dermatan sulfate

Summary

Summary: A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Radek K, Taylor K, Gallo R. FGF-10 and specific structural elements of dermatan sulfate size and sulfation promote maximal keratinocyte migration and cellular proliferation. Wound Repair Regen. 2009;17:118-26 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Dermatan sulfate (DS) exhibited greater potency than heparan sulfate or other chondroitin sulfates found in wounds...
  2. Malavaki C, Mizumoto S, Karamanos N, Sugahara K. Recent advances in the structural study of functional chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate in health and disease. Connect Tissue Res. 2008;49:133-9 pubmed publisher
    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) dermatan sulfate (DS), and CS/DS hybrid chains are biologically active like heparan sulfate, and structurally the most complex species of the glycosaminoglycan family along with heparan sulfate...
  3. Shinmyouzu K, Takahashi T, Ariyoshi W, Ichimiya H, Kanzaki S, Nishihara T. Dermatan sulfate inhibits osteoclast formation by binding to receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;354:447-52 pubmed
    b>Dermatan sulfate (DS) is a major component of extracellular matrices in mammalian tissues...
  4. Bartolini B, Thelin M, Svensson L, Ghiselli G, van Kuppevelt T, Malmstrom A, et al. Iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate affects directional migration of aortic smooth muscle cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66704 pubmed publisher
    Aortic smooth muscle cells produce chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) proteoglycans that regulate extracellular matrix organization and cell behavior in normal and pathological conditions...
  5. Thelin M, Svensson K, Shi X, Bagher M, Axelsson J, Isinger Ekstrand A, et al. Dermatan sulfate is involved in the tumorigenic properties of esophagus squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2012;72:1943-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) proteoglycans, which occur both in the matrix and at the cell surface, play important roles in these ..
  6. Wang J, Lee J, Yan M, Rho J, Roehrl M. Dermatan sulfate interacts with dead cells and regulates CD5(+) B-cell fate: implications for a key role in autoimmunity. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:2168-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that dermatan sulfate (DS) expands the B-1a cell population and augments the specific antibody response to an antigen when it is in ..
  7. Yamauchi S, Kurosu A, Hitosugi M, Nagai T, Oohira A, Tokudome S. Differential gene expression of multiple chondroitin sulfate modification enzymes among neural stem cells, neurons and astrocytes. Neurosci Lett. 2011;493:107-11 pubmed publisher
    Chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) polysaccharides have been reported to play a crucial role in the proliferation and maintenance of neural stem cells (NSCs)...
  8. Sisu E, Flangea C, Serb A, Zamfir A. Modern developments in mass spectrometry of chondroitin and dermatan sulfate glycosaminoglycans. Amino Acids. 2011;41:235-56 pubmed publisher
    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) are special types of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) oligosaccharides able to regulate vital biological functions that depend on precise motifs of their constituent hexose sequences and the ..
  9. Somsen G, Tak Y, Toraño J, Jongen P, de Jong G. Determination of oversulfated chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate impurities in heparin by capillary electrophoresis. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:4107-12 pubmed publisher
    ..the reliable quantification of OSCS in heparin samples, but also allows determination of the common impurity dermatan sulfate (DS)...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Harada N, Okajima K, Kohmura H, Uchiba M, Tomita T. Danaparoid sodium reduces ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver injury in rats by attenuating inflammatory responses. Thromb Haemost. 2007;97:81-7 pubmed
    ..These therapeutic effects of DS might be at least partly explained by its enhancement of sensory neuron activation, leading to the increase the endothelial production of PGI (2) . ..
  2. Maccarana M, Olander B, Malmstrom J, Tiedemann K, Aebersold R, Lindahl U, et al. Biosynthesis of dermatan sulfate: chondroitin-glucuronate C5-epimerase is identical to SART2. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:11560-8 pubmed
    ..1.3.19) that converts D-glucuronic acid to L-iduronic acid residues in dermatan sulfate biosynthesis...
  3. Nandini C, Mikami T, Ohta M, Itoh N, Akiyama Nambu F, Sugahara K. Structural and functional characterization of oversulfated chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate hybrid chains from the notochord of hagfish. Neuritogenic and binding activities for growth factors and neurotrophic factors. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:50799-809 pubmed
    Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate (DS) hybrid chains were purified from the notochord of hagfish. The chains (previously named CS-H for hagfish) have an average molecular mass of 18 kDa...
  4. Lujan T, Underwood C, Henninger H, Thompson B, Weiss J. Effect of dermatan sulfate glycosaminoglycans on the quasi-static material properties of the human medial collateral ligament. J Orthop Res. 2007;25:894-903 pubmed
    The glycosaminoglycan of decorin, dermatan sulfate (DS), has been suggested to contribute to the mechanical properties of soft connective tissues such as ligaments and tendons...
  5. Nikitovic D, Zafiropoulos A, Tzanakakis G, Karamanos N, Tsatsakis A. Effects of glycosaminoglycans on cell proliferation of normal osteoblasts and human osteosarcoma cells depend on their type and fine chemical compositions. Anticancer Res. 2005;25:2851-6 pubmed
    ..This effect is closely related to the fine chemical structure of GAGs, i.e. the presence of L-iduronic acid and the degree of sulphation. ..
  6. Kop E, Kwakkenbos M, Teske G, Kraan M, Smeets T, Stacey M, et al. Identification of the epidermal growth factor-TM7 receptor EMR2 and its ligand dermatan sulfate in rheumatoid synovial tissue. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;52:442-50 pubmed
    ..b>Dermatan sulfate was shown to be the ligand of the largest isoforms of EMR2 and CD97 in rheumatoid synovium...
  7. Nandini C, Itoh N, Sugahara K. Novel 70-kDa chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate hybrid chains with a unique heterogeneous sulfation pattern from shark skin, which exhibit neuritogenic activity and binding activities for growth factors and neurotrophic factors. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:4058-69 pubmed
    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) hybrid chains of proteoglycans are critical in growth factor binding, neuritogenesis, and brain development...
  8. Giri T, Tollefsen D. Placental dermatan sulfate: isolation, anticoagulant activity, and association with heparin cofactor II. Blood. 2006;107:2753-8 pubmed
    ..b>Dermatan sulfate (DS) specifically activates HCII and is abundant in the placenta, but the locations of DS and HCII in the ..
  9. Iba T, Kidokoro A, Fukunaga M, Nagakari K, Suda M, Yoshikawa S, et al. Antithrombin ameliorates endotoxin-induced organ dysfunction more efficiently when combined with danaparoid sodium than with unfractionated heparin. Intensive Care Med. 2005;31:1101-8 pubmed
    ..The elevation of ALT and BUN significantly improved only in the AT/DA group. ONCLUSION: Organ dysfunction can thus be alleviated by even moderate doses of AT replacement when co-administered with DA. ..
  10. Laremore T, Zhang F, Linhardt R. Ionic liquid matrix for direct UV-MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides. Anal Chem. 2007;79:1604-10 pubmed
    Polyanionic oligosaccharides such as dermatan sulfate (DS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) exhibit poor ionization efficiencies and tend to undergo thermal fragmentation through the loss of SO(3) under conventional ultraviolet matrix-..
  11. Taylor K, Rudisill J, Gallo R. Structural and sequence motifs in dermatan sulfate for promoting fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and FGF-7 activity. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:5300-6 pubmed
    ..In contrast, although dermatan sulfate participates in many of the same biological processes as heparin and heparan sulfate, the interactions of ..
  12. Miller M, Costello C, Malmstrom A, Zaia J. A tandem mass spectrometric approach to determination of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate oligosaccharide glycoforms. Glycobiology. 2006;16:502-13 pubmed
    b>Dermatan sulfate (DS) chains are variants of chondroitin sulfate (CS) that are expressed in mammalian extracellular matrices and are particularly prevalent in skin...
  13. Pacheco B, Malmstrom A, Maccarana M. Two dermatan sulfate epimerases form iduronic acid domains in dermatan sulfate. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:9788-95 pubmed publisher
    A second dermatan sulfate epimerase (DS-epi2) was identified as a homolog of the first epimerase (DS-epi1), which was previously described by our group...
  14. Kitaya K, Yasuo T. Dermatan sulfate proteoglycan biglycan as a potential selectin L/CD44 ligand involved in selective recruitment of peripheral blood CD16(-) natural killer cells into human endometrium. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;85:391-400 pubmed publisher
    ..CD16(-) NK cells bound maximally to dermatan sulfate (DS), which was diminished by enzymatic pretreatment with dermatanase and chondroitinase ABC, but not with ..
  15. Ohtake Niimi S, Kondo S, Ito T, Kakehi S, Ohta T, Habuchi H, et al. Mice deficient in N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate 6-o-sulfotransferase are unable to synthesize chondroitin/dermatan sulfate containing N-acetylgalactosamine 4,6-bissulfate residues and exhibit decreased protease activity in bone marrow-derived mast . J Biol Chem. 2010;285:20793-805 pubmed publisher
    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) containing N-acetylgalactosamine 4,6-bissulfate (GalNAc(4,6-SO(4))) show various physiological activities through interacting with numerous functional proteins...
  16. Tetsukawa A, Nakamura J, Fujiwara S. Identification of chondroitin/dermatan sulfotransferases in the protochordate, Ciona intestinalis. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;157:205-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Region-specific expression in the epidermis was also observed. The present study provides useful information for further comparative and functional analyses of sulfotransferases and proteoglycans in chordate embryos. ..
  17. Bartolini B, Thelin M, Rauch U, Feinstein R, Oldberg A, Malmstrom A, et al. Mouse development is not obviously affected by the absence of dermatan sulfate epimerase 2 in spite of a modified brain dermatan sulfate composition. Glycobiology. 2012;22:1007-16 pubmed publisher
    b>Dermatan sulfate epimerase 2 (DS-epi2), together with its homolog DS-epi1, transform glucuronic acid into iduronic acid in DS polysaccharide chains. Iduronic acid gives DS increased chain flexibility and promotes protein binding...
  18. Church H, Tylee K, Cooper A, Thornley M, Mercer J, Wraith E, et al. Biochemical monitoring after haemopoietic stem cell transplant for Hurler syndrome (MPSIH): implications for functional outcome after transplant in metabolic disease. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2007;39:207-10 pubmed
  19. Prabhakar V, Capila I, Raman R, Srinivasan A, Bosques C, Pojasek K, et al. The catalytic machinery of chondroitinase ABC I utilizes a calcium coordination strategy to optimally process dermatan sulfate. Biochemistry. 2006;45:11130-9 pubmed
    The chondroitinases are bacterial lyases that specifically cleave chondroitin sulfate and/or dermatan sulfate glycosaminoglycans...
  20. Kozlowski E, Pavao M, Borsig L. Ascidian dermatan sulfates attenuate metastasis, inflammation and thrombosis by inhibition of P-selectin. J Thromb Haemost. 2011;9:1807-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis of arterial thrombi demonstrated markedly reduced platelet deposition after dermatan sulfate treatment, suggesting that the glycosaminoglycan inhibited P-selectin and thereby the binding of activated ..
  21. Valiyaveettil M, Achur R, Muthusamy A, Gowda D. Characterization of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate proteoglycans of extracellular matrices of human umbilical cord blood vessels and Wharton's jelly. Glycoconj J. 2004;21:361-75 pubmed
    The chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans (CS/DSPGs) of the human umbilical cord vein, arteries and Wharton's jelly matrices were characterized and localized by immunohistochemical analysis...
  22. Kalathas D, Triantaphyllidou I, Mastronikolis N, Goumas P, Papadas T, Tsiropoulos G, et al. The chondroitin/dermatan sulfate synthesizing and modifying enzymes in laryngeal cancer: expressional and epigenetic studies. Head Neck Oncol. 2010;2:27 pubmed publisher
    ..The most characteristics are in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate fine structure and proportion, which might be due to differential expression of the enzymes involved in their ..
  23. Plichta J, Radek K. Sugar-coating wound repair: a review of FGF-10 and dermatan sulfate in wound healing and their potential application in burn wounds. J Burn Care Res. 2012;33:299-310 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Dermatan sulfate (DS) is the most abundant glycosaminoglycan in human wound fluid and has been postulated to be directly ..
  24. Thelin M, Bartolini B, Axelsson J, Gustafsson R, Tykesson E, Pera E, et al. Biological functions of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate. FEBS J. 2013;280:2431-46 pubmed publisher
    The presence of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate changes the properties of the polysaccharides because it generates a more flexible chain with increased binding potentials...
  25. Kozma E, Wisowski G, Olczyk K. Platelet derived growth factor BB is a ligand for dermatan sulfate chain(s) of small matrix proteoglycans from normal and fibrosis affected fascia. Biochimie. 2009;91:1394-404 pubmed publisher
    Structural requirements of the short isoform of platelet derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) to bind dermatan sulfate (DS)/chondroitin sulfate (CS) are unknown...
  26. Hassell K. The management of patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia who require anticoagulant therapy. Chest. 2005;127:1S-8S pubmed
    ..Except for a few clinical situations, it is generally possible to avoid heparin reexposure in patients with a history of HIT. ..
  27. Halldórsdóttir A, Zhang L, Tollefsen D. N-Acetylgalactosamine 4,6-O-sulfate residues mediate binding and activation of heparin cofactor II by porcine mucosal dermatan sulfate. Glycobiology. 2006;16:693-701 pubmed
    b>Dermatan sulfate (DS) accelerates the inhibition of thrombin by heparin cofactor II (HCII)...
  28. Purushothaman A, Fukuda J, Mizumoto S, ten Dam G, van Kuppevelt T, Kitagawa H, et al. Functions of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate chains in brain development. Critical roles of E and iE disaccharide units recognized by a single chain antibody GD3G7. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:19442-52 pubmed
    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) have been implicated in the processes of neural development in the brain...
  29. Casu B, Guerrini M, Torri G. Structural and conformational aspects of the anticoagulant and anti-thrombotic activity of heparin and dermatan sulfate. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10:939-49 pubmed
    Heparin and other iduronic acid-containing glycosaminoglycans (GAG) such as dermatan sulfate exert their anticoagulant properties primarily by accelerating the rate of inhibition of the natural protease inhibitors antithrombin III (AT, ..
  30. Bao X, Pavão M, Dos Santos J, Sugahara K. A functional dermatan sulfate epitope containing iduronate(2-O-sulfate)alpha1-3GalNAc(6-O-sulfate) disaccharide in the mouse brain: demonstration using a novel monoclonal antibody raised against dermatan sulfate of ascidian Ascidia nigra. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:23184-93 pubmed
    Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate (DS), and CS/DS hybrid structures bind growth factors, promote the neurite outgrowth of hippocampal neurons in vitro, and have been implicated in the development of the brain...
  31. Filipek Gorniok B, Holmborn K, Haitina T, Habicher J, Oliveira M, Hellgren C, et al. Expression of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate glycosyltransferases during early zebrafish development. Dev Dyn. 2013;242:964-75 pubmed publisher
    Chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) proteoglycans present in the extracellular matrix have important structural and regulatory functions. Six human genes have previously been shown to catalyze CS/DS polymerization...
  32. Volpi N, Maccari F. Structural characterization and antithrombin activity of dermatan sulfate purified from marine clam Scapharca inaequivalvis. Glycobiology. 2009;19:356-67 pubmed publisher
    ..15- 0.18 mg/g of dry tissue, composed of dermatan sulfate (DS) (approx. 74%) and heparan sulfate (26%)...
  33. Sarrazin S, Lyon M, Deakin J, Guerrini M, Lassalle P, Delehedde M, et al. Characterization and binding activity of the chondroitin/dermatan sulfate chain from Endocan, a soluble endothelial proteoglycan. Glycobiology. 2010;20:1380-8 pubmed publisher
    Endocan is a recently identified soluble chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) proteoglycan...
  34. Zhang Y, Conrad A, Tasheva E, An K, Corpuz L, Kariya Y, et al. Detection and quantification of sulfated disaccharides from keratan sulfate and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate during chick corneal development by ESI-MS/MS. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:1604-14 pubmed
    To identify and quantify changes in keratan sulfate (KS) and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) sulfated disaccharides in the developing chick cornea using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS)...
  35. Tollefsen D. Vascular dermatan sulfate and heparin cofactor II. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2010;93:351-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The rate of complex formation increases more than 1000-fold in the presence of dermatan sulfate (DS)...
  36. Fabiana Alberto M, Giaquinta Romero D, Lazzari M, Calabrese G. Antithrombotic and anticomplementary properties of a very low molecular mass dermatan sulfate. Thromb Res. 2008;122:109-16 pubmed
    b>Dermatan sulfate, a sulfated glycosaminoglycan, acts as an anticoagulant by accelerating the inhibition of thrombin by heparin cofactor II...
  37. Benoit V, Fischer J, Lin Y, Parveen N, Leong J. Allelic variation of the Lyme disease spirochete adhesin DbpA influences spirochetal binding to decorin, dermatan sulfate, and mammalian cells. Infect Immun. 2011;79:3501-9 pubmed publisher
    ..protein A (DbpA) promotes bacterial binding to the proteoglycan decorin and to the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) dermatan sulfate. To assess allelic variation of DbpA in GAG-, decorin-, and cell-binding activities, we expressed dbpA ..
  38. Wynn R, Wraith J, Mercer J, O Meara A, Tylee K, Thornley M, et al. Improved metabolic correction in patients with lysosomal storage disease treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplant compared with enzyme replacement therapy. J Pediatr. 2009;154:609-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These data might support the wider application of hematopoietic stem cell transplant in the treatment of lysosomal storage disorders...
  39. de Ruijter J, de Ru M, Wagemans T, IJlst L, Lund A, Orchard P, et al. Heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate derived disaccharides are sensitive markers for newborn screening for mucopolysaccharidoses types I, II and III. Mol Genet Metab. 2012;107:705-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study demonstrates that measurement of heparan and dermatan sulfate derived disaccharides in DBS may be suitable for NBS for MPS I, II and MPS III...
  40. Malmstrom A, Bartolini B, Thelin M, Pacheco B, Maccarana M. Iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate: biosynthesis and biological function. J Histochem Cytochem. 2012;60:916-25 pubmed publisher
    The ability of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) to convey biological information is enriched by the presence of iduronic acid...
  41. Rho J, Zhang W, Murali M, Roehrl M, Wang J. Human proteins with affinity for dermatan sulfate have the propensity to become autoantigens. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:2177-90 pubmed publisher
    ..and in a companion article in this issue, we show that affinity of self molecules to the glycosaminoglycan dermatan sulfate (DS) is a common property of autoantigens and leads to a specific autoreactive B-1a cell response...
  42. Wolff J, Laremore T, Busch A, Linhardt R, Amster I. Electron detachment dissociation of dermatan sulfate oligosaccharides. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2008;19:294-304 pubmed
    ..application of electron detachment dissociation (EDD) Fourier transform mass spectrometry to the analysis of dermatan sulfate (DS) oligosaccharides up to 10 residues long...
  43. Tomatsu S, Montano A, Oguma T, Dung V, Oikawa H, Gutiérrez M, et al. Validation of disaccharide compositions derived from dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate in mucopolysaccharidoses and mucolipidoses II and III by tandem mass spectrometry. Mol Genet Metab. 2010;99:124-31 pubmed publisher
    ..MPS and ML II and III patients can not properly degrade dermatan sulfate (DS) and/or heparan sulfate (HS)...
  44. Maccarana M, Kalamajski S, Kongsgaard M, Magnusson S, Oldberg A, Malmstrom A. Dermatan sulfate epimerase 1-deficient mice have reduced content and changed distribution of iduronic acids in dermatan sulfate and an altered collagen structure in skin. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:5517-28 pubmed publisher
    b>Dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 (DS-epi1) and DS-epi2 convert glucuronic acid to iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate biosynthesis...
  45. Kalathas D, Theocharis D, Bounias D, Kyriakopoulou D, Papageorgakopoulou N, Stavropoulos M, et al. Alterations of glycosaminoglycan disaccharide content and composition in colorectal cancer: structural and expressional studies. Oncol Rep. 2009;22:369-75 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it could be concluded that the glycosaminoglycans in colorectal cancer are biosynthetically directed to contribute in different ways depending on the cancer stage and anatomical site. ..
  46. Muto J, Naidu N, Yamasaki K, Pineau N, Breton L, Gallo R. Exogenous addition of a C-xylopyranoside derivative stimulates keratinocyte dermatan sulfate synthesis and promotes migration. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25480 pubmed publisher
    As C-Xyloside has been suggested to be an initiator of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis, and GAGs such as Dermatan sulfate (DS) are potent enhancers of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)--10 action, we investigated if a C-Xylopyranoside ..
  47. Zang Q, Keire D, Wood R, Buhse L, Moore C, Nasr M, et al. Combining (1)H NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics to identify heparin samples that may possess dermatan sulfate (DS) impurities or oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) contaminants. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2011;54:1020-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, naturally occurring dermatan sulfate (DS) was found to be present in these and other heparin samples as an impurity due to incomplete purification...
  48. Tovar A, de Mattos D, Stelling M, Sarcinelli Luz B, Nazareth R, Mourao P. Dermatan sulfate is the predominant antithrombotic glycosaminoglycan in vessel walls: implications for a possible physiological function of heparin cofactor II. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1740:45-53 pubmed
    ..We observed that dermatan sulfate is the major anticoagulant and antithrombotic among the vessel wall glycosaminoglycans while the bulk of ..
  49. Tiedemann K, Olander B, Eklund E, Todorova L, Bengtsson M, Maccarana M, et al. Regulation of the chondroitin/dermatan fine structure by transforming growth factor-beta1 through effects on polymer-modifying enzymes. Glycobiology. 2005;15:1277-85 pubmed
    The chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans (CS/DSPGs), biglycan, decorin, and versican play several important roles in extracellular matrix influencing matrix organization, cell proliferation, and recruitment...
  50. Hou S, Maccarana M, Min T, Strate I, Pera E. The secreted serine protease xHtrA1 stimulates long-range FGF signaling in the early Xenopus embryo. Dev Cell. 2007;13:226-41 pubmed
    ..Xenopus Biglycan, Syndecan-4, and Glypican-4 are proteolytic targets of xHtrA1 and that heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate trigger posteriorization, mesoderm induction, and neuronal differentiation via the FGF signaling pathway...
  51. Momohara S, Okada N, Ikari K, Mizuno S, Okamoto H. Dermatan sulfate in the synovial fluid of patients with knee osteoarthritis. Mod Rheumatol. 2007;17:301-5 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study is to clarify whether the dermatan sulfate (DS) levels in the synovial fluid of patients with knee OA are related to residual cartilage...
  52. Belmiro C, Gonçalves R, Kozlowski E, Werneck A, Takyia C, Leite M, et al. Dermatan sulfate reduces monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and TGF-? production, as well as macrophage recruitment and myofibroblast accumulation in mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2011;44:624-33 pubmed
    ..Heparin and dermatan sulfate (DS) bind and block P- and L-selectin function in vitro...
  53. Silipo A, Zhang Z, Canada F, Molinaro A, Linhardt R, Jimenez Barbero J. Conformational analysis of a dermatan sulfate-derived tetrasaccharide by NMR, molecular modeling, and residual dipolar couplings. Chembiochem. 2008;9:240-52 pubmed
    ..Differences in the shapes of species with the IdoA in skew and in chair conformations and in the distribution of the sulfate groups have also been highlighted. ..