silveira V, Nogueira M, Nogueira N, Lima V, Furlaneto F, Rego R. Leukotoxicity of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in generalized aggressive periodontitis in Brazilians and their family members. J Appl Oral Sci. 2013;21:430-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Most of the relatives of GAgP patients presented either CP or AgP. ..
  38. Yang J, Feng L, Ren J, Wu G, Chen S, Zhou Q, et al. Correlation between the severity of periodontitis and coronary artery stenosis in a Chinese population. Aust Dent J. 2013;58:333-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The extent and severity of coronary artery stenosis in Chinese patients ?60 years old is positively correlated with the severity of periodontitis. ..
  39. Telleman G, Raghoebar G, Vissink A, Meijer H. Impact of platform switching on inter-proximal bone levels around short implants in the posterior region; 1-year results from a randomized clinical trial. J Clin Periodontol. 2012;39:688-97 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggested that crestal bone resorption may be reduced by platform switching. One year after loading, inter-proximal bone levels were better maintained at implants restored according to the platform switching concept. ..
  40. Enkling N, Hardt K, Katsoulis J, Ramseier C, Colombo A, Jöhren P, et al. Dental phobia is no contraindication for oral implant therapy. Quintessence Int. 2013;44:363-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Implant therapy can be successfully performed in DP patients with PDPT as phobia is not negatively influenced by the invasive implant therapy. However, motivation for professional maintenance programs remains challenging. ..
  41. Ayad F, Petrone D, Wachs G, Mateo L, Chaknis P, Panagakos F. Comparative efficacy of a specially engineered sonic powered toothbrush with unique sensing and control technologies to two commercially available power toothbrushes on established plaque and gingivitis. J Clin Dent. 2012;23 Spec No A:A5-10 pubmed
    ..The new sonic powered toothbrush also provides significantly greater levels of efficacy on the reduction of gingivitis and gingival bleeding when compared to one of the commercially available power toothbrushes. ..
  42. Meller C, Santamaría R, Connert T, Splieth C. Predicting caries by measuring its activity using quantitative light-induced fluorescence in vivo: a 2-year caries increment analysis. Caries Res. 2012;46:361-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous caries experience strongly correlated with caries increment in this group of children. ..
  43. Harnacke D, Mitter S, Lehner M, Munzert J, Deinzer R. Improving oral hygiene skills by computer-based training: a randomized controlled comparison of the modified Bass and the Fones techniques. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37072 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies are needed to analyze whether the disadvantage of teaching the Bass technique observed here is restricted to the teaching method employed. German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00003488. ..
  44. El Tekeya M, El Tantawi M, Fetouh H, Mowafy E, Abo Khedr N. Caries risk indicators in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus in relation to metabolic control. Pediatr Dent. 2012;34:510-6 pubmed
    ..Regarding the interaction of caries risk indicators and metabolic control on caries experience in diabetic children, the only variable that showed a significant effect was mutans streptococci. ..
  45. Javed F, Tenenbaum H, Nogueira Filho G, Qayyum F, Correa F, Al Hezaimi K, et al. Severity of periodontal disease in individuals chewing betel quid with and without tobacco. Am J Med Sci. 2013;346:273-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Subjects with a low socioeconomic status and poor education are significantly more likely than others to develop periodontal disease. ..
  46. Ayo Yusuf O, Postma T, Van Wyk C. Clinical correlates of oral malodour in a population of patients attending a preventive clinic in Pretoria, South Africa. SADJ. 2011;66:326, 328-31 pubmed
    ..Halimeter performance should be further investigated in relation to varying degrees of severity of periodontal disease. ..
  47. Yanagishita Y, Yoshino K, Taniguchi Y, Yoda Y, Matsukubo T. Nonsurgical recovery of interdental papillae under supportive periodontal therapy. Bull Tokyo Dent Coll. 2012;53:141-6 pubmed
    ..Mechanical debridement was performed every 2 to 3 months. A gradual improvement was observed in recession of the interdental papillae over a period of several years together with coronal regrowth of the gingival margin. ..
  48. Slot D, Wiggelinkhuizen L, Rosema N, van der Weijden G. The efficacy of manual toothbrushes following a brushing exercise: a systematic review. Int J Dent Hyg. 2012;10:187-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The available evidence indicates that bristle tuft arrangement (flat trim, multilevel, angled) and brushing duration are factors that contribute to the variation in observed efficacy. ..
  49. Ghassemi A, Vorwerk L, Hooper W, Patel V, Sharma N, Qaqish J. Comparative plaque removal efficacy of a new children's powered toothbrush and a manual toothbrush. J Clin Dent. 2013;24:1-4 pubmed
    ..9% greater plaque reduction, p < 0.0001). The Spinbrush GLOBRUSH was significantly more effective in reducing plaque than the manual toothbrush when evaluated using this single-use clinical model. ..
  50. Tripodakis A, Nakou M. Microbiologic evaluation of compromised periodontal sites before and after immediate intrasocket implant placement. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2011;31:e109-17 pubmed
    ..Concentrations of periodontopathogens in the periodontal sites were heavily reduced when transformed into peri-implant sites, whereas the relevant counts of the beneficial microorganisms were increased...
  51. George R, Kumar S, Ramakrishna T, Emmadi P, Ambalavanan N. Effects of tetracycline-containing gel and a mixture of tetracycline and citric acid-containing gel on non-surgical periodontal therapy. Indian J Dent Res. 2013;24:52-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicated that the use of a mixture of tetracycline and citric acid-containing gel was effective in improving gingival health and in changing subgingival microflora. ..
  52. Nieri M, Giani M, Pagliaro U, Picciullo A, Franceschi D, Rotundo R. Efficacy and preference of manual toothbrushes: a randomised, single blind, controlled trial. Eur J Oral Implantol. 2013;6:181-8 pubmed
    ..0095). All of the tested toothbrushes, even though different with respect to shape and scope of function, demonstrated efficacious plaque removal. ..
  53. Yitzhak M, Sarnat H, Rakocz M, Yaish Y, Ashkenazi M. The effect of toothbrush design on the ability of nurses to brush the teeth of institutionalized cerebral palsy patients. Spec Care Dentist. 2013;33:20-7 pubmed publisher
    ..More nurses preferred the triple-headed toothbrush (75.5% compared to 22.6%). Brushing by nurses of cerebral palsy patients was more effective and instruction better retained with a triple-headed compared to single-headed toothbrush. ..