hyaluronic acid


Summary: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.

Top Publications

  1. Bertucci V, Lin X, Axford Gatley R, Theisen M, Swift A. Safety and effectiveness of large gel particle hyaluronic acid with lidocaine for correction of midface volume loss. Dermatol Surg. 2013;39:1621-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of large gel particle hyaluronic acid with 0.3% lidocaine (LGP-HA-L) for the treatment of midface volume loss or contour deficiency...
  2. Creaney J, Dick I, Segal A, Musk A, Robinson B. Pleural effusion hyaluronic acid as a prognostic marker in pleural malignant mesothelioma. Lung Cancer. 2013;82:491-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Tumour biomarkers are being intensely investigated in MM as aids to diagnosis and prognosis. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is produced in MM but its role in prognostication remains uncertain.
  3. Levett P, Melchels F, Schrobback K, Hutmacher D, Malda J, Klein T. A biomimetic extracellular matrix for cartilage tissue engineering centered on photocurable gelatin, hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. Acta Biomater. 2014;10:214-23 pubmed publisher
    ..in Gel-MA-based hydrogels, and show that with the incorporation of small quantities of photocrosslinkable hyaluronic acid methacrylate (HA-MA), and to a lesser extent chondroitin sulfate methacrylate (CS-MA), chondrogenesis and ..
  4. Kim Y, Oh S, Choi J, Lee S, Ra J, Lee J, et al. Adipose-derived stem cell-containing hyaluronic acid/alginate hydrogel improves vocal fold wound healing. Laryngoscope. 2014;124:E64-72 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the regenerative efficacy of an injectable hyaluronic acid/mildly cross-linked alginate hydrogel (HA/ALG hydrogel) containing human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAdMSCs) for vocal ..
  5. Lai J. Relationship between structure and cytocompatibility of divinyl sulfone cross-linked hyaluronic acid. Carbohydr Polym. 2014;101:203-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Hyaluronic acid (HA), a carbohydrate polymer naturally found in the eye, has been chemically modified by cross-linking to enhance its performance as a drug carrier...
  6. Liu L, Liu Y, Li J, Du G, Chen J. Microbial production of hyaluronic acid: current state, challenges, and perspectives. Microb Cell Fact. 2011;10:99 pubmed publisher
    b>Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a natural and linear polymer composed of repeating disaccharide units of ?-1, 3-N-acetyl glucosamine and ?-1, 4-glucuronic acid with a molecular weight up to 6 million Daltons...
  7. Peters L, Mocroft A, Soriano V, Rockstroh J, Rauch A, Karlsson A, et al. Hyaluronic acid levels predict risk of hepatic encephalopathy and liver-related death in HIV/viral hepatitis coinfected patients. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64283 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated plasma hyaluronic acid's (HA) ability to predict risk of liver-related events (LRE; hepatic coma or liver-related death) in the ..
  8. Dong J, Jiang D, Wang Z, Wu G, Miao L, Huang L. Intra-articular delivery of liposomal celecoxib-hyaluronate combination for the treatment of osteoarthritis in rabbit model. Int J Pharm. 2013;441:285-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Using an incapacitance tester and the histopathological study, it was verified that the liposomal Clx-HA combination was more effective than a single drug in pain control and cartilage protection. ..
  9. Yang C, Cao M, Liu H, He Y, Xu J, Du Y, et al. The high and low molecular weight forms of hyaluronan have distinct effects on CD44 clustering. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:43094-107 pubmed publisher
    ..oHA promoted cell adhesion while nHA showed no effects. Our results might elucidate a molecular- and/or cellular-based mechanism for the diverse biological activities of nHA and oHA. ..

More Information


  1. Röck K, Meusch M, Fuchs N, Tigges J, Zipper P, Fritsche E, et al. Estradiol protects dermal hyaluronan/versican matrix during photoaging by release of epidermal growth factor from keratinocytes. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:20056-69 pubmed publisher
  2. Jacobetz M, Chan D, Neesse A, Bapiro T, Cook N, Frese K, et al. Hyaluronan impairs vascular function and drug delivery in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer. Gut. 2013;62:112-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors demonstrate that HA impedes the intratumoral vasculature in PDA and propose that its enzymatic depletion be explored as a means to improve drug delivery and response in patients with pancreatic cancer. ..
  3. Franciozi C, Tarini V, Reginato R, Gonçalves P, Medeiros V, Ferretti M, et al. Gradual strenuous running regimen predisposes to osteoarthritis due to cartilage cell death and altered levels of glycosaminoglycans. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2013;21:965-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Society International - OARSI grading), and significantly decreased levels of chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid. Knee cartilage thickness and TUNEL did not significantly differ between the two groups...
  4. Iannitti T, Elhensheri M, Bingöl A, Palmieri B. Preliminary histopathological study of intra-articular injection of a novel highly cross-linked hyaluronic acid in a rabbit model of knee osteoarthritis. J Mol Histol. 2013;44:191-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid has been widely used for treatment of knee osteoarthritis...
  5. Saw K, Anz A, Siew Yoke Jee C, Merican S, Ching Soong Ng R, Roohi S, et al. Articular cartilage regeneration with autologous peripheral blood stem cells versus hyaluronic acid: a randomized controlled trial. Arthroscopy. 2013;29:684-94 pubmed publisher
    ..lesions treated by arthroscopic subchondral drilling followed by postoperative intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid (HA) with and without peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC)...
  6. Tashiro T, Seino S, Sato T, Matsuoka R, Masuda Y, Fukui N. Oral administration of polymer hyaluronic acid alleviates symptoms of knee osteoarthritis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study over a 12-month period. ScientificWorldJournal. 2012;2012:167928 pubmed publisher
    This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of oral hyaluronic acid (HA) administration for osteoarthritis (OA) in knee joints...
  7. Sato M, Uchida K, Nakajima H, Miyazaki T, Guerrero A, Watanabe S, et al. Direct transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells into the knee joints of Hartley strain guinea pigs with spontaneous osteoarthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2012;14:R31 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to test the outcome of intra-articular transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells suspended in hyaluronic acid (HA) in the knee joints of Hartley strain guinea pigs with spontaneous osteoarthritis (OA).
  8. Liu Y, Wang R, Zarembinski T, Doty N, Jiang C, Regatieri C, et al. The application of hyaluronic acid hydrogels to retinal progenitor cell transplantation. Tissue Eng Part A. 2013;19:135-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe the use of hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydrogels to encapsulate mouse RPCs and a delivery system for injectable tissue engineering...
  9. Voigt J, Driver V. Hyaluronic acid derivatives and their healing effect on burns, epithelial surgical wounds, and chronic wounds: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Wound Repair Regen. 2012;20:317-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a polysaccharide common to most species and is found in many sites in the human body, including the skin and soft tissue...
  10. Costantini E, Lazzeri M, Pistolesi D, Del Zingaro M, Frumenzio E, Boni A, et al. Morphological changes of bladder mucosa in patients who underwent instillation with combined sodium hyaluronic acid-chondroitin sulphate (Ialuril®). Urol Int. 2013;91:81-8 pubmed publisher
    To investigate what changes are endoscopically evident after glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) therapy by hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulphate (CS) (Ialuril®) in female patients affected by bladder pain syndrome(BPS)/ interstitial ..
  11. Hinata N, Murakami G, Abe S, Shibata S, Morizane S, Honda M, et al. Coexistence of elastic fibers with hyaluronic acid in the human urethral sphincter complex: a histological study. J Urol. 2013;190:1313-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the distribution of elastic fibers around the urethral sphincter complex and the histological localization of hyaluronic acid in relation to elastic fiber architecture...
  12. DeGroot H, Uzunishvili S, Weir R, Al omari A, Gomes B. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid is not superior to saline solution injection for ankle arthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012;94:2-8 pubmed publisher
    Intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid are potentially useful to treat ankle osteoarthritis, yet their effectiveness has not been proven...
  13. Choi J, Choi B, Park S, Pai K, Li T, Min B, et al. Mechanical stimulation by ultrasound enhances chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in a fibrin-hyaluronic acid hydrogel. Artif Organs. 2013;37:648-55 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated whether or not fibrin-hyaluronic acid (HA) coupled with low-intensity ultrasound (LIUS), a mechanical stimulation, produces an additive or ..
  14. Lai M, Kuo Y, Kuo H. Intravesical hyaluronic acid for interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome: a comparative randomized assessment of different regimens. Int J Urol. 2013;20:203-7 pubmed publisher
    To compare the clinical effectiveness of different regimens of intravesical hyaluronic acid instillation for patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome...
  15. Park K, Yang J, Lee M, Lee H, Hahn S. Reducible hyaluronic acid-siRNA conjugate for target specific gene silencing. Bioconjug Chem. 2013;24:1201-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, reducible hyaluronic acid (HA)-siRNA conjugate was successfully developed for target specific systemic delivery of siRNA to the liver...
  16. Jin Y, Termsarasab U, Ko S, Shim J, Chong S, Chung S, et al. Hyaluronic acid derivative-based self-assembled nanoparticles for the treatment of melanoma. Pharm Res. 2012;29:3443-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Hyaluronic acid-ceramide (HACE)-based nanoparticles (NPs) were developed for the targeted delivery of doxorubicin (DOX), and their antitumor efficacy for melanoma was evaluated...
  17. Foss C, Merzari E, Migliaresi C, Motta A. Silk fibroin/hyaluronic acid 3D matrices for cartilage tissue engineering. Biomacromolecules. 2013;14:38-47 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to fibroin-based constructs, literature has reported that the combination of hyaluronic acid (HA) with other scaffold materials can protect the chondral phenotype and the cells in vitro response to the ..
  18. Schramm C, Spitzer M, Henke Fahle S, Steinmetz G, Januschowski K, Heiduschka P, et al. The cross-linked biopolymer hyaluronic acid as an artificial vitreous substitute. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:613-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Different hydrogels were assembled by cross-linking hyaluronic acid either with adipic dihydrazide (ADH) by carboxylation with N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide ..
  19. Rzany B, Cartier H, Kestemont P, Trévidic P, Sattler G, Kerrouche N, et al. Full-face rejuvenation using a range of hyaluronic acid fillers: efficacy, safety, and patient satisfaction over 6 months. Dermatol Surg. 2012;38:1153-61 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess whether a new range of hyaluronic acid filler is suitable for full-face rejuvenation and to evaluate efficacy, safety, and patient satisfaction...
  20. Alghoul M, Mendiola A, Seth R, Rubin B, Zins J, Calabro A, et al. The effect of hyaluronan hydrogel on fat graft survival. Aesthet Surg J. 2012;32:622-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Hyaluronan has been shown to be a promising cell carrier in adipose tissue engineering...
  21. Barros S, Martins J, Marcos J, Cavaco Paulo A. Influence of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor-based peptides on elastase activity and their incorporation in hyaluronic acid hydrogels for chronic wound therapy. Biopolymers. 2012;98:576-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These peptides were incorporated in hyaluronic acid hydrogels to evaluate the possibility of being used as active compounds in a drug delivery system...
  22. Zhao C, Hashimoto T, Kirk R, Thoreson A, Jay G, Moran S, et al. Resurfacing with chemically modified hyaluronic acid and lubricin for flexor tendon reconstruction. J Orthop Res. 2013;31:969-75 pubmed publisher
    We assessed surface coating with carbodiimide derivatized hyaluronic acid combined with lubricin (cd-HA-Lubricin) as a way to improve extrasynovial tendon surface quality and, consequently, the functional results in flexor tendon ..
  23. Flores A, Jewell B, Fittipaldi N, Beres S, Musser J. Human disease isolates of serotype m4 and m22 group a streptococcus lack genes required for hyaluronic acid capsule biosynthesis. MBio. 2012;3:e00413-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Many lines of evidence generated over decades have shown that the hyaluronic acid capsule is a major virulence factor contributing to these infections...
  24. Iannitti T, Rottigni V, Palmieri B. A pilot study to compare two different hyaluronic acid compounds for treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2012;25:1093-8 pubmed
    ..Viscosupplementation with hyaluronic acid has been widely investigated due to the viscoelastic properties of this compound to manage pain improving the ..
  25. Yoshikawa K, Kitamura N, Kurokawa T, Gong J, Nohara Y, Yasuda K. Hyaluronic acid affects the in vitro induction effects of synthetic PAMPS and PDMAAm hydrogels on chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells, depending on the level of concentration. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2013;14:56 pubmed publisher
    ..We have noticed that the joint fluid naturally contains hyaluronic acid (HA)...
  26. Kisiel M, Martino M, Ventura M, Hubbell J, Hilborn J, Ossipov D. Improving the osteogenic potential of BMP-2 with hyaluronic acid hydrogel modified with integrin-specific fibronectin fragment. Biomaterials. 2013;34:704-12 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel is a suitable carrier for the delivery of rhBMP-2, but a major limitation of this scaffold is ..
  27. Fennouri A, Przybylski C, Pastoriza Gallego M, Bacri L, Auvray L, Daniel R. Single molecule detection of glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid oligosaccharides and depolymerization enzyme activity using a protein nanopore. ACS Nano. 2012;6:9672-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This nanopore approach has been harnessed in this study to analyze the hyaluronic acid glycosamiglycan and its depolymerization-derived oligosaccharides...
  28. Park H, Choi B, Hu J, Lee M. Injectable chitosan hyaluronic acid hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering. Acta Biomater. 2013;9:4779-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we created an injectable hydrogel consisting of methacrylated glycol chitosan (MeGC) and hyaluronic acid (HA) by photocrosslinking with a riboflavin photoinitiator under visible light...
  29. Kim M, Muto J, Gallo R. Hyaluronic acid oligosaccharides suppress TLR3-dependent cytokine expression in a TLR4-dependent manner. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72421 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, release of endogenous fragments of hyaluronic acid (HA) after injury has been proposed to inhibit LPS induced inflammation driven by TLR4...
  30. Sun L, Friedrich E, Heuslein J, Pferdehirt R, Dangelo N, Natesan S, et al. Reduction of burn progression with topical delivery of (antitumor necrosis factor-?)-hyaluronic acid conjugates. Wound Repair Regen. 2012;20:563-72 pubmed publisher
    ..application of antibodies targeting tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) or interleukin-6 (IL-6) conjugated to hyaluronic acid (HA) could reduce the extension of necrosis by modulating inflammation locally in a partial-thickness rat ..
  31. Lee S, Ghosh S, Han H, Stone R, Bottsford Miller J, Shen D, et al. Metronomic activity of CD44-targeted hyaluronic acid-paclitaxel in ovarian carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18:4114-21 pubmed publisher
    ..endothelial cells, express the CD44 family of cell surface proteoglycans, the natural ligand for which is hyaluronic acid. Metronomic dosing, the frequent administration of chemotherapeutics at substantially lower than maximum ..
  32. Park D, Kim Y, Kim H, Kim K, Lee Y, Choe J, et al. Hyaluronic acid promotes angiogenesis by inducing RHAMM-TGF? receptor interaction via CD44-PKC?. Mol Cells. 2012;33:563-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Hyaluronic acid (HA) has been shown to promote angiogenesis. However, the mechanism behind this effect remains largely unknown. Therefore, in this study, the mechanism of HA-induced angiogenesis was examined...
  33. Shi J, Ma R, Wang L, Zhang J, Liu R, Li L, et al. The application of hyaluronic acid-derivatized carbon nanotubes in hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether-based photodynamic therapy for in vivo and in vitro cancer treatment. Int J Nanomedicine. 2013;8:2361-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, a CNT derivative, hyaluronic acid-derivatized CNTs (HA-CNTs) with high aqueous solubility, neutral pH, and tumor-targeting activity, were ..
  34. Kim J, Sykes J. Hyaluronic acid fillers: history and overview. Facial Plast Surg. 2011;27:523-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers have many favorable characteristics that make it a popular injectable filler device. Its minimal immunogenicity and relative ease of use has helped HA become the most commonly used injectable filler today...
  35. Stridh S, Palm F, Hansell P. Renal interstitial hyaluronan: functional aspects during normal and pathological conditions. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2012;302:R1235-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Changes in hyaluronan synthases, hyaluronidases, and binding receptor expression are discussed in parallel. ..
  36. Cho H, Yoon I, Yoon H, Koo H, Jin Y, Ko S, et al. Polyethylene glycol-conjugated hyaluronic acid-ceramide self-assembled nanoparticles for targeted delivery of doxorubicin. Biomaterials. 2012;33:1190-200 pubmed publisher
    Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated hyaluronic acid-ceramide (HACE) was synthesized for the preparation of doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded HACE-PEG-based nanoparticles, 160 nm in mean diameter with a negative surface charge...
  37. Hatano S, Kimata K, Hiraiwa N, Kusakabe M, Isogai Z, Adachi E, et al. Versican/PG-M is essential for ventricular septal formation subsequent to cardiac atrioventricular cushion development. Glycobiology. 2012;22:1268-77 pubmed publisher
  38. Choi H, Kang Y, Na J, Huh S, Huh C, Kim K, et al. Oligosaccharides of hyaluronic acid increased epidermal cell stemness by modulation of integrin expression. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2012;11:290-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an abundant matrix component and is degraded into polymers of various sizes. These generated fragments appear to have properties that affect wound healing of the skin...
  39. Kisiel M, Ventura M, Oommen O, George A, Walboomers X, Hilborn J, et al. Critical assessment of rhBMP-2 mediated bone induction: an in vitro and in vivo evaluation. J Control Release. 2012;162:646-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The in vitro results were also reflected in the in vivo experiments, in a rat ectopic model with injectable hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel as BMP carrier...
  40. Esser P, Wölfle U, Dürr C, von Loewenich F, Schempp C, Freudenberg M, et al. Contact sensitizers induce skin inflammation via ROS production and hyaluronic acid degradation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41340 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we analyzed the role of contact sensitizer induced ROS production and concomitant changes in hyaluronic acid metabolism on CHS responses...
  41. Yoon H, Koo H, Choi K, Lee S, Kim K, Kwon I, et al. Tumor-targeting hyaluronic acid nanoparticles for photodynamic imaging and therapy. Biomaterials. 2012;33:3980-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we report tumor-targeting hyaluronic acid nanoparticles (HANPs) as the carrier of the hydrophobic photosensitizer, chlorin e6 (Ce6) for simultaneous ..
  42. Lauer M, Cheng G, Swaidani S, Aronica M, Weigel P, Hascall V. Tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6) amplifies hyaluronan synthesis by airway smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:423-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that TSG-6 increases the accumulation of HA in the cell-associated matrix, partially by preventing its dissolution from the cell-associated matrix into the conditioned medium, but primarily by inducing HA synthesis. ..
  43. Lebensztejn D, Wierzbicka A, Socha P, Pronicki M, Skiba E, Werpachowska I, et al. Cytokeratin-18 and hyaluronic acid levels predict liver fibrosis in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Acta Biochim Pol. 2011;58:563-6 pubmed
    ..We determined fasting serum level of hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin, YKL-40 and cytokeratin-18 M30 in 52 children (age range 4-19, mean 12 years, 80 % of them were ..
  44. Lee M, Yang J, Jung H, Beack S, Choi J, Hur W, et al. Hyaluronic acid-gold nanoparticle/interferon ? complex for targeted treatment of hepatitis C virus infection. ACS Nano. 2012;6:9522-31 pubmed publisher
    ..long-acting delivery system of IFN? was successfully developed using the hybrid materials of AuNP and hyaluronic acid (HA)...
  45. Erickson I, Kestle S, Zellars K, Dodge G, Burdick J, Mauck R. Improved cartilage repair via in vitro pre-maturation of MSC-seeded hyaluronic acid hydrogels. Biomed Mater. 2012;7:024110 pubmed publisher
    ..Our objective was thus to assess both the maturation and integration of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-laden hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels in an in vitro cartilage defect model...
  46. Prosdocimi M, Bevilacqua C. Exogenous hyaluronic acid and wound healing: an updated vision. Panminerva Med. 2012;54:129-35 pubmed
    b>Hyaluronic acid (HA), an endogenous substance whose concentration increases during the process of wound repair, can be manufactured in order to use it as an exogenous intervention able to reduce the time to wound repair and improve the ..
  47. Pasonen Seppänen S, Takabe P, Edward M, Rauhala L, Rilla K, Tammi M, et al. Melanoma cell-derived factors stimulate hyaluronan synthesis in dermal fibroblasts by upregulating HAS2 through PDGFR-PI3K-AKT and p38 signaling. Histochem Cell Biol. 2012;138:895-911 pubmed publisher
    ..PDGF secreted by melanoma cells thus mediated fibroblasts activation, with HAS2 upregulation as a major factor in the fibroblast response. This effect on stromal matrix is suggested to favor tumor growth. ..
  48. Glogau R, Bank D, Brandt F, Cox S, Donofrio L, Dover J, et al. A randomized, evaluator-blinded, controlled study of the effectiveness and safety of small gel particle hyaluronic acid for lip augmentation. Dermatol Surg. 2012;38:1180-92 pubmed publisher
    To assess the effectiveness and safety of small gel particle hyaluronic acid (SGP-HA) for lip augmentation.
  49. Galois L, Etienne S, Henrionnet C, Scala Bertola J, Grossin L, Mainard D, et al. Ambivalent properties of hyaluronate and hylan during post-traumatic OA in the rat knee. Biomed Mater Eng. 2012;22:235-42 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine whether viscosupplementation with intra-articular (i.a.) low- or high-molecular-weight hyaluronate (HA) injections influenced both chondral and synovial lesions in rats with surgically-induced OA knee...
  50. Jiang T, Zhang Z, Zhang Y, Lv H, Zhou J, Li C, et al. Dual-functional liposomes based on pH-responsive cell-penetrating peptide and hyaluronic acid for tumor-targeted anticancer drug delivery. Biomaterials. 2012;33:9246-58 pubmed publisher
    Dual-functional liposomes with pH-responsive cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) and active targeting hyaluronic acid (HA) were fabricated for tumor-targeted drug delivery...
  51. Attili S, Richter R. Combining colloidal probe atomic force and reflection interference contrast microscopy to study the compressive mechanics of hyaluronan brushes. Langmuir. 2012;28:3206-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The data on these well-defined films should be a useful reference for the investigation of the more complex hyaluronan-rich coats that surround many living cells. ..
  52. Nakagawa K, Takahashi C, Nishi Y, Jyuen H, Sugiyama R, Kuribayashi Y, et al. Hyaluronan-enriched transfer medium improves outcome in patients with multiple embryo transfer failures. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2012;29:679-85 pubmed publisher
    ..HETM significantly increased pregnancy and implantation rates among embryo transfer patients with a history of multiple unsuccessful implantations-regardless of method used to prepare the endometrium. ..
  53. Ozgenel G, Etoz A. Effects of repetitive injections of hyaluronic acid on peritendinous adhesions after flexor tendon repair: a preliminary randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg. 2012;18:11-7 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of three injections of hyaluronic acid (HA) versus placebo (saline) over a two-week period on functional outcomes after zone-II flexor tendon repairs.